Skip to main content
  • Print publication year: 1993
  • Online publication date: March 2008

III.2 - Immunology

from Part III - Medical Specialties and Disease Prevention
The history of immunology falls into two distinct periods, roughly before and after World War II. It begins with a fanfare, with the production of protective vaccines and antisera, probably the earliest example of truly effective medical treatment. In the nineteenth century, the startling success of the serum treatment of diphtheria had given rise not only to the practical problems of standardization and their solution, and to the international organization to coordinate the work, but also to a theoretical interest in the antigen-antibody reaction and the nature of specificity. The clonal selection theory had the effect of enormously enlarging the field, uniting its domains, and linking immunology to the broader biological sciences. One of the most significant continuities has been in blood grouping. As well as being directly utilized in hospital blood banking, the thinking about and techniques of blood group serology laid the conceptual foundation for human genetics in general.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge World History of Human Disease
  • Online ISBN: 9781139053518
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Ada, Gordon L. 1989. Conception and birth of the clonal selection theory. In Immunology 1930–1980: Essays on the history of immunology, ed. Mazumdar, Pauline M. H.. Toronto.
Adan, Gordon L., and Nossal, GustavSir. 1987. The clonalselection theory. Scientific American 257.
Arrhenius, Svante, and Madsen, Thorvald. 1902. Physical chemistry applied to toxins and antitoxins. In Contributions from the University Laboratory for Medical Bacteriology to celebrate the inauguration of the State Serum Institute, ed. Salomonsen, Carl J.. Copenhagen.
Behring, Emil von. 1895. Leistungen und Ziele der Serumtherapie. Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift 21.
Bernard, Nöel. 1960. Les Instituts Pasteur d’Outre-Mer. L’Opinion Economique et Financière 35.
Bernstein, Felix. 1924. Ergebnisse einer biostatistischen zusammenfassenden Betrachtung über die erblichen Blutstrukturen des Menschen. Klinische Wochenschrift 3.
Besredka, Alexandre. 1921. Histoire d’une idée: L’oeuvre de E. Metchnikoff: Embryogène, inflammation, immunité, sénéscence, pathologie, philosophie. Paris.
Bordet, Jules. 1896. Sur le mode d’action des sérums préventifs. Annales de l’Institut Pasteur 10.
Breinl, Friedrich, and Haurowitz, Felix. 1929. Chemische Untersuchungen des Präzipitates aus Hämoglobin und anti-Hämoglobin-Serum und Bemerkungen über die Natur der Antikörper. Hoppe Seylers Zeitschrift fürphysiologische Chemie 192.
Burnet, Frank Macfarlane Sir. 1957. A discussion of immunological tolerance under the leadership of Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, 8 March 1956. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (Series B) 146.
Burnet, Frank Macfarlane Sir. 1967. The impact of ideas on immunology. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 32.
Burnet, Frank Macfarlane Sir, and Fenner, Frank. 1949. The production of antibodies. Melbourne.
Burnet, Frank Macfarlane Sir, and Fenner, Frank. 1962. The integrity of the body. Cambridge, Mass.
Chick, Harriette, Hume, Margaret, and Macfarlane, Marjorie. 1971. War on disease: A history of the Lister Institute. London.
Cinader, Bernhard. 1975. Six years of the International Union of Immunological Societies: Presidential Report, Brighton, 1974. International Archives of Allergy & Applied Immunology 48.
Clark, William R. 1983. The experimental foundations of modern immunology, 2d edition. New York.
Crews, S., et al. 1981. A single VH gene segment encodes the immune response to phosphoryl choline: Somatic mutation is correlated with the class of the antibody. Cell 25.
Crick, Francis H. 1957. On protein synthesis. Symposium of the Society for Experimental Biology 12.
Defries, R. D. 1968. The first forty years, 1914–1955: Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, University of Toronto. Toronto.
Delaunay, Albert. 1962. Lapos;Institut Pasteur des origines à aujourd’hui. Paris.
Ehrlich, Paul. 1887–8. Die Wertbemessung des Diphtherieheilserums. Klinisches Jahrbuch 6.
Foster, W. D. 1970. A history of medical bacteriology & immunology. London.
Freund, Jules. 1956. The mode of action of immunological adjuvants. Advances in Tuberculosis Research 7.
Geison, G. J. 1974. Pasteur. In Dictionary of scientific biography, vol. 10, ed. Gillispie, C. C.. New York.
Grubb, Rune. 1989. Interaction between immunology and genetics: Blood group systems as important early models and as tools. In Immunology, 1930–1980, ed. Mazumdar, P. M. H.. Toronto.
Hartley, Percival Sir. 1945. International biological standards: Prospect and retrospect. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 39.
Haurowitz, Felix. 1960. Immunochemistry. Annual Review of Biochemistry 29.
Haurowitz, Felix. 1963. The chemistry and functions of proteins. New York.
Hogben, Lancelot. 1931. Genetic principles in medicine and social science. London.
Jensen, Klaus. 1936. Report on international standards maintained at the Statens Serum Institutet, Copenhagen, Denmark, on behalf of the Health Organisation of the League of Nations. League of Nations, Quarterly Bulletin of the Health Organisation. Special number on biological standardisation, II. November 1936.
Jerne, Nils Kaj. 1955. The natural selection theory of antibody formation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A. 41.
Jerne, Nils Kaj. 1967. Summary: Waiting for the end. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 32.
