Skip to main content
The Cambridge World Prehistory
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge World Prehistory
    • Online ISBN: 9781139017831
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The Cambridge World Prehistory provides a systematic and authoritative examination of the prehistory of every region around the world from the early days of human origins in Africa two million years ago to the beginnings of written history, which in some areas started only two centuries ago. Written by a team of leading international scholars, the volumes include both traditional topics and cutting-edge approaches, such as archaeolinguistics and molecular genetics, and examine the essential questions of human development around the world. The volumes are organised geographically, exploring the evolution of hominins and their expansion from Africa, as well as the formation of states and development in each region of different technologies such as seafaring, metallurgy and food production. The Cambridge World Prehistory reveals a rich and complex history of the world. It will be an invaluable resource for any student or scholar of archaeology and related disciplines looking to research a particular topic, tradition, region or period within prehistory.


'This detailed, lavishly illustrated three-volume set provides a unique, very readable synthesis of available contemporary data from the combined disciplines of archaeology, genetics, and linguistics to delineate the prehistoric record for each geographic section of the planet in 104 essays by contributors from 20 nations … This is a valuable resource for college, university, and museum libraries.'

R. B. Ridinger Source: Choice

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 5

  • 1.14 - Early Hominins
    pp 220-239
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    In this chapter, the term "early hominins" refers to all fossil human ancestor species except for those belonging to the genus Homo. Early hominin fossils from East Africa were known for the first time mostly as a result of the expeditions of Louis and Mary Leakey. Louis Leakey began searching there in 1931, but it was not until 1955 that he and his wife found and recognised their first early hominin fossil in Olduvai Gorge, in Tanzania, the same country in which Ludwig Kohl-Larsen had discovered a fragmentary maxilla at Garusi in the 1930s. Though there is some debate over the precise number, many researchers now recognize fourteen early hominin species. The species include Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Orrorin tugenensis, Ardipithecus kadabba, Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus anamensis, Australopithecus afarensis, Kenyanthropus platyops, Australopithecus bahrelghazali. It also includes Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus sediba, Australopithecus garhi, Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus robustus and Paranthropus boisei. This chapter describes the study of these species.
  • 1.15 - Earliest Industries of Africa
    pp 240-258
    • By Stan Hendrickx, Department of Arts and Architecture, Hasselt, Belgium, Dirk Huyge, Royal Museums of Art and History, Brussels
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter focuses on the human use of stone tools in Africa from 2.6 Ma until around 1.5 Ma. A review of the earliest stone-tool sites from Africa encompasses a large geographical area but begins in Ethiopia. It has long been expected that the earliest stone artifacts would reflect early stages of experimentation with tool technology. The amazing refit sequences conducted by Roche and colleagues allowed for a detailed understanding of the system of removals associated with the stone tools. It is clear from this work that hominins followed specific patterns in the reduction process and utilised the internal structure of the rocks selected for artifact manufacture. North Africa has an archaeological record in the earliest Pleistocene that is redefining what we know about the expansion of hominins in Africa. The Earlier Stone Age after 1.5 million years ago is dominated by Acheulean technology. Co-occurrences of Oldowan and Acheulean technologies are found in various places throughout Africa.
  • 1.16 - The Human Revolution
    pp 259-278
    • By Stan Hendrickx, Department of Arts and Architecture, Hasselt, Belgium
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The establishment of a recent African origin set the scene for the next major discovery in the quest for unravelling human origins. This striking paradox was observed in the first large-scale survey of western, eastern and southern Africa by mtDNA analysis conducted by geneticist Elizabeth Watson. More recent work on autosomal DNA by the team of Sarah Tishkoff proposes a distant genetic link between the southern African Khoisan and eastern African click-language speakers. Both mtDNA and Y chromosome analyses confirm a back-migration from Eurasia to Africa at some point in prehistory, with North Africans mostly having M-derived and N-derived mtDNA types, respectively. The authors propose that the African DNA types may have arrived in two distinct phases, of which the latter phase of African input would have affected mainly the coast, while the Malagasy highlanders retained a higher proportion of Asian DNA types, in agreement with their Asian phenotypes and rice-based economy.
  • 1.17 - The Genus Homo in Africa
    pp 279-294
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The genus Homo almost certainly first evolved in Africa, and it is on that continent that people find the most diversity of species and the greatest evolutionary changes through time. This chapter discusses the species Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, and Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens was restricted to the continent of Africa while other taxa, including Homo erectus, H. neanderthalensis and H. floresiensis, occupied other parts of the world. With reference to the archaeological and palaeontological records of Sub-Saharan Africa, several sites in East and Central Africa date the earliest microlithic assemblages of the Later Stone Age (LSA) to between 50 and 30 ka. The palaeontological evidence is concordant with interpretations of the genetic evidence that suggest a Late Pleistocene African origin for modern humans, reduced morphological and genetic diversity as a consequence of at least one population bottleneck and a rapid colonisation of Europe and Asia by our African forebears.
  • 1.18 - Becoming Human: Archaeology of the Sub-Saharan Middle Stone Age
    pp 295-306
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter presents archaeological finds and research results that alter the way we think about our Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) ancestors. Given the complications regarding the interpretation of levels of cognition based on stone-tool assemblages, it is fortunate that specific archaeological finds and/or research results are able to shed new light on the most pertinent questions. These discoveries reshaped our perceptions of human behaviour and cognition during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). The chapter also shows that, in addition to exhibiting variation in stone-tool technologies, the SSA MSA has an extraordinary archaeological record that allows us to trace significant cognitive and behavioural trends in the evolution of our species. The archaeology, together with evidence from the fossil and gene records, have toppled the notion that behaviourally and cognitively complex humans evolved only after ~40 ka in Africa or that their first appearance was in Europe during the Upper Palaeolithic.
  • 1.19 - The Later Stone Age of Southern Africa
    pp 307-320
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    In the summary of the Later Stone Age (LSA) of southernmost Africa, the author takes a historical and thematic approach, sketching out the initial assumptions and ideas inherent in the generation of the term and following through with methodological and conceptual developments towards the present state of knowledge. He sums up the initial phase of defining the LSA by recognising the following cluster of assumptions. Stone tools provide the skeletal framework for reconstructing events; similar stone-tool assemblages reflect the distributions of past social groupings; invasions or migrations constitute the primary mechanisms of replacement; and the LSA corresponds to the ethnographically and historically known hunting-and-gathering societies then called Bushmen. It can be argued that until the 1960s archaeological fieldwork reporting more or less filled out this framework, albeit with improving notions of chronology and environmental context. Skeletons and shellfish provide insights into a long-standing issue of the LSA: when and in what circumstances did pastoralism enter the southern Cape.

Page 1 of 5

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

C. M. Beall , G. L. Cavalleri , L. Deng , R. C. Elston , Y. Gao , J. Knight , C. Li , J. C. Li , Y. Liang et al. 2010. Natural selection on EPAS1 (HIF2alpha) associated with low haemoglobin concentration in Tibetan highlanders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107: 11459–64.

D. Comas , F. Calafell , E. Mateu , A. Perez-Lezaun , E. Bosch , R. Martinez-Arias , J. Clarimon , F. Facchini , G. Fiori , D. Luiselli , D. Pettener & J. Bertranpetit 1998. Trading genes along the Silk Road: mtDNA sequences and origin of Central Asian populations. American Journal of Human Genetics 63: 1824–38.

V. Cerny , C. J. Mulligan , J. Ridl , M. Zaloudkova , C. M. Edens , M. Hajek & L. Pereira 2008. Regional differences in the distribution of the Sub-Saharan, West Eurasian, and South Asian mtDNA lineages in Yemen. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 136: 128–37.

M. V. Derenko , T. Grzybowski , B. A. Malyarchuk , I. K. Dambueva , G. A. Denisova , J. Czarny , C. M. Dorzhu , V. T. Kakpakov , D. Miscicka-Sliwka , M. Wozniak & I. A. Zakharov 2003. Diversity of mitochondrial DNA lineages in South Siberia. Annals of Human Genetics 67: 391–411.

D. Comas , F. Calafell , E. Mateu , A. Perez-Lezaun & J. Bertranpetit 1996. Geographic variation in human mitochondrial DNA control region sequence: the population history of Turkey and its relationship to the European populations. Molecular Biology and Evolution 13: 1067–77.

P. M. M. G. Akkermans 1988. An updated chronology for the northern Ubaid and Late Chalcolithic periods in Syria: new evidence from Tell Hammam et-Turkman. Iraq 50: 109–45.

B. Brinkmann , M. Klintschar , F. Neuhuber , J. Hühne & B. Rolf 1998. Mutation rate in human microsatellites: influence of the structure and length of the tandem repeat. American Journal of Human Genetics 62: 1408–15.

R. L. Cann , M. Stoneking & A. C. Wilson 1987. Mitochondrial DNA and evolution. Nature 325: 31–6.

A. K. Behrensmeyer , R. Potts , T. Plummer , L. Tauxe , N. Opdyke & T. Jorstad 1995. The Pleistocene locality of Kanjera, western Kenya – stratigraphy, chronology and paleoenvironments. Journal of Human Evolution 29 (3): 247–74.

G. Chaubey , M. Metspalu , Y. Choi , R. Mägi , I. G. Romero , P. Soares , M. van Oven , D. M. Behar , S. Rootsi , G. Hudjashov , C. B. Mallick , M. Karmin , M. Nelis , J. Parik , A. G. Reddy , E. Metspalu , G. van Driem , Y. Xue , C. Tyler-Smith , K. Thangaraj , L. Singh , M. Remm , M. B. Richards , M. M. Lahr , M. Kayser , R. Villems & T. Kivisild 2011. Population genetic structure in Indian Austroasiatic speakers: the role of landscape barriers and sex-specific admixture. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28: 1013–24.

J. M. Adovasio , D. R. Pedler , J. Donahue & R. Stuckenrath 1998. Two decades of debate on Meadowcroft Rockshelter. North American Archaeologist 19: 317–41.

R. A. Alabi 2002. Environment and subsistence of the early inhabitants of coastal southwestern Nigeria. African Archaeological Review 19: 183–201.

B. Arensburg , A. M. Tillier , B. Vandermeersch , H. Duday , L. A. Schepartz & Y. Rak 1989. A Middle Palaeolithic human hyoid bone. Nature 338: 758–60.

A. J. Ammerman & L. L. Cavalli–Sforza 1984. The Neolithic Transition and the Genetics of Population in Europe. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.

N. Di Cosmo 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

A. Berthelet 2002. Barogali et l’Oued Doure. Deux gisements représentatifs du Paléolithique ancien au République de Dijibouti. L’Anthropologie 106: 1–39.

