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  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: March 2015

11 - Tiwanaku urban origins: distributed centers and animate landscapes

from Part III - Early urban landscapes
Summary
The rapid development of early cities at different dates in many regions of the world affected their hinterlands profoundly. Ancient Egypt, in many periods a territorial state unlike the typical city-state configuration of the other regions in most periods, presents some of the largest monuments and the longest timespan for investigation, but its urbanism is imperfectly understood. Classic Maya performances were strongly sonic, with anticipation fortified by blasts of trumpet or conch, the pounding of large drums or tapping of smaller ones under the arm, whistles and maracas, singing, and the musical collisions of shells on the king's body. Secular performances in Southeast Asia could involve hundreds or thousands of urban residents as participants and as spectators. Public movement was generally toward a restricted space: ceremonies within a royal court could only ever have small numbers of participants and be observed by relatively few.
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The Cambridge World History
  • Volume 3: Early Cities in Comparative Perspective, 4000 BCE–1200 CE
  • Edited by Norman Yoffee
  • Online ISBN: 9781139035606
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139035606
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Further readings

Abercrombie, Thomas A., Pathways of Memory and Power: Ethnography and History among an Andean People, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998.
Albarracín-Jordán, Juan V., Carlos Lemuz Aguirre, and Jose Luis Paz Soria, “Investigaciones en Kallamarka: primer informe de prospeccion,” Textos Antropologicos 6 (1993), 11–123.
Allen, Catherine, The Hold Life Has: Coca and Cultural Identity in an Andean Community, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1986.
Couture, Nicole C., “Ritual, Monumentalism, and Residence at Mollo Kontu, Tiwanaku,” in Alan L. Kolata (ed.), Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003, Vol. II, pp. 202–25.
Janusek, John Wayne, “El surgumiento del urbanismo en Tiwanaku y del poder politico en el altiplano andino,” in Krzysztof Makowski (ed.), Señores del Imperio del Sol, Lima: Banco del Credito del Peru, 2010, pp. 39–56.
Janusek, John Wayne, and Victor Plaza Martinez, “Khonkho e Iruhito: tercer informe preliminar del Proyecto Arqueologico Jach'a Machaca,” Research report submitted to the Bolivian Viceministerio de Cultura and the Unidad Nacional de Arqueologia, La Paz, Bolivia (2007).
Janusek, John Wayne, and Victor Plaza Martinez, “Khonkho Wankane: Segundo informe preliminar del Proyecto Arqueologico Jach'a Machaca,” Research report submitted to the Bolivian Viceministerio de Cultura and the Unidad Nacional de Arqueología, La Paz, Bolivia (2006).
Kolata, Alan L., “Tiwanaku Ceremonial Architecture and Urban Organization,” in Alan L. Kolata (ed.), Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003, Vol. II, pp. 175–201.
Ohnstad, Arik T., “La escultura de piedra de Khonkho Wankane,” in John W. Janusek (ed.), “Khonkho Wankane: Primer Informe Preliminar del Proyecto Arqueológico Jach'a Machaca,” Research Report submitted to the Bolivian Viceministerio de Cultura and the Unidad Nacional de Arqueología, La Paz, Bolivia (2005), pp. 52–68.
Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, Descripción sumaria del templete semisubterraneo de Tiwanaku, La Paz: Juventud, 1990.
Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, Tiwanaku: Espacio, Tiempo, Cultura: Ensayo de síntesis arqueológica, La Paz: Los Amigos del Libro, 1981.
Portugal Ortíz, Max, and Maks Portugal Zamora, “Investigaciones arqueológicas en el valle de Tiwanaku,” in Arqueología en Bolivia y Perú, La Paz: Instituto Nacional de Arqueología, 1975, Vol. II, pp. 243–83.
Portugal Zamora, Maks, “Las ruinas de Jesus de Machaca,” Revista Geográfica Americana 16 (1941), 291–300.
Posnansky, Arthur, Tihuanacu: The Cradle of American Man, New York: J. J. Augustin, 1945, Vols. I and II.
Protzen, Jean-Pierre, and Stella Nair, “On Reconstructing Tiwanaku Architecture,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 59 (2000), 358–71.
Rivera Casanovas, Claudia S., “Ch'iji Jawira: A Case of Ceramic Specialization in the Tiwankau Urban Periphery,” in Alan L. Kolata (ed.), Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003, Vol. II, pp. 296–315.
Smith, Scott Cameron, “Venerable Geographies: Spatial Dynamics, Religion, and Political Economy in the Prehistoric Lake Titicaca Basin, Bolivia” Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 2009.
Vranich, Alexei, “Interpreting the Meaning of Ritual Spaces: The Temple Complex of Pumapunku, Tiwanaku, Bolivia,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1999.