Skip to main content
China and the Victorian Imagination
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Williams, Laurence and Clark, Steve 2017. Isabella Bird, Victorian globalism, and Unbeaten Tracks in Japan (1880). Studies in Travel Writing, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Jenkins, Melissa Shields 2017. Teaching Victorian Literature in the Twenty-First Century. p. 3.

    Thorpe, Ashley 2016. Performing China on the London Stage. p. 1.

    Thorpe, Ashley 2016. Performing China on the London Stage. p. 51.

    Thorpe, Ashley 2016. Performing China on the London Stage. p. 85.

    Thorpe, Ashley 2016. Performing China on the London Stage. p. 103.

    Peckham, Robert 2016. Anxieties, Fear and Panic in Colonial Settings. p. 369.

    Murray, Chris 2015. Greeks on de Quincey’s Chinese stage: Orientalism, opium warfare, and the ‘Theory of Greek Tragedy’. Classical Receptions Journal, Vol. 7, Issue. 3, p. 314.

    Chang, Elizabeth 2015. The Encyclopedia of Victorian Literature. p. 1.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    China and the Victorian Imagination
    • Online ISBN: 9781139003803
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

What happens to our understanding of 'orientalism' and imperialism when we consider British-Chinese relations during the nineteenth century, rather than focusing on India, Africa or the Caribbean? This book explores China's centrality to British imperial aspirations and literary production, underscoring the heterogeneous, interconnected nature of Britain's formal and informal empire. To British eyes, China promised unlimited economic possibilities, but also posed an ominous threat to global hegemony. Surveying anglophone literary production about China across high and low cultures, as well as across time, space and genres, this book demonstrates how important location was to the production, circulation and reception of received ideas about China and the Chinese. In this account, treaty ports matter more than opium. Ross G. Forman challenges our preconceptions about British imperialism, reconceptualizes anglophone literary production in the global and local contexts, and excavates the little-known Victorian history so germane to contemporary debates about China's 'rise'.


'… an immensely valuable and rewarding piece of scholarship.'

Mia Chen Source: Review 19

'Ross Forman’s China and the Victorian Imagination compellingly exposes China’s critical role in Britain’s imperial self-fashioning … What Forman does exceptionally well - and what is perhaps the most important work of his book - is his careful but firm revision of a concept of Orientalism that has proven increasingly outdated and faulty.'