H. Shi et al. 2008. Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetans and Japanese populations. BMC Biology 6: 45.

R. Cordaux , R. Aunger , G. Bentley , I. Nasidze , S. M. Sirajuddin & M. Stoneking 2004. Independent origins of Indian caste and tribal paternal lineages. Current Biology 14: 231–5.

D. M. Behar , R. Villems , H. Soodyall , J. Blue-Smith , L. Pereira , E. Metspalu , R. Scozzari , H. Makkan , S. Tzur , D. Comas et al. 2008. The dawn of human matrilineal diversity. American Journal of Human Genetics 82 (5): 1130–40.

I. W. Ardika & P. Bellwood 1991. Sembiran: the beginnings of Indian contact with Bali. Antiquity 65: 221–32.

W. Anderson 1992. Badarian burials: evidence of social inequality in Middle Egypt during the Early Predynastic Era. Journal of the American Research Centre in Egypt 29: 51–66.

J. Cribb & G. Herrmann (eds.). 2007. After Alexander, Central Asia before Islam. Oxford University Press: New York.

K. Thangaraj , G. Chaubey , T. Kivisild , A. G. Reddy , V. K. Singh , A. A. Rasalkar & L. Singh 2005. Reconstructing the origin of Andaman islanders. Science 308: 996.

M. Richards , C. Rengo , F. Cruciani , F. Gratrix , J. F. Wilson , R. Scozzari , V. Macaulay & A. Torroni 2003. Extensive female-mediated gene flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Near Eastern Arab populations. American Journal of Human Genetics 72: 1058–64.

R. Cordaux , N. Saha , G. R. Bentley , R. Aunger , S. M. Sirajuddin & M. Stoneking 2003. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals diverse histories of tribal populations from India. European Journal of Human Genetics 11: 253–64.

P. K. Banerjee 2000. Holocene and Late Pleistocene relative sea level fluctuations along the east coast of India. Marine Geology 167: 243–60.

P. M. M. G. Akkermans , R. Cappers , C. Cavallo , O. Nieuwenhuyse , B. Nilhamn & I. Otte 2006. Investigating the Early Pottery Neolithic of northern Syria: new evidence from Tell Sabi Abyad. American Journal of Archaeology 110: 123–56.

P. Brown 1992. Recent human evolution in East Asia and Australasia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 337: 235–42.

P. J. Arnold , III 2009. Settlement and subsistence among the Early Formative Gulf Olmec. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 28: 397–411.

C. Dennis 2003. Error reports threaten to unravel databases of mitochondrial DNA. Nature 421: 773–4.

D. C. Batten 1998. Transport and urban growth in preindustrial Europe: implications for archaeology. Human Ecology 26 (3): 489–516.

R. J. Blumenschine 1995. Percussion marks, tooth marks, and experimental determinations of the timing of hominid and carnivore access to long bones at Flk Zinjanthropus, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution 29 (1): 21–51.

X. Yi et al. 2010. Sequencing of 50 human exomes reveals adaptation to high altitude. Science 329: 75–8.

S. Fornarino , M. Pala , V. Battaglia , R. Maranta , A. Achilli , G. Modiano , A. Torroni , O. Semino & S. A. Santachiara-Benerecetti 2009. Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation. BioMedCentral Evolutionary Biology 9: 154.

G. Berniell-Lee , F. Calafell , E. Bosch , E. Heyer , L. Sica , P. Mouguiama-Daouda , L. van der Veen , J. M. Hombert , L. Quintana-Murci & D. Comas 2009. Genetic and demographic implications of the Bantu expansion: insights from human paternal lineages. Molecular Biology and Evolution 26: 1581–9.

K. T. Chen & F. T. Hiebert 1995. The late prehistory of Xinjiang in relation to its neighbours. Journal of World Prehistory 9: 243–300.

Y. G. Yao , X. M. Lu , H. R. Luo , W. H. Li & Y. P. Zhang 2000. Gene admixture in the Silk Road region of China: evidence from mtDNA and melanocortin 1 receptor polymorphism. Genes & Genetic Systems 75: 173–8.

M. Aubert , S. O’Connor , M. McCulloch , G. Mortimer , A. Watchman & M. Richer-LaFlèche 2006. Uranium-series dating rock art in East Timor. Journal of Archaeological Science 34: 991–6.

G. Algaze 1989. The Uruk expansion: cross-cultural exchange in early Mesopotamian civilization. Current Anthropology 30: 571–608.

L. R. Binford & C. K. Ho 1985. Taphonomy at a distance: Zhoukoudian, “The Cave Home of Beijing Man”? Current Anthropology 26 (4): 413–29.

W. K. Barnett 1990. Small-scale transport of early Neolithic pottery in the west Mediterranean. Antiquity 64: 859–65.

W. Y. Adams 1985. Some doubts about the “Lost Pharaohs”. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 44: 185–92.

L. Barba & J. L. Córdova-Frunz 1999. Estudios energéticos de la producción de cal en tiempos teotihuacanos y sus implicaciones. Latin American Antiquity 10 (2): 168–79.

N. Boivin 2004. Landscape and cosmology in the south Indian Neolithic: New perspectives on the Deccan ashmounds, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 14: 235–57.

J. J. Aimers , T. G. Powis & J. J. Awe 2000. Preclassic round structures of the Upper Belize River Valley. Latin American Antiquity 11 (1): 71–86.

O. Bar-Yosef 2002. The Upper Paleolithic revolution. Annual Review of Antropology 31: 363–93.

M. Boyd & C. Surette 2010. Northernmost precontact maize in North America. American Antiquity 75 (1): 117–33.

C. Hill , P. Soares , M. Mormina , V. Macaulay , D. Clarke , P. B. Blumbach , M. Vizuete-Forster , P. Forster , D. Bulbeck , S. Oppenheimer & M. Richards 2007. A mitochondrial stratigraphy for Island Southeast Asia. American Journal of Human Genetics 80: 29–43.

S. Ambrose 1998. Chronology of the Later Stone Age and food production in East Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 25: 377–92.

N. S. Bolikhovskaya , A. P. Derevianko & M. V. Shunkov 2006. The fossil palynoflora, geological age, and dimatostratigraphy of the earliest deposits of the Karama Site (Early Palaeolithic, Altai Mountains). Palaeontological Journal 40: 558–66.

B. Yunusbayev , M. Metspalu , M Järve ., I. Kutuev , S. Rootsi , E. Metspalu , D. M. Behar , K. Varendi , H. Sahakyan , R. Khusainova , L. Yepiskoposyan , E. K. Khusnutdinova , P. A. Underhill , T. Kivisild & R. Villems 2012. The Caucasus as an asymmetric semipermeable barrier to ancient human migrations. Molecular Biology and Evolution 29: 359–65.

R. Blumenschine , F. T. Masao , J. Tactikos & J. Ebert 2008. Effects of distance from stone source on landscape-scale variation in Oldowan artifact assemblages in the Paleo-Olduvai Basin, Tanzania. Journal of Archaeological Science 35 (1): 76–86.

M. Zhao et al. 2009. Mitochondrial genome evidence reveals successful Late Palaeolithic settlement on the Tibetan Plateau. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106: 21, 230–5.

S. Barnabas , Y. Shouche & C. G. Suresh 2005. High-resolution mtDNA studies of the Indian population: implications for Palaeolithic settlement of the Indian Subcontinent. Annals of Human Genetics 70: 42–58.

J. Barthelme 1977. Holocene sites north-east of Lake Turkana. Azania XII: 33–41.

J. Bintliff 2012. The Complete Archaeology of Greece from Hunter-Gatherers to the 20th Century a.d. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford.

B. Bell 1971. The Dark Ages in ancient history, I. The First Dark Age in Egypt. American Journal of Archaeology 75: 1–26.

J. Bernabeu , C. M. Barton & M. Pérez 2001. A taphonomic perspective on Neolithic beginnings: theory, interpretation, and empirical data in the Western Mediterranean. Journal of Archaeological Science 28: 597–612.

R. J. Blumenschine , F. T. Masao , H. Stollhofen , I. G. Stanistreet , M. K. Bamford , R. M. Albert , J. K. Njau & K. A. Prassack 2012. Landscape distribution of Oldowan stone artifact assemblages across the fault compartments of the eastern Olduvai Lake Basin during early lowermost Bed II times. Journal of Human Evolution 63 (2): 384–94.

G. Aranda & F. Molina 2006. Wealth and power in the Bronze Age of the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula: the funerary record of Cerro de la Encina. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 25 (1): 47–59.

M. Baskaran , A. R. Maratheb , S. N. Rajagurub & B. L. K. Somayajulu 1986. Geochronology of Palaeolithic cultures in the Hiran Valley, Saurashtra, India. Journal of Archaeological Science 13: 505–14.

P. Forster , A. Torroni , C. Renfrew & Rö A. hl 2001. Phylogenetic star contraction applied to Asian and Papuan mtDNA evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution 18: 1864–81.

W. S. Ayres & R. Mauricio 1987. Stone adzes from Pohnpei, Micronesia. Archaeology in Oceania 22: 27–31.

E. R. Cook , K. J. Anchukaitis , B. M. Buckley , R. D. D’Arrigo , G. C. Jacoby & W. E. Wright 2010. Asian monsoon failure and megadrought during the last millennium. Science 328: 486–9.

G. Hudjashov , T. Kivisild , P. A. Underhill , P. Endicott , J. J. Sanchez , A. A. Lin , P. Shen , P. Oefner , C. Renfrew , R. Villems & P. Forster 2007. Revealing the prehistoric settlement of Australia by Y chromosome and mtDNA analysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104: 8726–30.

L. Forster , P. Forster , S. Lutz-Bonengel , H. Willkomm & B. Brinkmann 2002. Natural radioactivity and human mitochondrial DNA mutations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99: 13950–4.

R. B. Alley & A. M. Ágústsdóttir 2005. The 8k event: cause and consequences of a major Holocene abrupt climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 1123–49.

D. F. Allen 1967. Iron currency bars in Britain. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 33: 307–35.

W. Amos & J. I. Hoffman 2010. Evidence that two main bottleneck events shaped modern human genetic diversity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 277: 131–7.

G. Clark 1965. Radiocarbon dating and the expansion of farming in Europe. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 31: 58–73.

P. G. Bahn 2010. Prehistoric Rock Art: Polemics and Progress. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

F. Chami 1998. A review of Swahili archaeology. African Archaeological Review 15 (3): 199–218.

R. L. Burger 1981. The radiocarbon evidence for the temporal priority of Chavín de Huántar. American Antiquity 46: 592–602.

