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The Cambridge World History
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Book description

Since 1750, the world has become ever more connected, with processes of production and destruction no longer limited by land- or water-based modes of transport and communication. Volume 7 of the Cambridge World History series, divided into two books, offers a variety of angles of vision on the increasingly interconnected history of humankind. The second book questions the extent to which the transformations of the modern world have been shared, focusing on social developments such as urbanization, migration, and changes in family and sexuality; cultural connections through religion, science, music, and sport; ligaments of globalization including rubber, drugs, and the automobile; and moments of particular importance from the Atlantic Revolutions to 1989.

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  • 11 - World cinema
    pp 249-270
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    Migrations may be region-specific or they may be transcontinental or transoceanic. In the so-called Age of Revolution in the Atlantic World, British and continental European anti-revolutionary warfare made migration perilous. The hemisphere-wide migrations systems are emerged of men and women moving independently, in family units, or sequentially as families or siblings. Discrimination against resident minorities and to enforce assimilation male state bureaucracies added a new type of forced migration motivated by nationalism. In the 1960s, decolonization, new markets, intensifying economic relations, and new alignments led to major revisions of immigration policies. 'Global apartheid', dividing South and North, extreme exploitation of many migrant workers, displacement by environmental deterioration and developmental projects, an assumed 'feminization' and globalization of migration all characterize migration in the early twenty-first century, and form the major themes of research. Migrants, who carefully assess costs and rewards of their moves, are entrepreneurs in their own lives, trying to make the most of their human capital.
  • 12 - Atlantic revolutions: a reinterpretation
    pp 273-298
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    Urbanization creates a hierarchy of central places, which house a range of political, economic, and cultural institutions, distributing them in space according to levels of demand. The largest cities in many national systems have tended to be political capitals: Moscow, Jakarta, Cairo, and Buenos Aires, for example, each of which also serves as a national commercial and cultural center. Extensive deurbanization of Western Europe followed the collapse of the Roman Empire in the fifth century CE. Debates about the consequences of urban life have continued throughout the twentieth century as analysts from many political and disciplinary camps have weighed in. Market-driven economies work through inequality, which can be extreme, but they also concentrate wealth and other resources in the larger cities, where they encourage investment. Urban spaces and their allocations signal social values and shape everyday life for ordinary citizens. Industrialization and economic development made possible extensive rearrangements of urban spaces.
  • 13 - Global war 1914–45
    pp 299-320
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    World history developments in the middle decades of the twentieth century, headed by wars and the major communist revolutions, had important results for family life in many regions. Imperialism, however, that brought the clearest interaction between Western industrial nations and other world regions during the nineteenth century. In the twenty-first century it was estimated that 15 million children had been killed in war and civil strife during the final three decades of the twentieth century alone, with many others orphaned or wounded. Unprecedented global declarations of human rights had important implications, particularly for the position of women and children in the family, and they were supported not only by United Nations agencies but also the host of international Non-Governmental Organizations that began to proliferate from the foundation of Amnesty International, in 1961, onward. Many traditional institutions have virtually disappeared amid the currents of change in modern world history. Families help translate global trends into most personal aspects of modern life.
  • 14 - The Cold War
    pp 321-346
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    Global variations in sexual attitudes and practices depend to a large degree on elements such as religion, industrialisation, urbanisation, population growth and changes in technology. Religious constructions of gender and sexuality were reinforced by science, politics and law, all representing women as mentally and physically inferior to men, and homosexual men as inferior to heterosexual men. This chapter examines sex and marriage during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe, European colonies, and East Asia, and talks about prostitution and homosexuality. From the eighteenth century onwards, prostitution was seen to be an ever-growing problem that needed regulating and containing. Reactions towards prostitution were mixed, with some authorities bringing out new laws to prevent it, while others decided on a path of increased tolerance. Many young women and men lost ties with family and communities with the move to the cities and became more vulnerable to sexual exploitation.
  • 15 - 1956
    pp 347-375
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    This chapter talk about the abolition in terms of the circulation of ideas and the economic and social dynamics between various areas, Europe, Russia, Africa, the Indian Ocean and the Americas. It begins with Russian serfdom and its abolition and analyses the transatlantic slave trade and the abolition of slavery in European colonies in connection with economic and social dynamics in Africa, India, Europe and Latin America. The chapter then shows that abolition in the USA impacted different areas such as Brazil, Egypt, Russian Turkestan, India and, of course, Europe. It concludes with the abolition of slavery in Africa and in the Ottoman Empire before World War I and a broader reminder of persistent forms of bondage and coercion through to the present day. Abolitionism started when British public opinion and the British government took interest in the abolition of slavery in the Ottoman Empire.

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