Shanyn Fiske Source: Journal of British Studies

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Primary sources

Abbott, Charlies Harrie. The Celestials or the Flowery Land: Anglo-Chinese Musical Farce in Two Acts. Lyrics by J. W. Houghton, music by F. Osmond Carr. Licensed October 10, 1898. LCP 53665L.
Ah-Chin-Le [pseud.]. Some Observations upon the Civilization of the Western Barbarians, Particularly the English; Made during a Residence of Some Years in Those Parts. Trans. John Yester Smythe. Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1876.
Airey, Frederick Wilkin Iago. Pidgin Inglis Tails and Others. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1906.
Anti-Slavery in China.” Punch, or The London Charivari 6 (1844): 103.
Armfelt, E.Oriental London.” In George R. Sims, ed., Living London. London: George Cassell and Company, 1902. Vol. i, 81–86.
Attack on a China Mission.” Dir. James Williamson. Williamson Kinematograph Company, 1900.
Banister, Joseph. England under the Jews. London: Joseph Banister, 1901.
Barrère, Albert, and Charles G. Leland. A Dictionary of Slang, Jargon & Cant Embracing English, American, and Anglo-Indian Slang, Pidgin English, Tinkers’ Jargon and Other Irregular Phraseology. Edinburgh: The Ballantyne Press, 1889.
Beck, John B.Infanticide.” In Theodric Romeyn Beck and John B. Beck, eds., Elements of Medical Jurisprudence, 7th edn. London: Longman and Co., 1842. Vol. i, 230.
Becke, Louis. Chinkie’s Flat. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1904.
Beheading of a Chinese Boxer.” Dir. Sagar Mitchell and James Kenyon, 1900. British Film Institute, London.
Beresford, Charles. The Break-up of China with an Account of Its Present Commerce, Currency, Waterway, Armies, Railways, Politics and Future Prospects. London: Harper & Brothers, 1899.
Best for Boys’ Ching-ching’s Own. Edwin Harcourt Burrage, ed. 1–83. September 27, 1890, to April 23, 1892.
Betty [pseud.]. Intercepted Letters: A Mild Satire on Hongkong Society. Hong Kong: Kelly & Walsh, 1905.
Bewicke, Alicia [Mrs. Archibald Little]. Out in China! London: Anthony Treherne, 1902.
Bland, John Otway Percy. Verse and Worse: Selections from Tung Chia [aka Bland]. Shanghai: The Oriental Press, 1902.
The Blind Banker.” Sherlock. Dir. Euros Lyn, perf. Benedict Cumberbatch, Martin Freeman, and Una Stubbs. BBC, August 1, 2010.
Blumenthal, F. C. A Tale of Old China: Entertainment in One Act. St. George’s Hall, Langham Place, April 6, 1875. LCP 53148D.
Boehm, Lise[Elise Williamina Edersheim Giles]. China Coast Tales. 2nd edn. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1898.
Boothby, Guy. Dr. Nikola’s Experiment. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1899.
Boucicault, Dion. Jessie Brown; or The Relief of Lucknow. London: Thomas Hailes Lacy, 1858.
Bowkett, S., and George D. Day. The Willow Pattern Plate: A Comedy Opera in Two Acts. The Marina, Lowestoft. Licensed September 28, 1897. LCP 53639A.
The Boxer Rising: A History of the Boxer Trouble in China. Reprinted from the “Shanghai Mercury.” Shanghai: Shanghai Mercury, 1900.
Brady, S. E.Little Mertens.” The Jewel in the Lotus and Other Stories. Shanghai: The Oriental Press, 1905.
Bramah, Ernest. The Wallet of Kai Lung. London: Grant Richards, 1900.
Brereton, Frederick Sadleir. The Dragon of Pekin: A Tale of the Boxer Revolt. London: Blackie and Son, 1902.
Broadfoot, W. D. Wars in China or the Battles of Chinghae & Amoy. Astley’s Theatre, May 13, 1844. LCP 42975.
Broken Blossoms. Dir. D. W. Griffith, perf. Lillian Gish and Richard Barthlemess. United Artists, 1919.