C. Debaine-Francfort 1989. Archéologie du Xinjiang des origines aux Han: Ière partie. Paléorient 15: 183–213.

M. T. Gilbert et al. 2008. Paleo-Eskimo mtDNA genome reveals matrilineal discontinuity in Greenland. Science 320: 1787–9.

P. Forster 2003. To err is human. Annals of Human Genetics 67: 2–4.

R. A. Fisher 1937. The wave of advance of advantageous genes. Annals of Eugenics 7: 353–69.

S. Barut Kusimba 1999. Hunter-gatherer land use patterns in Late Stone Age East Africa. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 18: 165–200.

M. V. Anikovich , A. A. Sinitsyn , J. F. Hoffecker , V. T. Holliday , V. V. Popov , S. N. Lisitsyn , S. L. Forman , G. M. Levkovskaya , G. A. Pospelova , I. E. Kuz’mina , N. D. Burova , P. Goldberg , R. I. Macphail , B. Giaccio & N. D. Praslov 2007. Early Upper Paleolithic in eastern Europe and implications for the dispersal of modern humans. Science 315: 223–26.

2009. Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia. Science 326: 1541–5.

P. J. Brantingham , A. I. Krivoshapkin , Li Jinzheng & Y. Tserendagva 2001. The Initial Upper Paleolithic in northern Asia. Current Anthropology 42 (5): 735–47.

N. Alperson-Afil , G. Sharon , M. Kislev , Y. Melamed , I. Zohar , S. Ashkenazi , R. Rabinovich , R. Biton , E. Werker , G. Hartman , C. Feibel & N. Goren-Inbar 2009. Spatial Organization of hominin activities at Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel. Science 326: 1677–80.

G. Aranda-Jiménez , S. Montón-Subías & S. Jiménez-Brobeil 2009. Conflicting evidence? Weapons and skeletons in the Bronze Age of South-east Iberia. Antiquity 83: 1038–51.

F. Allard 1997. Growth and stability among complex societies in prehistoric Lingnan, southeast China. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 8: 37–58.

Li Feng 2006. Landscape and Power in Early China: The Crisis and Fall of the Western Zhou, 1045–771 . Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

T. Goebel , M. R. Waters & D. H. O’Rourke 2008. The Late Pleistocene dispersal of modern humans in the Americas. Science 319: 1497–502.

L. Beramendi-Orosco , E. Galia Gonzalez-Hernandez , J. Urrutia-Fucugauchi , L. R. Manzanilla , A. M. Soler-Arechalde , A. Goguitchaishvili & N. Jarboe 2008. High-resolution chronology for the Mesoamerican urban center of Teotihuacan derived from Bayesian statistics of radiocarbon and archaeological data. Quaternary Research 71: 99–107.

P. A. Baker , G. O. Seltzer , S. C. Fritz , R. B. Dunbar , M. J. Grove , P. M. Tapia , S. L. Cross , H. D. Rowe & J. P. Broda 2001. The history of South American tropical precipitation for the past 25,000 years. Science 291: 640–3.

M. J. Berman & P. L. Gnivecki 1995. The colonization of the Bahama archipelago: a reappraisal. World Archaeology 26 (3): 421–41.

S. Chen , B-Z. Lin , M. Baig , B. Mitra , R. J. Lopes , A. M. Santos , D. A. Magee , M. Asevedo , P. Tarraso , S. Sasazaki , S. Ostrowski , O. Mahgoub , T. K. Chaudhuri , Y. Zhang , L. J. Royo , F. Goyache , G. Luikart , N. Boivin , D. Q. Fuller , H. Mannen , D. G. Bradley & A. Beja-Pereira 2010. Zebu are the exclusive legacy of the South Asian Neolithic. Molecular Biology and Evolution 27: 1–6.

J. E. Clark 1997. The arts of government in early Mesoamerica. Annual Review of Anthropology 26: 211–34.

F. Braemer , J.-C. Echallier & A. Taraqji 1996. Khirbet el-Umbashi (Syrie): rapport préliminaire sur les campagnes 1993 et 1994. Syria 73: 117–27.

W. F. H. Adelaar , with the collaboration of P. Muysken. 2004. The Languages of the Andes. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

P. Forster & A. Toth 2003. Toward a phylogenetic chronology of ancient Gaulish, Celtic and Indo-European. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100: 9079–84.

N. S. al-Jahwari 2009. The agricultural basis of Umm an-Nar society in the northern Oman peninsula (2500–2000 bc). Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 20: 122–33.

P. Bertran , D. Bonnissent , D. Imbert , P. Lozouet , N. Serrand & C. Stouvenot 2004. Paléoclimat des Petites Antilles depuis 4000 ans bp: l’enregistrement de la lagune de Grand-Case à Saint-Martin. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 336: 1501–10.

Y. S. Chen , A. Olckers , T. G. Schurr , A. M. Kogelnik , K. Huoponen & D. C. Wallace 2000. mtDNA variation in the South African Kung and Khwe – and their genetic relationships to other African populations. American Journal of Human Genetics 66: 1362–83.

R. Callaghan & S. M. Fitzpatrick 2008. Examining prehistoric migration patterns in the Palauan Archipelago: a computer simulated analysis of drift voyaging. Asian Perspectives 47: 28–44.

J. S. Friedlaender , F. R. Friedlaender , J. A. Hodgson , M. Stoltz , G. Koki , G. Horvat , S. Zhadanov , T. G. Schurr & D. A. Merriwether 2007. Melanesian mtDNA complexity. PLoS One 2: e248.

T. Kivisild , S. Rootsi , M. Metspalu , S. Mastana , K. Kaldma , J. Parik , E. Metspalu , M. Adojaan , H. V. Tolk , V. Stepanov , M. Golge , E. Usanga , S. S. Papiha , C. Cinnioglu , R. King , L. Cavalli-Sforza , P. A. Underhill & R. Villems 2003. The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations. American Journal of Human Genetics 72: 313–32.

S. Abbo , D. Shtienberg , J. Lichtenzveig , S. Lev-Yadun & A. Gopher 2003. Chickpea, summer cropping, and a new model for pulse domestication in the ancient Near East. Quarterly Review Biology 78: 435–48.

J. Allen , C. Gosden & J. P. White 1989. Human Pleistocene adaptations in the tropical Island Pacific: recent evidence from New Ireland, a Greater Australian outlier. Antiquity 63: 548–61.

S. Ambrose 2001. Paleolithic technology and human evolution. Science 291: 1748–53.

P. Forster & C. Renfrew 2011. Mother tongue and Y chromosomes. Science 333: 1390–1.

I. Malkin 1987. Religion and Colonisation in Ancient Greece. E. J. Brill: Leiden.

G. Clark 2005. A 3000-year culture sequence from Palau, western Micronesia. Asian Perspectives 44: 349–80.

L. Barham & P. Mitchell 2008. The First Africans. African Archaeology from the Earliest Tool Makers to Most Recent Foragers. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

J. L. Arsuaga , I. Martinez , A. Gracia & C. Lorenzo 1997. The Sima de los Huesos crania (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain): a comparative study. Journal of Human Evolution 33: 219–81.

P. Bishop , D. Penny , M. Stark & M. Scott 2003. A 3.5 ka record of paleoenvironments and human occupation at Angkor Borei, Mekong Delta, southern Cambodia. Geoarchaeology 18 (3): 359–93.

C. Bonnet 1992. Excavations at the Nubian royal town of Kerma: 1975–91. Antiquity 66: 611–25.

M. Loewe & E. L. Shaugnessy 1999. The Cambridge History of Ancient China – From the Origin of Civilisation to 221 . Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

S. T. Childs 1991. Style, technology, and iron smelting furnaces in Bantu-speaking Africa. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 10: 332–59.

R. Carrasco Vargas , V. A. Vázquez López & S. Martin 2009. Daily life of the ancient Maya recorded on murals at Calakmul, Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 106 (46): 19,245–9.

R. Anyon & S. LeBlanc 1980. The architectural evolution of Mogollon Mimbres communal structures. Kiva 46: 209–25.

D. S. Adler , G. Bar-Oz , A. Belfer-Cohen & O. Bar-Yosef 2006. Ahead of the game. Middle and Upper Palaeolithic hunting behaviors in the southern Caucasus. Current Anthropology 47 (1): 89–118.

A. J. Farrujia de la Rosa , W. Pichler , A. Rodrigue & S. García Marín 2010. The Libyco-Berber and Latino-Canarian Scripts and the Colonization of the Canary Islands. African Archaeological Review 27 (1): 13–41.

B. Arensburg & A.-M. Tillier 1991. Speech and the Neanderthals. Endeavour 15: 26–8.

A. Beja-Pereira (& 26 other authors). 2006. The origin of European cattle: evidence from modern and ancient DNA. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, America 103/21 (23 May): 8113–18.

P. Bellwood & P. Koon 1989. Lapita colonists leave boats unburned. Antiquity 63: 613–22.

J. Hey 2005. On the number of New World founders: a population genetic portrait of the peopling of the Americas. PLoS Biology 3: e193.

J. S. Friedlaender , F. R. Friedlaender , F. A. Reed , K. K. Kidd , J. R. Kidd , G. K. Chambers , R. A. Lea , J-H. Loo , G. Koki , J. A. Hodgson , D. A. Merriwether & J. L. Weber 2008. The genetic structure of Pacific islanders. PLoS Genetics 4: e19.

A. Anderson 1991. The chronology of colonization in New Zealand. Antiquity 65: 767–95.

A. Dodson 2012. Afterglow of Empire. American University in Cairo Press: Cairo.

P. B. Beaumont & J. C. Vogel 1989. Patterns in the age and context of rock art in the Northern Cape. South African Archaeological Bulletin 44: 73–81.

S. T. Childs & D. Killick 1993. Indigenous African metallurgy: nature and culture. Annual Review of Anthropology 22: 317–37.

D. J. Bernstein 2006. Long-term continuity in the archaeological record from the coast of New York and southern New England, USA. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 1: 271–84.

T. D. Dillehay , G. A. Calderón , G. Politis & M. C. Beltrao 1992. Earliest hunters and gatherers of South America. Journal of World Prehistory 6: 145–204.

J. Bower 1991. The Pastoral Neolithic of East Africa. Journal of World Prehistory 5 (1): 49–82.

B. Asfaw , Y. Beyene , G. Suwa , R. C. Walter , T. D. White , G. W. Gabriel & T. Yemane 1992. The Earliest Acheulian from Konso-Gardula. Nature 360: 732–5.

D. B. Bamforth 1988. Ecology and Human Organization on the Great Plains. Plenum: New York.

C.-B. An , Z.-D. Feng & L. Barton 2006. Dry or humid? Mid-Holocene humidity changes in arid and semi-arid China. Quaternary Science Reviews 25: 351–61.

