It is obvious that the Islamic view of humanity and the articles of faith influence the understanding and experience of different phases of life in the biography of a Muslim. The content of such concepts as the beginning of life, childhood, illness, growing old, and death is constructed out of the faith and interpreted accordingly. This chapter discusses the interpretations of these stages of life that can be derived from Islamic sources and some medically relevant moral obligations that arise from them. Even if one can proceed on the basis of a general basic approach to all phases of life, differing opinions about the appropriate and ethically tenable attitudes in these areas of life are to be found in different legal schools. This is an inter-Islamic reality that is to be traced back to the nature and structure of conventional decision making.