Burke, Thomas. “The Chink and the Child.” Colour 3.3 (1915): 82–88.
Burke, Thomas. The Ecstasies of Thomas De Quincey, Thomas Burke, ed. London: George G. Harrap, 1928.
Burke, Thomas. “The Hunger for Beauty.” In Essays of Today and Yesterday. London: George G. Harrap & Co., 1928. 9–13.
Burke, Thomas. Limehouse Nights. 1916. London: Daily Express Fiction Library, n.d.
Burke, Thomas. Nights in Town: A London Autobiography. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1915.
Burrage, Edwin Harcourt. Ching-Ching’s Own. 1–118. June 23, 1888, to September 20, 1890.
Burrage, Edwin Harcourt. Handsome Harry of the Belvedere. London: W. Lucas, 1886.
Burrage, Edwin Harcourt. Wonderful Ching-Ching. London: C. Fox, 1885.
Burrage, Edwin Harcourt. Young Ching-Ching. London: C. Fox, 1886.
Chang, Wo [pseud.]. England through Chinese Spectacles: Leaves from the Notebook of Wo Chang. London: Cotton Press, 1897.
Chen, Anna. “The Steampunk Opium Wars.” Perf. February 16, 2012.
Chesney, George Tomkyns. The Dilemma. London: William Blackwood and Son, 1876.
Childers, Erskine. The Riddle of the Sands. London: Smith & Elder, 1903.
China Town in London.” Review of Reviews 22 (July 2, 1900): 51.
The Chinese Exhibition, or the Feast of Lanterns. Licensed December 1844. LCP 42980.
“The Chinese in Europe.” The Times, November 22, 1879. 11e.
The Chinese Junk, or The Maid and the Mandarin in 2 Acts. Britannia Saloon, Hoxton, September 1848. LCP 43013.
Chisholm, J. Marquis. The Great Chang Polka. London: Duff & Hodgson, 1866.
The Chronicle and Directory for China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands India, Borneo, The Philippines, &C. for the Year 1898. Hong Kong: The Daily Press, 1898.
Cohen, G. Manchester. Y’Lang Y’Lang: The Fair Maid of Too Bloo. A Piece of Old China. An Original Nautical Pantomime. Normansfield, Hampton Wick, January 5, 1892. LCP 53518J.
Collingwood, Harry [William Joseph Cosens Lancaster]. A Chinese Command: A Story of Adventure in Eastern Seas. London: Blackie and Son, 1915.
Collins, Wilkie. The Moonstone. 3 vols. London: Tinsley Brothers, 1868.
“Colonial Novels.” Advertisement. South China Morning Post. May 19, 1904: 4e–f.
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. 1898. Ware: Wordsworth Editions, 1995.
Conrad, Joseph. Typhoon. 1902. In Cedric Watts, ed., Typhoon and Other Tales. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Cory, Annie Sophie [Victoria Cross]. Anna Lombard. Gail Cunningham, ed. 1901. London: Continuum, 2006.
Cox, James R. N.Caught and Caged.” Boy’s Own Paper 6.286 (July 5, 1884): 630–632 and 6.287 (July 12, 1884): 649–650.
Croskey, Julian [Charles Welsh Mason]. The Chest of Opium. London: Neville Beeman, 1896.
Croskey, Julian [Charles Welsh Mason]. “One of the Last Legion.” The New Century Review 3.16 (April 1898): 281–289.
Croskey, Julian [Charles Welsh Mason]. “The S. G.”: A Romance of Peking. London: Lamley & Co., 1900.
Croskey, Julian [Charles Welsh Mason]. The Shen’s Pigtail and Other Cues of Anglo-China Life. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1894.
Dalton, William. The Wasps of the Ocean: or, Little Waif and the Pirate of the Eastern Seas. A Romance of Travel and Adventure in China and Siam. London: E. Marlborough & Co., 1864.
Dalziel, James. Chronicles of a Crown Colony. Hong Kong: South China Morning Post, 1907.
Dalziel, James. High Life in the Far East: Short Stories. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1909.
Dalziel, James. In the First Watch and Other Engine-Room Stories. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1907.