B. E. Barich 1990. Rock art and archaeological context: the case of the Tadrart Acacus (Libya). Libyan Studies 21: 1–8.

L. Cherni , V. Fernandes , J. B. Pereira , M. D. Costa , A. Goios , S. Frigi , B. Yacoubi-Loueslati , M. B. Amor , A. Slama , A. Amorim , A. B. El Gaaied & L. Pereira 2009. Post–Last Glacial Maximum expansion from Iberia to North Africa revealed by fine characterization of mtDNA H haplogroup in Tunisia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 139: 253–60.

D. Binder , J.-E. Brochier , H. Duday , D. Helmer , P. Marinval , S. Thiébault & J. Wattez 1993. L’Abri Pendimoun à Castellar (Alpes-Maritimes): Nouvelles données sur le complexe culturel de la céramique imprimée méditerranéenne dans son contexte stratigraphique. Gallia Préhistoire 35: 177–251.

M. Bird , D. Taylor & C. Hunt 2005. Palaeoenvironments of insular Southeast Asia during the last glacial period: a savanna corridor in Sundaland? Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 2228–42.

L. Quintana-Murci , C. Krausz , T. Zerjal , S. H. Sayar , M. F. Hammer , S. Q. Mehdi , Q. Ayub , R. Qamar , A. Mohyuddin , U. Radhakrishna , M. A. Jobling , C. Tyler-Smith & K. McElreavey 2001. Y-chromosome lineages trace diffusion of people and languages in southwestern Asia. American Journal of Human Genetics 68: 537–42.

D. R. Braun , J. W. K. Harris , N. E. Levin , J. T. McCoy , A. I. R. Herries , M. Bamford , L. C. Bishop , B. G. Richmond & M. Kibunja 2010. Early hominin diet included terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 myr ago in East Turkana, Kenya. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 107 (22): 10002–7.

B. S. Bauer & R. A. Covey 2002. Processes of state formation in the Inca heartland (Cuzco, Peru). American Anthropologist 104: 846–64.

T. G. Baugh & J. E. Ericson (eds.) 1994. Prehistoric Exchange Systems in North America. Springer: New York.

J. S. Athens , H. D. Tuggle , J. V. Ward & D. J. Welch 2002. Avifaunal extinctions, vegetation change, and Polynesian impacts in prehistoric Hawai’i. Archaeology in Oceania 37 (2): 57–78.

J. H. Blitz 1988. Adoption of the bow in prehistoric North America. North American Archaeology 9: 123–45.

F. Almeida , M. Moreno-García & D. E. Angelucci 2009. From under the bulldozer’s claws: the EE15 Late Gravettian occupation surface of the Lagar Velho rock-shelter. World Archaeology 41 (2): 242–61.

O. François , M. Currat , N. Ray , E. Han , L. Excoffier & J. Novembre 2010. Principal component analysis under population genetic models of range expansion and admixture. Molecular Biology and Evolution 27: 1257–68.

L. Backwell , F. d’Errico & L. Wadley 2008. Middle Stone Age bone tools from the Howieson’s Poort layers, Sibudu Cave, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 566–1580.

J. Binneman & J. Deacon 1986. Experimental determination of use wear on stone adzes from Boomplaas Cave, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 13: 219–28.

D. Binder & R. Maggi 2001. Le Néolithique ancien de l’arc liguro-provençal. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 98 (3): 411–22.

S. A. Brandt 1986. The Upper Pleistocene and Early Holocene prehistory of the Horn of Africa. African Archaeological Review 4: 41–82.

O. Handt , M. Richards , M. Trommsdorff , C. Kilger , J. Simanainen , O. Georgiev , K. Bauer , A. Stone , R. Hedges , W. Schaffner , et al. 1994. Molecular genetic analysis of the Tyrolean Ice Man. Science 264: 1775–8.

A. Bayliss , F. McEvoy & A. W. R. Whittle 2007. The world recreated: redating Silbury Hill in its monumental landscape. Antiquity 81: 26–53.

W. Cavanagh 2011. The Greek mainland in the prehistoric period. Archaeological Reports 57: 19–26.

M. C. Bruno & W. T. Whitehead 2003. Chenopodium cultivation and Formative Period agriculture at Chiripa, Bolivia. Latin American Antiquity 14: 339–55.

L. Binford 1962. Archaeology as Anthropology. American Antiquity 28: 217–25.

J. E. Arnold 2007. Credit where credit is due: the history of the Chumash oceangoing plank canoe. American Antiquity 72 (2): 196–209.

R. E. Blanton , G. M. Feinman , S. A. Kowalewski & P. N. Peregrine 1996. A dual-processual theory for the evolution of Mesoamerican civilization. Current Anthropology 37 (1): 1–31.

G. Destro-Bisol , V. Coia , I. Boschi , F. Verginelli , A. Caglia , V. Pascali , G. Spedini & F. Calafell 2004. The analysis of variation of mtDNA hypervariable region 1 suggests that eastern and western Pygmies diverged before the Bantu expansion. American Naturalist 163: 212–26.

S. J. Armitage , S. A. Jasim , A. E Marks ., A. G. Parker , V. I. Usik & H.-P. Uerpmann 2011. The southern route “Out of Africa”: evidence for an early expansion of modern humans into Arabia. Science 331 (6016): 453–6.

D. Bailey 2000. Balkan Prehistory: Exclusion, Incorporation and Identity. Routledge: London.

T. H. Huxley 1870. On the geographical distribution of the chief modifications of mankind. Journal of the Ethnological Society of London 2: 404–12.

D. A. Merriwether , F. Rothhammer & R. E. Ferrell 1995. Distribution of the four founding lineage haplotypes in Native Americans suggests a single wave of migration for the New World. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 98: 411–30.

M. Hervella , N. Izagirre , S. Alonso , R. Fregel , A. Alonso , V. M. Cabrera & C. de la Rúa 2012. Ancient DNA from hunter-gatherer and farmer groups from northern Spain supports a random dispersion model for the Neolithic expansion into Europe. PLoS One 7: e34417.

A. Boomert 2006. Between the mainland and the islands: the Amerindian cultural geography of Trinidad. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 50 (1): 63–73.

R. E. Green et al. 2010. A draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome. Science 328: 710–22.

W. R. Dickinson 2004. Impacts of eustasy and hydroisostasy on the evolution and landforms of Pacific atolls. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecolology 213: 251–69.

D. R. Braun , J. Harris & D. Maina 2008a. Oldowan raw material procurement and use: Evidence from the Koobi Fora Formation. Archaeometry 51 (1): 26–42.

M. T. Friesen 2004. Contemporaneity of Dorset and Thule cultures in the North American Arctic: new radio carbon dates from Victoria Island, Nunavut. Current Anthropology 45 (5): 685–91.

J. E. Arnold , M. R. Walsh & S. E. Hollimon 2004. The archaeology of California. Journal of Archaeological Research 12 (3): 1–74.

S. Roychoudhury , S. Roy , A. Basu , R. Banerjee , H. Vishwanathan , M. V. U. Rani , S. K. Sil , M. Mitra & P. P. Majumder 2001. Genomic structures and population histories of linguistically distinct tribal groups of India. Human Genetics 109: 339–50.

S. A. Brandt & N. Carder 1987. Pastoral rock art in the Horn of Africa: making sense of udder chaos. World Archaeology 19 (2): 194–213.

P. Bahn 1996. New developments in Pleistocene art. Evolutionary Anthropology 4: 204–15.

S. P. E. Blockley , M. Blockley , E. Donahue , S. Lane , J. Lowe & M. Pollard 2006. The chronology of abrupt climate change and Late Upper Palaeolithic human adaptation in Europe. Journal of Quaternary Science 21 (5): 575–84.

O. Bar-Yosef & J. Callander 1999. The woman from Tabun: Garrod’s doubts in historical perspective. Journal of Human Evolution 37: 879–85.

Q. D. Atkinson , D. G. Russell & A. J. Drummond 2008. mtDNA variation predicts population size in humans and reveals a major southern Asian chapter in human prehistory. Molecular Biology and Evolution 25: 468–74.

D. V. Burley 1998. Archaeology and the Tongan past, 2850–150 b.p. Journal of World Prehistory 12: 337–92.

C. Morgan 2003. Early Greek States beyond the Polis. Routledge: London.

I. M. Diakonoff 1998. The earliest Semitic society: linguistic data. Journal of Semitic Studies 43 (2): 209–19.

G. F. Bass 1986. A Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulu Burun (Kaş): 1986 campaign. American Journal of Archaeology 90: 269–96.

F. Gallardo & H. D. Yacobaccio 2005. Wild or domesticated? Camelids in early formative rock art of the Atacama Desert (Northern Chile). Latin American Antiquity 16 (2): 115–30.

W. Broecker 1996. Glacial climate in the tropics. Science 272: 1902–4.

M. Ingman & U. Gyllensten 2003. Mitochondrial genome variation and evolutionary history of Australian and New Guinean Aborigines. Genome Research 13: 1600–6.

S. Chirikure 2006. New light on Njanja iron working: towards a systematic encounter between ethnohistory and archaeometallurgy. South African Archaeological Bulletin 61: 142–51.

F. J. Ayala 1995. The myth of Eve: molecular biology and human origins. Science 270: 1930–6.

D. Barker 2002. Wadi Suq and Iron Age Period ceramics from Sharm, Fujairah (U.A.E.). Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 13: 1–94.

W. Coe 1965. Tikal, Guatemala, and emergent Maya civilization. Science 147: 1401–19.

R. Blust 1995. The prehistory of the Austronesian-speaking peoples: a view from language. Journal of World Prehistory 9: 453–510.

U. Perego , A. Achilli , N. Angerhofer , M. Accetturo , M. Pala , A. Olivieri , B. H. Kashani , K. H. Ritchie , R. Scozzari , Q. P. Kong , N. M. Myres , A. Salas , O. Semino , H.-J. Bandelt , S. R. Woodward & A. Torroni 2009. Distinctive Paleo-Indian migration routes from Beringia marked by two rare mtDNA haplogroups. Current Biology 19: 1–8.

A. T. Boldurian & J. L. Cotter 1999. Clovis Revisited: New Perspectives on Paleoindian Adaptations from Blackwater Draw, New Mexico. University Museum, University of Pennsylvania: Philadelphia.

A. Åkerlund 2000. Separate worlds? Interpretation of the different material patterns in the archipelago and the surrounding mainland areas of east-central Sweden in the Stone Age. European Journal of Archaeology 3 (1): 7–29.

M. Caballero , S. Lozano , B. Ortega , J. Urrutia & J. L. Macías 1999. Environmental characteristics of Lake Tecocomulco, northern Basin of Mexico, for the last 50,000 years. Journal of Paleolimnology 22: 399–411.