Jerne, Nils Kaj. 1971. The somatic generation of immune recognition. European Journal of Immunology 1.
Judson, Horace. 1979. The eighth day of creation: Makers of the revolution in biology. New York.
Koch, Robert. 1891. Weitere Mittheilung über das Tuberculin. Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift 17.
Landsteiner, K. L. 1901. Ueber Agglutinationserscheinungen normalen menschlichen Blutes. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 37.
Landsteiner, K. L. 1909. Die Theorien der Antikörperbildung. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 22.
Landsteiner, K. L., and Chase, Merrill W.. 1939. Studies on the sensitisation of animals with simple chemical compounds: VI. Experiments on the sensitisation of guinea pigs to poison ivy. Journal of Experimental Medicine 69.
Landsteiner, K. L., and Lampl, H.. 1918. Ueber die Abhängigkeit der serologischen Spezifizität von der chemischen Struktur (Darstellung von Antigenen mit bekannter chemischer Konstitution der spezifischen Gruppen) XII Mitteilung über Antigene. Biochemische Zeitung 86.
Lawrence, Sherwood H. 1970. Editorial: Cellular immunology. Cellular Immunology 1.
Marrack, John R. 1934. The chemistry of antigens and antibodies. Privy Council: Medical Research Council Special Report Series No. 194. London.
Mazumdar, Pauline M. H. 1974. The antigen-antibody reaction and the physics and chemistry of life. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 48.
Mazumdar, Pauline M. H. 1975. The purpose of immunity: Landsteiner’s interpretation of the human isoantibodies1. Journal of the History of Biology 8.
Mazumdar, Pauline M. H. 1989. The template theory of antibody formation. In Immunology, 1930–1980, ed. Mazumdar, P. M. H.. Toronto.
Mazumdar, Pauline M. H. 1990. The eugenists and the pauper class: The genetics of human inferiority. London.
Mazumdar, Pauline M. H. 1992. Eugenics, human genetics, and human failings: The eugenic society, its sources and its critics. London.
Mazumdar, Pauline M. H. ed. 1989. Immunology 1930–1980: Essays on the history of immunology. Toronto.
Mechnikov, Ilya Ilyich. 1884. Ueber eine Sprosspilzkrankheit der Daphnien: Beitrag zur Lehre über den Kampf der Phagocyten gegen Krankheitserreger. Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin (Virchow) 96: 2 plates.
Miller, J. F. A. P. 1962. Effect of thymectomy on the immunological responsiveness of the mouse. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Ser. B, 156.
Moore, Stanford, and Stein, William H.. 1951. Chromatography of amino acids on sulfonated polystyrene resins. Journal of Biological Chemistry 192.
Morris, C. J. O. R., and Morris, P.. 1964. Separation methods in biochemistry. London.
Moulin, Anne-Marie. 1989. Immunology old and new: The beginning and the end. In Immunology, 1930–1980, ed. Mazumdar, P. M. H.. Toronto.
Moulin, Anne-Marie. 1991. Le dernier langage de médecine: Histoire de l’immunologie de Pasteur au SIDA. Paris.
Nossal, G. J. V., and Lederberg, J.. 1959. Antibody production by single cells. Nature 181.
Parish, H. J. 1965. A history of immunisation. Edinburgh.
Petrov, R. V. 1987. Me or not-me: Immunological mobiles. Moscow.
Porath, Jerker. 1960. Gel filtration of proteins, peptides and amino acids. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 39.
Porter, R. R. 1959. The hydrolysis of rabbit gammaglobulin and antibodies with crystalline papain. Biochemical Journal 73.
Porter, R. R. 1973. Structural studies of immunoglobulins. Science 180.
Porter, R. R. 1986. Antibody structure and the Antibody Workshop. Perspectives in Biology & Medicine 29(3, pt. 2):.
Rubin, Lewis P. 1980. Styles in scientific explanation: Paul Ehrlich and Svante Arrhenius on immunochemistry. Journal of the History of Medicine 35.
Salomonsen, Carl Julius. 1902. The rise and growth of the serum institute. In Contributions from the University for Medical Bacteriology to celebrate the inauguration of the State Serum Institute. Copenhagen.
Schadewaldt, Hans. 1979. Geschichte der Allergie, Vol. 1. Munich.
Silverstein, Arthur M. 1979. Cellular versus humoral immunity: Determinants and consequences of an epic 19th century battle. Cellular Immunology 48.
Silverstein, Arthur M. 1982. Development of the concept of specificity, I and II. Cellular Immunology 67: ; 71.
Sober, Herbert A., Gutter, F. J., Wyckoff, Mary M., et al. 1956. Chromatography of proteins: II. Fractionation of serum protein on anion-exchange cellulose. Journal of the American Chemical Society 78.
Spiegel-Adolf, Mona. 1930. Die Globuline. Leipzig.
Svedberg, The. 1938. Ueber die Ergebnisse der Ultracentrifugierung und Diffusion für die Eiweisschemie. Kolloid Zeitschrift 85.
Tiselius, Arne. 1938. Electrophoretische Messungen am Eiweiss. Kolloid Zeitschrift 85.
Waksman, Byron H. 1989. Cell-mediated immunity. In Immunity, 1930–1980, ed. Mazumdar, P. M. H.. Toronto.
Waksman, Byron H., Arbouys, S., and Arnason, B. G.. 1961. The use of specific lymphocyte sera to inhibit hypersensitive reactions of the delayed type. Journal of Experimental Medicine 114.