Dalziel, James. A Paper on Light Draught Steamers for River Service, with Remarks on Types Suitable for the West River Trade, and Maps, Diagrams, Dimensions of Steamers, Etc. Hong Kong: Kelly & Walsh, 1898.
Dalziel, James. Silver & the Dollar. Hong Kong: Newspaper Enterprise, 1931.
Dance, George. A Chinese Honeymoon: A Musical Play in Two Acts. Music by Howard Talbot. London: Hopwood & Crew, 1902. Hanley, October 16, 1899; Royal Strand Theatre, October 5, 1901.
Dance, George. Program for A Chinese Honeymoon: A Musical Play in Two Acts. Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Danicourt, François-Xavier-Timothée. Infanticide et exposition des enfants en Chine. Amiens: Lemer Ainé, 1863.
Danrit, Capitaine [Émile Augustin Cyprien Driant]. L’invasion jaune. 3 vols. Paris: Ernest Flammarion, 1909.
Danvers, Fred. A Chinese Idyl, or The Lost Ruby. Licensed December 14, 1903. LCP 1903.
Dawe, Alfred. Sen Yamen, or An Overdose of Love. Music by Frederic William Sparrow. Theatre Royal, Rugby, October 7, 1901. LCP 1901/27.
Dawe, William Carlton. The Mandarin. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1899.
Dawe, William Carlton. “A Night in Canton.” In Kakemonos: Tales of the Far East. London: John Lane, 1897. 75–102.
Dawe, William Carlton. The Plotters of Peking. London: Eveleigh Nash, 1907.
Dawe, William Carlton. The Yellow Man. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1900.
De Koven, Reginald, and Larry B. Smith. The Mandarin: A Chinese Comic Opera in Three Acts. Royal Edinburgh, licensed October 21, 1896. LCP 53612C.
Denby, Jay. Letters of a Shanghai Griffin to His Father and Other Exaggerations. Shanghai: The Shanghai Printing Company, 1910.
De Quincey, Thomas. Confessions of an English Opium-Eater. 1821, Alethea Hayter, ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971.
Dickens, Charles. The Mystery of Edwin Drood. London: Chapman and Hall, 1870.
Digges, West. A China Wedding: An Original Mythical Fancy. In One Act. Duke’s, Holborn, May 21, 1877. LCP 53187B.
Dilke, Charles Wentworth. Greater Britain: A Record of Travel in English-Speaking Countries. With Additional Chapters on English Influence in Japan and China and on Hong Kong and the Straits Settlements. 8th edn. London: Macmillan and Co., 1885.
Dolly [Leonard d’Oliver]. The Vampire Nemesis and Other Weird Stories of the China Coast. Bristol: J. W. Arrowsmith, 1905.
Doyle, Arthur Conan. “The Man with the Twisted Lip.” Strand Magazine (1891): 623–637.
Doyle, C. W. The Shadow of Quong Lung. Philadelphia and London: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1900.
Dream Street. Dir. D. W. Griffith, perf. Charles Emmett Mack and Carol Dempster. United Artists, 1921.
Ellis, Henry Havelock. Preface to Henrik Ibsen, The Pillars of Society and Other Plays, ed. Havelock Ellis, trans. William Archer. London: Walter Scott, 1888.
Exhibition of the English in China.” Punch or the London Charivari 7 (1844): 219–222.
Féli-Brugière and Jules Louis Gastine. L’Asie en feu: Le roman de l’invasion jaune. Paris: C. Delagrave, 1904.
Fenn, George Manville. Stan Lynn: A Boy’s Adventures in China. London: W. & R. Chambers, 1902.
Flatau, Dorothea. “Chingie.” In Pong Ho: A Volume of Short Stories. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1924. 265–278.
Foreign Undesirables.” Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine 169 (February 1901): 279–289.
Freemantle, E. A.Prince Tuan’s Treasure.” In Prince Tuan’s Treasure and Other Interesting Tales of the “Boxer Rebellion of 1900”. Vellore: The Record Press, 1911. 1–19.