D. R. Braun , T. Plummer , P. Ditchfield , J. V. Ferraro , D. Maina , L. C. Bishop & R. Potts 2008. Oldowan behavior and raw material transport: perspectives from the Kanjera Formation. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 2329–45.

S. Sahoo , A. Singh , G. Himabindu , J. Banerjee , T. Sitalaximi , S. Gaikwad , R. Trivedi , P. Endicott , T. Kivisild , M. Metspalu , R. Villems & V. K. Kashyap 2006. A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: evaluating demic diffusion scenarios. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103: 843–8.

J. Krause , A. W. Briggs , M. Kircher , T. Maricic , N. Zwyns , A. Derevianko & S. Pääbo 2010. A complete mtDNA genome of an early modern human from Kostenki, Russia. Current Biology 20: 231–6.

M. B. Bush , W. D. Gosling & P. A. Colinvaux 2007. Climate change in the Lowlands of the Amazon Basin, pp. 56–76 in ( M. B. Bush & J. R. Flenley , eds.) Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic Change. Springer: Berlin.

H. Allen & S. Holdaway 2009. The archaeology of Mungo and the Willandra Lakes: looking back, looking forward. Archaeology in Oceania 44: 96–106.

P. Breunig , K. Neumann & W. Van Neer 1996. New research on the Holocene settlement and environment of the Chad Basin in Nigeria. African Archaeological Review 13 (2): 111–45.

A. D. Barnosky , P. L. Koch , R. S. Feranec , S. L. Wing & A. B. Shabel 2004. Assessing the causes of Late Pleistocene extinctions on the continents. Science 306 (5693): 70–5.

M. Bird , E. Boobyer , C. Bryant , H. Lewis , V. Paz & W. E. Stephens 2007. A long record of environmental change from bat guano deposits in Makangit Cave, Palawan, Philippines. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth and Environmental Science 98: 59–69.

G. L. Barnes & D. S. Guo 1996. The ritual landscape of “Boar Mountain” Basin: the Niuheliang Site complex of northeastern China. World Archaeology 28 (2): 209–19.

H Case & J. C. Payne 1962. Tomb 100: the Decorated Tomb at Hierakonpolis. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 48: 5–18.

D. Brothwell & T. Shaw 1971. A Late Upper Pleistocene proto–West African negro from Nigeria. Man 6 (2): 221–7.

G. R. Clark 2003. Shards of meaning: archaeology and the Melanesia-Polynesia divide. Journal of Pacific History 38: 197–215.

R. T. Callaghan 2001. Ceramic Age seafaring and interaction potential in the Antilles: a computer simulation. Current Anthropology 42 (2): 308–13.

S. Chirikure 2007. Metals in society: iron production and its position in Iron Age communities of southern Africa. Journal of Social Archaeology 7 (1): 72–100.

R. Blust 2005. Review of Lynch, Ross & Crowley 2002: the Oceanic languages. Oceanic Linguistics 44 (2): 544–58. Available at .

M. Caballero , B. Ortega , F. Valadez , S. Metcalfe , J. L. Macías & Y. Sugiura 2002. Sta. Cruz Atizapán: a 22-ka lake level record and climatic implications for the Late Holocene human occupation in the Upper Lerma Basin, central Mexico. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 186: 217–35.

H. Baba & S. Narasaki 1991. Minatogawa Man, the oldest type of modern Homo sapiens in East Asia. Daiyonki Kenkyu [Quaternary research] 30 (3): 221–30.

W. Enard , M. Przeworski , S. E. Fisher , C. S. Lai , V. Wiebe , T. Kitano , A. P. Monaco & S. Pääbo 2002. Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature 418: 869–72.

D. R. Braun , T. W. Plummer , J. Ferraro , P. Ditchfield & L. Bishop 2009. Raw material quality and Oldowan hominin toolstone preferences: evidence from Kanjera South, Kenya. Journal of Archaeological Science 36 (7): 1605–14.

G. F. Bass , D. Collon , C. Pulak & J. Weinstein 1989. A Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulu Burun (Kaş): 1984 campaign. American Journal of Archaeology 93: 1–29.

L. Barton , S. D. Newsome , F. H. Chen , H. Wang , T. P. Guilderson & R. L. Bettinger 2009. Agricultural origins and the isotopic identity of domestication in northern China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 106 (14): 5523–8.

B. C. Barker 1991. Nara Inlet 1: coastal resource use and the Holocene marine transgression in the Whitsunday Islands, central Queensland. Archaeology in Oceania 26: 102–9.

P. Brown , T. Sutikna , M. J. Morwood , R. P. Soejono , Jabniko , E. Wayhu Saptomo & Rokus Awe Due . 2004. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431: 1055–61.

S. Sengupta , L. A. Zhivotovsky , R. King , S. Q. Mehdi , C. A. Edmonds , C. E. T. Chow , A. A. Lin , M. Mitra , S. K. Sil , A. Ramesh & M. V. Usha Rani 2006. Polarity and temporality of high-resolution Y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists. American Journal of Human Genetics 78: 202–21.

D. V. Burley , E. Nelson , & R. Shutler 1999. A radiocarbon chronology for the Eastern Lapita frontier in Tonga. Archaeology in Oceania 34: 59–72.

K. L. Baab 2008. The taxonomic implications of cranial shape variation in Homo erectus. Journal of Human Evolution 54: 827–47.

B. Bramanti , M. G. Thomas , W. Haak , M. Unterlaender , P. Jores , K. Tambets , I. Antanaitis-Jacobs , M. N. Haidle , R. Jankauskas , C.-J. Kind , F. Lueth , T. Terberger , J. Hiller , S. Matsamura , P. Forster & J. Burger 2009. Genetic discontinuity between local hunter-gatherers and central Europe’s first farmers. Science 326: 137–40.

D. Q. Fuller 2006. Agricultural origins and frontiers in South Asia: a working synthesis. Journal of World Prehistory 20 (1): 1–86.

M. Hasegawa , A. Di Rienzo , T. D. Kocher & A. C. Wilson 1993. Towards a more accurate time scale for the human mitochondrial tree. Journal of Molecular Evolution 37: 347–54.

H. Allen , S. Holdaway , P. Fanning & J. Littleton 2008. Footprints in the sand: appraising the archaeology of the Willandra Lakes, western New South Wales, Australia. Antiquity 82: 11–24.

B. Aranguren , R. Becattini , M. M. Lippi & A. Revedin 2007. Grinding flour in Upper Palaeolithic Europe (25 000 years bp). Antiquity 81: 845–55.

R. Blust 2008. Remote Melanesia: one history or two? An addendum to Donohue and Denham. Oceanic Linguistics 47 (2): 445–59. Available at .

T. Denham 2004. The roots of agriculture and aboriculture in New Guinea: looking beyond Austronesian expansion, Neolithic packages and indigenous origins. World Archaeology 36: 610–20.

D. R. Braun , M. J. Rogers , J. W. K. Harris & S. J. Walker 2008b. Landscape scale variation in hominin tool use: evidence from the Developed Oldowan. Journal of Human Evolution 55: 1053–63.

S. M. Fitzpatrick , W. R. Dickinson & G. Clark 2003. A petrographic analysis of ceramics from Palau, Micronesia. Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 1175–84.

J. Allen and J. O’Connell 2003. The long and short of it: archaeological approaches to determining when humans first colonised Australia and New Guinea. Australian Archaeology 57: 5–19.

E. J. Bartelink 2009. Late Holocene dietary change in the San Francisco Bay area: stable isotope evidence for an expansion in diet breadth. California Archaeology 1 (2): 227–52.

J. M. Beaton 1985. Evidence for a coastal occupation time-lag at Princess Charlotte Bay (North Queensland) and implications for coastal colonization and population growth theories for Aboriginal Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 20: 1–20.

K. Bae 2010. Origin and patterns of the Upper Paleolithic industries in the Korean Peninsula and movement of modern humans in East Asia. Quaternary International 211: 103–12.

L. S. Barham 2002a. Backed tools in Middle Pleistocene central Africa and their evolutionary significance. Journal of Human Evolution 43: 585–603.

W. F. Buchanan , S. L. Hall , J. Henderson , A. Olivier , J. M. Pettigrew , J. E. Parkington & P. T. Robertshaw 1978. Coastal shell middens in the Paternoster area, southwestern Cape. South African Archaeological Bulletin 33: 89–93.

S. E. Bailey , T. D. Weaver & J. J. Hublin 2009. Who made the Aurignacian and other early Upper Paleolithic industries? Journal of Human Evolution 57: 11–26.

P. Forster 2004. Ice Ages and the mitochondrial DNA chronology of human dispersals: a review. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 359: 255–64.

G. J. Dimmendaal 2008. Language ecology and linguistic diversity on the African continent. Language and Linguistics Compass 2 (5): 840–58.

T. Kivisild , P. Shen , D. P. Wall , B. Do , R. Sung , K. Davis , G. Passarino , P. A. Underhill , C. Scharfe , A. Torroni et al. 2006. The role of selection in the evolution of human mitochondrial genomes. Genetics 172: 373–87.

C. J. Ingram , C. A. Mulcare , Y. Itan , M. G. Thomas & D. M. Swallow 2009. Lactose digestion and the evolutionary genetics of lactase persistence. Human Genetics 124: 579–91.

J. L. Araus , G. A. Slafer , I. Romagosa & M. Molist 2001. Estimated wheat yields during the emergence of agriculture based on the carbon isotope discrimination of grains: evidence from a 10th millennium bp site on the Euphrates. Journal of Archaeological Science 28: 341–50.

G. Coedès 1964a. Some problems in the ancient history of the hinduized states of South-east Asia. Journal of Southeast Asian History 52: 1–14.

T. Zerjal , A. Pandya , K. Thangaraj , E. Y. Ling , J. Kearley , S. Bertoneri , S. Paracchini , L. Singh & C. Tyler-Smith 2007. Y chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India. Human Genetics 121: 137–44.

R. G. Harrison & M. A. Katzenberg 2003. Paleodiet studies using stable carbon isotopes from bone apatite and collagen: examples from southern Ontario and San Nicolas Island, California. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 22: 227–44.

L. Briones 2006. The geoglyphs of the North Chilean Desert: an archaeological and artistic perspective. Antiquity 80 (307): 9–24.

T. Aubry , X. Mangado , J. Sampaio & F. Sellami 2002. Open-air rock-art, territories and modes of exploitation during the Upper Palaeolithic in the Côa Valley (Portugal). Antiquity 76: 62–76.

T. Goebel & M. Aksenov 1995. Accelerator radiocarbon dating of the initial Upper Paleolithic in southeast Siberia. Antiquity 69 (263): 349–57.

C. Broodbank & T. F. Strasser 1991. Migrant farmers and the Neolithic colonization of Crete. Antiquity 65: 233–45.

R. T Callaghan 2003. Comments on the mainland origins of the Preceramic cultures of the Greater Antilles. Latin American Antiquity 14 (3): 323–38.

U. Avner 1984. Ancient Cult Sites in the Negev and Sinai Deserts. Tel Aviv 11: 115–31.

J. Hart 2001. Maize, matrilocality, migration, and northern Iroquoian evolution. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 8 (2): 151–81.

F. H. Brown & T. E. Cerling 1982. Stratigraphical significance of the Tulu Bor Tuff of the Koobi Fora Formation. Nature 299: 212–15.

L. S. Barham 2002b. Systematic pigment use in the Middle Pleistocene of South Central Africa. Current Anthropology 43: 181–90.

R. S. P. Beekes 1995. Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction. John Benjamins: Amsterdam.

L. Melchior , N. Lynnerup , H. R. Siegismund , T. Kivisild & J. Dissing 2010. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations. PLoS 5: e11898.

S. S. Barik , R. Sahani , B. V. R. Prasad , P. Endicott , M. Metspalu , B. N. Sarkar , S. Bhattacharya , P. C. H. Annapoorna , J. Sreenath , D. Sun , J. J. Sanchez , S. Y. W. Ho , A. Chandrasekar & V. R. Rao 2008. Detailed mtDNA genotypes permit a reassessment of the settlement and population structure of the Andaman Islands. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 136: 19–27.

P. Forster & V. Romano 2007. Timing of a back-migration into Africa. Science 316: 50–3.

J. L. Araus , G. A. Slafer , R. Buxo & I. Romagosa 2003. Productivity in prehistoric agriculture: physiological models for the quantification of cereal yields as an alternative to traditional approaches. Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 681–93.

B. Bevan & A. C. Roosevelt 2003. Geoarchaeological exploration of Guajara, a prehistoric earth mound in Brazil. Geoarchaeology 18 (3): 287–331.

C. Bowern & H. Koch (eds.) 2004. Australian Languages: Classification and the Comparative Method. John Benjamins: Amsterdam.

T. Goebel , A. P. Derevianko & V. T. Petrin 1993. Dating the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition at Kara-Bom. Current Anthropology 34: 452–8.

Q. P. Kong , H. J. Bandelt , C. Sun , Y. G. Yao , A. Salas , A. Achilli , C. Y. Wang , L. Zhong , C. L. Zhu , S. F. Wu et al. 2006. Updating the East Asian mtDNA phylogeny: a prerequisite for the identification of pathogenic mutations. Human Molecular Genetics 15: 2076–86.

K. D. Collerson & M. I. Weisler 2007. Stone adze compositions and the extent of ancient Polynesian voyaging and trade. Science 317: 1907–11.

S. Chirikure , R. B. Heimann and D. J. Killick 2010. The technology of tin smelting in the Rooiberg Valley, Limpopo Province, South Africa, ca. 1650–1850 CE. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 1656–69.

J. Balme 1995. 30,000 years of fishery in western New South Wales. Archaeology in Oceania 30: 1–21.

N. A. Bokovenko 1996. Asian influence on European Scythia. Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia: An International Journal of Comparative Studies in History and Archaeology 3 (1): 97–122.

C. Carr & D. T. Case 2005. The gathering of Hopewell, pp. 19–50 in ( C. Carr & D. T. Case , eds.) Gathering Hopewell: Society, Ritual, and Ritual Interaction. Kluwer: New York.

J. Saillard , P. Forster , N. Lynnerup , H.-J. Bandelt & S. Nørby 2000. mtDNA variation among Greenland Eskimos: the edge of the Beringian expansion. American Journal of Human Genetics 67: 718–26.

R. P. Evershed , S. Payne , A. G. Sherratt , M. S. Copley , J. Coolidge , D. Urem-Kotsu , K. Kotsakis , M. Özdogan , A. Erim-Özdogan , P. M. M. G. Akkermans , O. Nieuwenhuyse , D. Bailey , R. Andeescu , S. Campbell , S. Farid , I. Hodder , N. Yalman , M. Özbarasan , E. Biçakci , Y. Garfinkel , T. Levy & T. M. Burton 2008. Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle herding. Nature 455: 528–31.

J. Iriarte 2006. Vegetation and climate change since 14,810 14C B.P. in southeastern Uruguay and implications for the rise of early Formative societies. Quaternary Research 65: 20–32.

S. M. Fitzpatrick , G. C. Nelson & G. Clark 2008. Small scattered fragments do not a dwarf make: biological and archaeological data indicate that prehistoric inhabitants of Palau were normal sized. PLoS ONE 3 (8): e3015 (1–12).

E. Jehaes , H. Pfeiffer , K. Tporak , R. Decorte , B. Brinkmann & J. J. Cassiman 2001. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the putative heart of Louis XVII, son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette. European Journal of Human Genetics 9: 185–90.

C. F. M. Bird & D. Frankel 1991. Chronology and explanation in western Victoria and south-east South Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 26: 1–16.

Hong Shang , Haowen Tong , Shuangquan Zhang , Fuyou Chen & E Trinkaus . 2007. An early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, Zhoukoudian. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (16): 6573–8.

R. Chenorkian 1983. Ivory Coast prehistory: recent developments. African Archaeological Review 1: 127–42.

J. Field 2004. Environmental and climatic considerations: a hypothesis for conflict and the emergence of social complexity in Fijian prehistory. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 23: 79–99.

B. S. Arbuckle & V. Özkaya 2006. Animal exploitation at Körtik Tep: an early Aceramic Neolithic site in southeastern Turkey. Paléorient 32: 113–36.

K. B. Schroeder , M. Jakobsson , M. H. Crawford , T. G. Schurr , S. M. Boca , D. F. Conrad , R. Y. Tito , L. P. Osipova , L. A. Tarskaia , S. I. Zhadanov , J. D. Wall , J. K. Pritchard , R. S. Malhi , D. G. Smith & N. A. Rosenberg 2009. Haplotypic background of a private allele at high frequency in the Americas. Molecular Biology and Evolution 26: 995–1016.

M. Beech & E. Shepherd 2001. Archaeobotanical evidence for early date consumption on Dalma Island, United Arab Emirates. Antiquity 75: 83–9.

F. H. Brown & P. N. Gathogo 2002. Stratigraphic relation between Lokalalei A and Lokalalei 2C, Pliocene archaeological sites in West Turkana, Kenya. Journal of Archaeological Science 29: 699–702.

S. Chirikure , M. Manyanga , M. Pollard 2012. When science alone is not enough: radiocarbon timescales, and elite settlements in southern Africa. Journal of Social Archaeology 12 (3): 356–79.

J. Balme , I. Davidson , J. McDonald , N. Stern & P. Veth 2009. Symbolic behaviour and the peopling of the southern arc route to Australia. Quaternary International 202: 59–68.

L. A. Cammiade & M. C. Burkitt 1930. Fresh light on the Stone Age in southeast India. Antiquity 4: 327–39.

M. C. Horton 1987. Early Muslim trading settlements on the East African Coast: new evidence from Shanga. Antiquaries Journal 67: 290–323.

C. F. M. Bird 2001. Excavations at Koongine Cave: lithics and land-use in the Terminal Pleistocene and Holocene of South Australia. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 67: 49–83.

D. Q. Fuller , N. Boivin & R. Korisettar 2007. Dating the Neolithic of South India: new radiometric evidence for key economic, social and ritual transformations. Antiquity 81: 755–78.

P. L. Carter 1970. Late Stone Age exploitation patterns in southern Natal. South African Archaeological Bulletin 25: 55–8.

H. Colton 1945. The Patayan problem in the Colorado River Valley. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 1 (1): 114–21.

K. C. Chang 2001. Reflections on Chinese Archaeology. Journal of East Asian Archaeology 3 (1–2): 5–13.

R. G. Bednarik 1995. Concept-mediated marking in the Lower Paleolithic. Current Anthropology 36: 605–16.

R. Bradley 2007. The Prehistory of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

W. Balée 2006. The research program of historical ecology. Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 75–98.

P. Mellars 2006. A new radiocarbon revolution and the dispersal of modern humans in Eurasia. Nature 439: 931–5.

R. L. Burger & M. D. Glascock 2000. Locating the Quispisisa source in the Department of Ayacucho, Peru. Latin American Antiquity 11 (3): 258–68.

C. R. Cobb & P. H. Garrow 1996. Woodstock culture and the question of Mississippian emergence. American Antiquity 61: 21–37.

L. A. Curet 2003. Issues on the diversity and emergence of middle-range societies of the ancient Caribbean: A critique. Journal of Archaeological Research 11 (1): 1–42.

F. Balossi 2004. New data for the definition of the DFBW horizon and its internal developments: the earliest phases of the Amuq sequence revisited. Anatolica 30: 109–50.

G. Barker , H. Barton , M. Bird , P. Daly , I. Datan , A. Dykes , L. Farr , D. Gilbertson , B. Harrisson , C. Hunt , T. Higham , L. Kealhofer , J. Krigbaum , H. Lewis , S. McLaren , V. Paz , A. Pike , P. Piper , B. Pyatt , R. Rabett , T. Reynolds , J. Rose , G. Rushworth , M. Stephens , C. Stringer , J. Thompson & C. Turney 2007. The “human revolution” in lowland tropical Southeast Asia: the antiquity and behavior of anatomically modern humans at Niah Cave (Sarawak, Borneo). Journal of Human Evolution 52: 243–61.

D. Carballo 2007. Implements of state power: weapons and martially themed obsidian production near the Moon Pyramid, Teotihuacan. Ancient Mesoamerica 18 (1): 173–90.

R. A. Covey 2006. How the Incas Built Their Heartland: State Formation and the Innovation of Imperial Strategies in the Sacred Valley, Peru. University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor.

C. Ceruti 2004. Human bodies as objects of dedication at Inca mountain shrines (north-western Argentina). World Archaeology 36 (1): 103–22.

M. P. Black , S. D. Mooney & S. G. Haberle 2007. The fire, human and climate nexus in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia. The Holocene 17: 465–78.

K. B. Schroeder , T. G. Schurr , J. C. Long , N. A. Rosenberg , M. H. Crawford , L. A. Tarskaia , L. P. Osipova , S. I. Zhadanov & D. G. Smith 2007. A private allele ubiquitous in the Americas. Biology Letters 3: 218–23.

N. P. Dunning , S. Luzzader-Beach , T. Beach , J. G. Jones , V. Scarborough & T. P. Culbert 2002. Arising from the Bajos: the evolution of a neotropical landscape and the rise of Maya civilization. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 92 (2): 267–83.