George, G. H. Grand Pantomime of Harlequin Aladdin and the Lamp; or The Wizard, the Ring, and the Scamp. London: Williams and Strahan, 1873[?].
Ghosh, Amitav. Sea of Poppies. London: John Murray, 2008.
Gilson, Charles. The Lost Column: A Story of the Boxer Rebellion in China. London: Henry Frowde, 1909.
Godfrey, Charles. Chang, the Great Fychow, Galop. London: Duff & Hodgson, 1866.
Graydon, W. Murray. The Perils of Pekin. London: John F. Shaw and Co., 1904.
The Great Wall of China. Criterion Theatre, April 8, 1876. LCP 53165G.
Greenwood, James. In Strange Company: Being the Experience of a Roving Correspondent. London: Henry S. King & Co., 1873.
Greey [sic], Edward. Blue Jackets; or, The Adventures of J. Thompson, A.B. among “The Heathen Chinee”: A Nautical Novel. Boston: J. E. Tilton & Co., 1871.
“The Hague Convention (I) for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes (Hague 1) 29 July 1899.” The Avalon Project, Yale University,
Hale, William Palmer, and Francis Talfourd. The Mandarin’s Daughter! Being the Simple Story of the Willow-Pattern Plate. London: Thomas Lacy, 1851.
Hall, Owen. The Geisha; A Story of a Tea House: A Japanese Musical Play. Music by Sidney Jones, lyrics by Harry Greenbank. London: Hopwood & Crew, 1897.
Hand, Thomas William, and Walter Teale. The Conquest of Mexico and Death of Montezuma: A Pyro-Spectacular Drama. Ottowa: T. W. Hand Firework Co., 1903.
Hand, Thomas William and Walter Teale. Hand and Teales’ [sic] Pyro-Spectacular Drama, The Bombardment of Pekin, By the British and French. Time 1860. N.p.: Thomas William Hand and Walter Teale, 1899.
Hand, Thomas William and Walter Teale. Hand and Teale’s Spectacular Drama of “The Relief at Lucknow”: An Original, Outdoor, Military Spectacle, Designed to Exhibit New Pyrotechnic, Scenic and Spectacular Effects. N.p.: Thomas William Hand and Walter Teale, 1895.
Hart, Robert. “These from the Land of Sinim”: Essays on the Chinese Question. London: Chapman & Hall, 1901.
Henty, George Alfred. By Conduct and Courage. London: Blackie & Son, 1905.
Henty, George Alfred. In Times of Peril: A Tale of India. London: Griffith and Farran, 1881.
Henty, George Alfred. With the Allies to Pekin. London: Blackie and Son, 1904.
High Life in the Far East.” Bookman 36 (Spring 1909): Supplement 2.
Holcomb, Willard. Kin Fu or the Pursuit of Happiness: An Oriental Comedy Opera in Three Acts. Licensed for Victoria Hall, November 30, 1903. LCP 1903/29.
Hood, Basil. The Willow Pattern: Comic Operetta in Two Episodes. Music by Cecil Cook. London: Chappell & Co., [1901].
Huberich, Charles Henry. “The Commercial Law of Ceylon, Straits Settlements, Federated Malay States, Johore, Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, Trengganu, North Borneo, Brunei, Sarawak, Hongkong, Weihaiwai, and Cyprus.” In The Commercial Laws of the World Comprising the Mercantile, Bills of Exchange, Bankruptcy and Maritime Laws of All Civilized Nations. Vol. xvi: British Dominions and Protectorates in Asia. William Bowstead, ed. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1912. 266–652.
Hughes, R. M. The Laws Relating to Lascars and Asiatic Seamen Employed in the British Merchants’ Service, or Brought to the United Kingdom in Foreign Vessels. London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1855.
Hume, Fergus. Mother Mandarin. London: F. V. White & Co., Ltd., 1912.
Hume, Fergus.. The Mystery of a Hansom Cab. London: Hansom Cab Publishing Co., 1888.
Hunter, Harry [George W. Hunt]. The Nigger Chinee, or His Pigtail Wouldn’t Grow. London: J. A. Turner, 1877.