L. J. Costa 2004. Nouvelles données sur le Mésolithique des îles tyrrhéniennes (Corse, Sardaigne). Peut-on parler d’un “Mésolithique insulaire”? Gallia Préhistoire 46: 211–30.

A. Bartsiokas 2002. Hominid cranial bone structure: a histological study of Omo 1 specimens from Ethiopia using different microscopic techniques. Anatomical Record 267: 52–9.

A. Benoist 2007. An Iron Age II snake cult in the Oman peninsula: evidence from Bithnah (Emirate of Fujairah). Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 18: 34–54.

C. Beck & G. T. Jones 2010. Clovis and Western Stemmed: population migration and the meeting of two technologies in the Intermountain West. American Antiquity 75 (1): 81–116.

J. B. Birdsell 1953. Some environmental and cultural factors influencing the structuring of Australian Aboriginal populations. American Naturalist 87: 171–207.

D. Cameron , R. Patnaik & A. Sahni 2004. The phylogenetic significance of the Middle Pleistocene Narmada hominin cranium from central India. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 14: 419–47.

M. Kayser et al. 1997. Evaluation of Y-chromosomal STRs: a multicenter study. International Journal of Legal Medicine 110: 12533, 141–9.

R. Drennan , L. G. Jaramillo , E. Ramos , C. A. Sánchez , M. A. Ramírez & C. A. Uribe 1991. Regional dynamics of chiefdoms in the Valle de la Plata, Colombia. Journal of Field Archaeology 18: 297–317.

A. Bouzouggar , N. Barton , M. Vanhaeren , F. d’Errico , S. Collcutt , T. Higham , E. Hodge , S. Parfitt , E. Rhodes , J.-L. Schwenninger , C. Stringer , E. Turner , S. Ward , A. Moutmir & A. Stambouli 2007. 82,000-year-old shell beads from North Africa and implications for the origins of modern human behaviour. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 9964–9.

J. Cauliez , X. Gutherz & J-M. Pène 2008. Première caractérisation des faciès céramiques néolithiques de la région du Gobaad en République de Djibouti. Les sites d’Hara-Idé 2 et d’Asa Koma (As-Eyla, district de Dikhil). L’Anthropologie 112: 691–715.

C. R. Cobb & A. King 2005. Re-inventing Mississippian Tradition at Etowah, Georgia. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 12: 167–92.

A. Belfer-Cohen & N. Goren-Inbar 1994. Cognition and communication in the Levantine Lower Palaeolithic. World Archaeology 26: 144–57.

D Campbell ., D Daley ., G. Prance & U Maciel . 1986. Quantitative ecological inventory of terra firme and varzea tropical forest along the Rio Xingu, Para, Brazil. Brittonia 38: 369–93.

J. M. Coles 1962. European Bronze Age shields. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 28: 156–90.

S. Chirikure & I. Pikirayi 2008. Inside and outside the dry stone walls: revisiting the material culture of Great Zimbabwe. Antiquity 82: 976–93.

A. K. Balkansky 1998a. Origin and collapse of complex societies in Oaxaca (Mexico): evaluating the era from 1965 to the present. Journal of World Prehistory 12: 451–93.

H. Breuil 1930. The Palaeolithic art of north-eastern Spain, and the art of the Bushmen: a comparison. Man 30: 149–51.

A. Belfer-Cohen & E. Hovers 1992. In the eye of the beholder: Mousterian and Natufian burials in the Levant. Current Anthropology 33: 463–71.

J. Diamond 2002. Evolution, consequences, and future of plant and animal domestication. Nature 418: 700–6.

A. Anderson & I. W. G. Smith 1996. The transient village in southern New Zealand. World Archaeology 27: 359–71.

L. Cordell 1995. Tracing migration from the receiving end. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14 (2): 203–11.

P. R. Chauhan 2008. Soanian lithic occurrences and raw material exploitation in the Siwalik Frontal zone, northern India: a geoarchaeological approach. Journal of Human Evolution 54 (5): 591–614.

S. G. Keates 2004. Home range size in Middle Pleistocene China and human dispersal patterns in eastern and central Asia. Asian Perspectives 43 (2): 227–37.

P. R. Chauhan 2008. Large mammal fossil occurrences and associated archaeological evidence in Pleistocene contexts of peninsular India and Sri Lanka. Quaternary International 192 (1): 20–42.

S. Carvalho , E. Cunha , C. Sousa & T. Matsuzawa 2008. Chaînes opératoires and resource-exploitation strategies in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nut cracking. Journal of Human Evolution 55 (1): 148–63.

G. W. Crawford 2009. Agricultural origins in North China pushed back to the Pleistocene–Holocene boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 106 (18): 7271–2.

V. Macaulay , C. Hill , A. Achilli , C. Rengo , D. Clarke , W. Meehan , J. Blackburn , O. Semino , R. Scozzari , F. Cruciani , A. Taha , N. K. Shaari , J. M. Raja , P. Ismail , Z. Zainuddin , W. Goodwin , D. Bulbeck , H-J. Bandelt , S. Oppenheimer , A. Torroni & M. Richards 2005. Single, rapid coastal settlement of Asia revealed by analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes. Science 308: 1034–6.

E. Asouti & D. Q. Fuller 2012. From foraging to farming in the southern Levant: the development of Epipaleolithic and Pre-pottery Neolithic plant management strategies. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 21: 149–62.

C. Chippindale , B. Smith & P. S. C. Taçon 2000. Visions of dynamic power: archaic rock-paintings, altered states of consciousness and “Clever Men” in western Arnhem Land (NT), Australia. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 10: 63–101.

C. Keyser-Tracqui , E. Crubézy & B. Ludes 2003. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analysis of a 2000-year-old necropolis in the Egyin Gol Valley of Mongolia. American Journal of Human Genetics 73: 247–60.

F. Estrada-Belli 2006. Lightning sky, rain, and the maize god: the ideology of Preclassic rulers at Cival, Peten, Guatemala. Ancient Mesoamerica 17: 57–78.

D. Q. Fuller & E. L. Harvey 2006. The archaeobotany of Indian pulses: identification, processing and evidence for cultivation. Environmental Archaeology 11 (2): 219–46. DOI: .

J. Adams , M. Maslin & E. Thomas 1999. Sudden climate transitions during the Quaternary. Progress in Physical Geography 23 (1): 1–36.

P. Soares , L. Ermini , N. Thomson , M. Mormina , T. Rito , Rö A. hl , A. Salas , S. Oppenheimer , V. Macaulay & M. B. Richards 2009. Correcting for purifying selection: an improved human mitochondrial molecular clock. American Journal of Human Genetics 84: 740–59.

W. Scheidel , I. Morris & R. P. Saller (eds.) 2007. The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

L. A. Curet & J. R. Oliver 1998. Mortuary practices, social development, and ideology in Precolumbian Puerto Rico. Latin American Antiquity 9 (3): 217–39.

A. K. Balkansky 1998b. Urbanism and early state formation in the Huamelulpan Valley of southern Mexico. Latin American Antiquity 9: 37–67.

R. Cosgrove 1999. Forty-two degrees south: the archaeology of Late Pleistocene Tasmania. Journal of World Prehistory 13: 357–402.

J. D. Evans 1977. Island archaeology in the Mediterranean: problems and opportunities. World Archaeology 9: 12–25.

G. Algaze 2008. Ancient Mesopotamia at the Dawn of Civilization. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

T. E. Cerling & F. H. Brown 1982. Tuffaceous marker horizons in the Koobi Fora region and the Lower Omo Valley. Nature 299 (582): 216–21.

A. S. Brooks , D. M. Helgren , J. S. Cramer , A. Franklin , W. Hornyak , J. M. Keating , R. G. Klein , W. J. Rink , H. Schwarcz , J. N. Leith Smith , K. Stewart , N. E. Todd , J. Verniers & J. E. Yellen 1995. Dating and context of three Middle Stone Age sites with bone points in the Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire. Science 268: 548–53.

F. A. K. Breyer 2002. Die Schriftzeugnisse des Prädynastischen Königsgrabes U-j in Umm el-Qaab: Versuch einer Neuinterpretation. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 88: 53–65.

W. E. Banks , J. Zilhão , F. d’Errico , M. Kageyama , A. Sima & A Ronchitelli . 2009. Investigating links between ecology and bifacial tool types in western Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Journal of Archaeological Science 36 (12): 2853–67.

L. M. Hodgetts , M. A. P. Renouf , M. S. Murray , D. McCuaig-Balkwill & L. Howse 2003. Changing subsistence practices at the Dorset Palaeoeskimo Site of Phillip’s Garden, Newfoundland. Arctic Anthropology 40 (1): 106–20.

C. Cruz-Uribe & R. G. Klein 1994. Chew marks and cut marks on animal bones from the Kasteelberg B and Dunefield Midden Later Stone Age sites, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 21: 35–49.

G. Bar-Oz , A. Belfer-Cohen , T. Meshveliani , N. Jakeli , Z. Matskevich & O. Bar-Yosef 2009. Bear in mind: bear hunting in the Mesolithic of the southern Caucasus. Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia 37 (1): 15–24.

P. U. Clark , A. S. Dyke , J. D. Shakun , A. E. Carlson , J. Clark , B. Wohlfarth , J. X. Mitrovica , S. W. Hostetler & A. M. McCabe 2009. The Last Glacial Maximum. Science 325: 710–14.

S. Bowdler 1981. Hunters in the highlands: Aboriginal adaptations in the eastern Australian uplands. Archaeology in Oceania 16: 99–111.

F. C. Córdova , A. L. Martin del Pozzo & J. López-Camacho 1994. Paleolandforms and volcanic impact on the environment of prehistoric Cuicuilco, southern Mexico City. Journal of Archaeological Science 21: 585–96.

S. Belitzky , N. Goren-Inbar & E. Werker 1991. A Middle Pleistocene wooden plank with man-made polish. Journal of Human Evolution 20: 349–53.

R. L. Burger 1991. The second season of investigations at the Initial Period center of Cardal, Peru. Journal of Field Archaeology 18 (3): 275–96.

C. F. T. Andrus , D. E. Crowe , D. H. Sandweiss , E. J. Reitz & C. S. Romanek 2002. Otolith δ18O record of Mid-Holocene sea surface temperatures in Peru. Science 295: 1508–11.

D. Fuller , R. Korisettar & P. C. Venkatasubbaiah 2001. Southern Neolithic cultivation systems: a reconsideration based on archaeobotanical evidence. South Asian Studies 17: 149–67.

R. Dickau , A. J. Ranere & R. G. Cooke 2007. Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104: 3651–6.

C. Chang , N. Benecke , F. Grigoriev , A. Rosen & P. Tourtellotte 2003. Iron Age society and chronology in South-east Kazakhstan. Antiquity 77: 298–312.

S. B. Alpern 2005. Did they or didn’t they invent it? Iron in Sub-Saharan Africa. History in Africa 32: 41–94.

B. J. Kemp 1977. The early development of towns in Egypt. Antiquity 51: 185–200.

C. Clarkson , M. Petraglia , R. Korisettar , M. Haslam , N. Boivin , A. Crowther , P. Ditchfield , D. Fuller , P. Miracle , C. Harris , K. Connell , H. James & J. Koshy 2009. The oldest and longest enduring microlithic sequence in India: 35,000 years of modern human occupation and change at the Jwalapuram Locality 9 rockshelter. Antiquity 83: 326–48.

E. Knuth 1952. An outline of the archaeology of Peary Land. Arctic 5 (1): 17–33.

D. Fuller , & L. Qin 2009. Water management and labour in the origins and dispersal of Asian rice. World Archaeology 41 (1): 88–111.

D. A. Freidel 1979. Culture areas and interaction spheres: contrasting approaches to the emergence of civilization in the Maya Lowlands. American Antiquity 44: 36–54.

R. Anttila 1989. Historical and Comparative Linguistics, 2nd rev. ed. John Benjamins: Amsterdam.

D. Ben-Shlomo & Y. Garfinkel 2009. Sha‘ar Hagolan and new Insights on Near Eastern Proto-Historic Urban Concepts. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 28: 189–209.

B. M. Henn , C. Gignoux , A. A. Lin , P. J. Oefner , P. Shen , R. Scozzari , F. Cruciani , S. A. Tishkoff , J. L. Mountain & P. A. Underhill 2008. Y-chromosomal evidence of a pastoralist migration through Tanzania to southern Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 105: 10693–8.

E. Tamm , T. Kivisild , M. Reidla , M. Metspalu , D. G. Smith , C. J. Mulligan , C. M. Bravi , O. Rickards et al. 2007. Beringian standstill and spread of Native American founders. PLoS One 2: e829.

J. Cosford , H. Qing , D. Yuan , M. Zhang , C. Holmden , W. Patterson & C. Hai 2008. Millennial-scale variability in the Asian monsoon: evidence from oxygen isotope records from stalagmites in southeastern China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 266: 3–12.

R. M. Arbogast , S. Jacomet , M. Magny & J. Schibler 2006. The significance of climate fluctuations for lake level changes and shifts in subsistence economy during the late Neolithic (4300–2400 bc) in central Europe. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 15 (4): 403–18.

Y. Chaid-Saoudi , D. Geraads & J-P. Raynal 2006. The fauna and associated artifacts from the Lower Pleistocene site of Mansourah (Constantine, Algeria). Comptes rendus Palevol 5: 963–71.

V. L. Butler & S. K. Campbell 2004. Resource intensification and resource depression in the Pacific Northwest of North America: a zooarchaeological review. Journal of World Prehistory 18 (4): 327–404.

T. N. D’Altroy , C. A. Hastorf & Associates 2002. Empire and Domestic Economy. Kluwer: New York.

I. Datan & P. Bellwood 1991. Recent research at Gua Sireh (Serian) and Lubang Angin (Gunung Mulu National Park), Sarawak. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 10: 386–405.

S. Blau 1999. The people at Sharm: an analysis of the archaeological human skeletal remains. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 10: 190–204.

G. Ficcarelli , M. Coltorti , M. Moreno-Espinosa , P. L. Pieruccini , L. Rook & D. Torre 2003. A model for the Holocene extinction of the mammal megafauna in Ecuador. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 15: 835–45.

Y. Beyene , S. Katoh , G. Woldegabriel W. K. Hart , K. Uto , M. Sudo , M. Kondo , M. Hyodo , P. R. Renne , G. Suwa & B. Asfaw 2013. The characteristics and chronology of the Earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110: 1584–91.

H. Builth , A. P. Kershaw , C. White , A. Roach , L. Hartney , M. McKenzie , T. Lewis & G. Jacobsen 2008. Environmental and cultural change on the Mt Eccles lava-flow landscapes of southwest Victoria. The Holocene 18: 413–24.

M. Belmaker , E. Tchernov , S. Condemi & O. Bar-Yosef 2002. New evidence for hominid presence in the Lower Pleistocene of the Southern Levant. Journal of Human Evolution 43: 43–56.

A. Dutton & P. J. Fasham 1994. Prehistoric copper mining on the Great Orme, Llandudno, Gwynedd. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 60: 245–86.

Z. H. Rosser , T. Zerjal , M. E. Hurles , M. Adojaan , D. Alavantic , A. Amorim , W. Amos , M. Armenteros , E. Arroyo , G. Barbujani , G. Beckman , L. Beckman , et al. 2000. Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language. American Journal of Human Genetics 67: 1526–43.

A. C. D’Andrea & J. Casey 2002. Pearl millet and Kintampo subsistence. African Archaeological Review 19: 147–73.

R. L. Carlson 1960. Chronology and culture change in the San Juan Islands, Washington. American Antiquity 25 (4): 562–86.

M. Domrös & G. Peng 1988. The Climate of China. Springer: Berlin.

R. M. W. Dixon 1972. The Dyirbal Language of North Queensland. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

L. Cordell & F. Plog 1979. Escaping the confines of normative thought: a reevaluation of Puebloan prehistory. American Antiquity 44: 405–29.

J. C. Dombrowski 1970. Preliminary report on excavations in Lalibela and Natchabiet caves, Begemeder. Annales d’Ethiopie 8: 21–9.

K. Brown , C. W. Marean , A. I. R. Herries , Z. Jacobs , C. Tribolo , D. Braun , D. L. Roberts , M. C. Meyer & J. Bernatchez 2009. Fire as an engineering tool of Early Modern Humans. Science 325: 859–62.

H. J. Deacon 1979. Excavations at Boomplaas Cave: a sequence through the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene in South Africa. World Archaeology 10: 241–57.

C. Pardoe 1991. Competing paradigms and ancient human remains: the state of the discipline. Archaeology in Oceania 26: 79–85.

J. Krause , Q. Fu , J. M. Good , B. Viola , M. V. Shunkov , A. P. Derevianko & S. Pääbo 2010b. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia. Nature 464: 894–7.

L. M. Curran & M. Leighton 2000. Vertebrate responses to spatiotemporal variation in seed production of mast-fruiting Dipterocarpaceae. Ecological Monographs 70 (1): 101–28.

A. Assoko Ndong 2002. Synthèse des données archéologiques récentes sur le peuplement à l’Holocène de la réserve de faune de la Lopé, Gabon. L’Anthropologie 106: 135–58.

Z. Alemseged , F. Spoor , W. H. Kimbel , R. Bobe , D. Geraads , D. Reed & J. G. Wynn 2006. A juvenile early hominin skeleton from Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature 443: 296–301.

M. E. Hurles , B. C. Sykes , M. A. Jobling & P. Forster 2005. The dual origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: evidence from maternal and paternal lineages. American Journal of Human Genetics 76: 894–901.

O. Aurenche , P. Galet , E. Régagnon-Caroline & J. Evin 2001. Proto-Neolithic and Neolithic cultures in the Middle East – the birth of agriculture, livestock farming, and ceramics: a calibrated 14C chronology 12,500–5500 cal bc. Radiocarbon 43: 1191–1202.

M. Barazangi & B. L. Isacks 1976. Spatial distribution of earthquakes and subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America. Geology 4: 686–92.

R. Fletcher , D. Penny , D. Evans , C. Pottier , M. Barbetti , M. Kummu , T. Lustig & APSARA. 2008. The water management network of Angkor, Cambodia (research). Antiquity 82 (317): 658–70.

M. L. Sampietro , O. Lao , D. Caramelli , M. Lari , R. Pou , M. Marti , J. Bertranpetit & C. Lalueza-Fox 2007. Palaeogenetic evidence supports a dual model of Neolithic spreading into Europe. Proceedings of Biological Science 274: 2161–7.

O. Bar-Yosef 1998. On the nature of transitions: the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic and the Neolithic Revolution. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 8 (2): 141–63.

M. Intoh 1997. Human dispersal into Micronesia. Anthropological Science 105: 15–28.

B. R. Finney 1994. Voyage of Rediscovery: A Cultural Odyssey through Polynesia. University of California Press: Berkeley.

J. M. Adovasio & R. C. Carlisle 1988. The Meadowcroft Rockshelter. Science 239 (4841): 713–14.

R. M. W. Dixon 1977. A Grammar of Yidi. 1st ed. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

P. Bleed & A. Matsui 2010. Why didn’t agriculture develop in Japan? a consideration of Jomon ecological style, niche construction, and the origins of agriculture. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 17: 356–70.

M. Chazan , H. Ron , A. Matmon , N. Porat , P. Goldberg , R. Yates , G. Avery , A. Sumner & L. K. Horwitz 2008. Radiometric dating of the Earlier Stone Age sequence in Excavation I at Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa: preliminary results. Journal of Human Evolution 55: 1–11.

Z. Alemseged , J. G. Wynn , W. H. Kimbel , D. Reed , D. Geraads & R. Bobe 2005. A new hominin from the Basal member of the Hadar Formation, Dikika, Ethiopia, and its geological context. Journal of Human Evolution 49: 499–514.

O. Bar-Yosef 2004. Eat what is there: hunting and gathering in the world of Neanderthals and their neighbours. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 14: 333–42.

R. Blench 2009. Bananas and plantains in Africa: re-interpreting the linguistic evidence. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 7: 363–80.

A. C. D’Andrea , A. L. Logan & D. J. Watson 2006. Oil palm and prehistoric subsistence in tropical West Africa. Journal of African Archaeology 4 (2): 195–222.

C. Gamba , E. Fernández , M. Tirado , M. F. Deguilloux , M. H. Pemonge , V. Utrilla , M. Edo , M. Molist , R. Rasteiro , L. Chikhi & E. Arroyo-Pardo 2012. Ancient DNA from an Early Neolithic Iberian population supports a pioneer colonization by first farmers. Molecular Ecology 21: 45–56.

M. Rasmussen , X. Guo , Y. Wang , K. E. Lohmueller , S. Rasmussen , A. Albrechtsen , L. Skotte , S. Lindgreen , M. Metspalu , T. Jombart , T. Kivisild , W. Zhai , A. Eriksson , A. Manica , L. Orlando , F. De La Vega , S. Tridico , E. Metspalu , K. Nielsen , M. C. Ávila-Arcos , J. V. Moreno-Mayar , C. Muller , J. Dortch