Hunter, William. 1904: A Research into Epidemic and Epizootic Plague. Hong Kong: Noronha & Co., 1904.
Ibsen, Henrik. The Pillars of Society and Other Plays, ed. Henry Havelock Ellis, trans. William Archer. London: Walter Scott, 1888.
Jerrold, William Blanchard. London: A Pilgrimage. Ill. Gustave Doré. London: Grant & Co., 1872.
Johnson, Henry T. Alone in China. Licensed June 15, 1904 for Alexandra, Birmingham; Brixton, June 20, 1904.
King, Paul. In the Chinese Customs Service: A Personal Record of Forty-Seven Years. London: T. Fisher Unwin Ltd., 1924.
Kipling, Rudyard. Kim. London: Macmillan, 1901.
Kohr, Herbert Ornando. The Escort of an Emperor; A Story of China during the Great Boxer Movement. Akron[?], OH: no pub., 1910.
Le, Ah-Chin. Some Observations upon the Civilization of the Western Barbarians, Particularly the English; Made during a Residence of Some Years in Those Parts, trans. John Yester Smythe. Boston, MA: Lee and Shepard, 1876.
Legge, James. The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copious Indexes. 5 vols. London: Trübner & Co., 1861–1872.
Legge, James. The Texts of Taoism, ed. Max Müller, trans. James Legge. Vol. xxxix and xiv of The Sacred Books of the East. London: Dover, 1891.
Limehouse Nights.” Times Literary Supplement, September 28, 1916: 464.
Littlewood, Kevin. “On Morecambe Bay.” Perf. Christy Moore.
London, Jack. “The Unparalleled Invasion: Excerpt from Walt. Nervin’s Certain Essays in History.” McClure’s Magazine 35 (July 1910): 308–315.
Mackay, Kenneth. The Yellow Wave: A Romance of the Asiatic Invasion of Australia. London: Richard Bentley and Son, 1895.
Mackay, R. F. Quong-Hi: A Farcical Comedy in Three Acts. Perf. Strand. Licensed March 29, 1895. LCP 53571L.
Malthus, Thomas. An Essay on the Principle of Population as It Affects the Future Improvement of Society. 1798; 1803. London: Dent, 1973.
Mandarin’s Ghost. New Hall, Walsingham. Licensed March 31, 1897. LCP 53625H.
Mankell, Henning. The Man from Beijing. Trans. Laurie Thompson. London: Vintage, 2011.
Marchant, Bessie. Among Hostile Hordes: A Story of the Tai-ping Rebellion. London: Gall and Inglis, 1901.
Marriott, J. A. R.The Imperial Note in Victorian Poetry.” Nineteenth Century 48.282 (August 1900): 236–248.
Marsh, Richard. The Beetle. London: Skeffington & Son, 1897.
Marsh, Richard. The Joss: A Reversion. London: F. V. White, 1901.
Martin, W. A. P. The Siege in Peking: China against the World. Edinburgh: Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier, 1900.
Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. On Colonialism. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1960.
Medhurst, Walter Henry. “The Chinese as Colonists.” Nineteenth Century 4.19 (September 1878): 517–527.
Medhurst, Walter Henry. The Foreigner in Far Cathay. London: Edward Stanford, 1872.
Metcalfe, W. C. Pigtails and Pirates: A Tale of the Sea. London: Blackie and Son, 1908.
Meyners d’Estrey, Guillaume Henry Jean. “L’Émigration Chinoise.” Annales de l’Extrême Orient 2 (1879): 1–5.
Missionary to the Asiatics and Africans.” London City Mission Magazine 42.500 (August 1, 1877): 178.
Mitchell, George. Down in Limehouse. London: Stanley Martin & Co., 1925.
Morris, William. News from Nowhere. 1890. London: Reeves & Turner, 1891.
Morton, John Maddison. Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp; or, Harlequin and the Genie of the Ring: A New Comic Christmas Pantomime. London: Thomas Hailes Lacy, 1856.
Müller, Max, “The Religions of China.” Nineteenth Century 48 (January–July 1900): 373–384, 569–581, 730–742.
“The Murder at Bangkok. British Bluejacket Dismissed.” China Mail. January 20, 1902: 5c.
National Register. October 13, 1813.
Naturalization by Private Act: HOPE, Charles b Macao (East Indies) Act. 1843. HO 45/8909.
News from China. Haymarket, February 9, 1842. LCP 42968.
Norman, Henry. “Our Vacillation in China and Its Consequences.” Nineteenth Century 48.281 (July 1900): 4–16.
Norris, Frank. “The Third Circle.” 1895. The Third Circle. New York: John Lane, 1909. 13–27.
Offenbach, Jacques. Chang-hi-Wang: Operetta in One Act by Offenbach. Trans. and adapted by Frederic Maccabe. Licensed for the Royal Theatre, Birmingham. March 28, 1879. LCP 53216C.
Offenbach, Jacques. Ching-Chow-Hi and a Cracked Piece of China. Trans. and adapted by William Brough and German Reed. Grand Theatre, Islington. August 14, 1865. LCP Ms 1865.53044K.
The Opinions of Mr. Briggs. Hong Kong: South China Morning Post, 1904.
Orwell, George. “Shooting an Elephant.” 1936. In Saros Cowasjee, ed. The Oxford Anthology of Raj Stories. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998. 281–287.
“Our Library Table.” Athenæum no. 4170 (September 28, 1907): 366.
Payn, James. By Proxy. London: Chatto and Windus, 1878.
Peggs, James. India’s Cries to British Humanity, Relative to the Suttee, Infanticide, British Connexion with Idolatry, Ghaut Murders, and Slavery in India. 2nd edn. London: Seely & Son, 1830.
Ramsey, Alicia, and Rudolph de Cordova. The Mandarin: A New and Original Melodrama in Five Acts. Grand Theatre, Islington. Licensed March 7, 1901. LCP 1901/7.
Ray, Ilett. The Yellow Dread: An Oriental Melo Drama in Four Acts [aka The Yellow Terror]. Masonic Hall, Wimbledon. Licensed November 16, 1903. LCP 1903/27.
“Report on Mrs. Robinson’s Allegation re Chinamen.” 1911. HO 45/11843/18.
Review of In the First Watch. Academy 73 (September 28, 1907): 953.
Ridge, J. James. Ki-Ling of Hankow: A Chinese Dramatic Incident. London: John Kempster, 1870.
Rivers, William A. [Veronica and Paul King]. Anglo-Chinese Sketches. London: S. R. Menheneott, 1903.
Rohmer, Sax [Arthur Sarsfield Ward]. The Devil Doctor: Hitherto Unpublished Adventures in the Career of the Mysterious Dr. Fu-Manchu. London: Methuen & Co., 1916.
Rohmer, Sax [Arthur Sarsfield Ward]. Dope: A Story of Chinatown and the Drug Traffic. London: Cassell and Company Ltd., 1919.
Rohmer, Sax [Arthur Sarsfield Ward]. The Yellow Claw. London: Methuen & Co., 1915.
Rowe, Richard. Picked up in the Streets, or Struggles for Life amongst the London Poor. London: W. H. Allen and Co., 1880.
Rube in an Opium Joint.” American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, 1905. Library of Congress FLA 3818.
Ryan, William Burke. Infanticide: Its Law, Prevalence, Prevention, and History. London: J. Churchill, 1862.
Salmon, Edward. The Literature of the Empire. London: W. Collins Sons, 1924. Vol. xi of Hugh Gunn, ed., The British Empire: A Survey in 12 Volumes – Each Self-Contained.
Sedgwick, S[idney] N[ewman]. The Last Persecution. London: Grant Richards, 1909.
Serjeant, Constancia. A Tale of Red Pekin. London: Marshall Brothers, 1902.
Shiel, Matthew Phipps. The Dragon. London: Grant Richards, 1913.
Shiel, Matthew Phipps. The Purple Cloud. London: Chatto & Windus, 1901.
Shiel, Matthew Phipps. The Yellow Danger. London: Grant Richards, 1898.
Shiel, Matthew Phipps. The Yellow Wave. London: Ward, Lock, & Co., 1905.
Sims, George R. How the Poor Live, and Horrible London. London: Chatto & Windus, 1889.
Sims, George R.Li Ting of London.” In Li Ting of London and Other Stories. London: Chatto & Windus, 1905. 7–23.
Sims, George R.The Romance of Reality.” The Mysteries of Modern London. London: C. Pearson Ltd., 1906. 164–165.
Sims, George R.Trips about Town: V. In Limehouse and the Isle of Dogs.” Strand Magazine 30.175 (July 1905): 35–40.
Snell, Henry. The Foreigner in England: An Examination of the Problem of Alien Immigration. Keighley: The Rydal Press, 1904.
Stocqueler, Joachim Hayward. The Bombardment & Capture of Canton: A New & Grand Spectacle Founded upon Events in the Present War in China. In Two Acts. To be perform’d at Astley’s Royal Ampitheatre on Easter Monday, April 3rd, 1858. LCP 52973H.
Sui Sin Far [Edith Maude Eaton]. Mrs. Spring Fragrance and Other Writings, ed. Amy Ling and Annette White-Parks. Urbana, Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1995.
Sun Yat-Sen. Kidnapped in London: Being the Story of My Capture by, Detention at, and Release from the Chinese Legation, London. Bristol: J. W. Arrowsmith, 1897.
Tanner, Dr. The Chinese Mother: A Drama. London: Richardson and Son, 1857.
Tanner, Dr. The Foundling of Sebastapol. London: Burns, Lambert & Oates, [1867].
Taylor, Philip Meadows. Seeta. London: Kegan Paul & Co., 1872.
Tennyson, Alfred. “The Defence of Lucknow.” 1880. In Elleke Boehmer, ed., Empire Writing: An Anthology of Colonial Writing, 1870–1918. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. 59–63.
Thomson, John. Through China with a Camera. London: A. Constable & Co., 1898.
Tupper, Edward. Seamen’s Torch: The Life Story of Captain Edward Tupper, National Union of Seamen. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1938.
Tyler, Henry Whatley. Questions of the Day. No 1. Indian Revenue from Indian Opium; Chinese Money at the Expense of Chinese Life; British Honour or British Disgrace; Questions Which Should Be Considered in the Treaty to Be Concluded with China. London: James Ridgway, 1857.
Verner, W. J. Harlequin and the Willow Pattern Plate: The Four Corners of the Globe out on the Spree. A Pantomime Sketch. Queen’s, October 5, 1860. LCP 52995V.
Wade, George A.The Cockney John Chinaman.” The English Illustrated Magazine 23 (July 1900): 301–307.
Westerman, Percy F. When East Meets West: A Story of the Yellow Peril. London: Blackie and Son, 1913.
Westermarck, Edward. The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas. Vol. ii. London: Macmillan and Co., 1908.
Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray. 1890. London: Penguin Books, 2003.
Wilkinson, Isaac. Ching-a-ma-ree: An Original Fairy Tale. Music by Jacques Greebe. Brighton: I. Wilkinson, 1884.
Winn, Robert S.A Chinese Adventure.” In Alfred H. Miles, ed., Fifty-Two Stories of Greater Britain. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1901. 412–420.
Wong, Chin Foo. “The Chinese in New York.” Cosmopolitan 5 (March–October 1888): 297–231.
Wood, Charles W.In the Night-Watches.” Argosy 65.387 (February 1898): 191–223.
Wright, Arnold, ed. Twentieth Century Impressions of Hongkong, Shanghai, and Other Treaty Ports of China: Their History, People, Commerce, Industries and Resources. London: Lloyd’s Greater Britain Publishing Company, 1908.
The Yarn of the ‘Broker Swell.’China Punch 18 (August 27, 1874): 4.

Secondary sources

Abbas, Ackbar. Hong Kong: Culture and the Politics of Disappearance. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.
Adcock, A. St. John. Gods of Modern Grub Street. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co., 1923.
Aguirre, Robert D.Annihilating the Distance: Panoramas and the Conquest of Mexico, 1822–1848.” Genre 35.2 (2002): 25–53.
Aguirre, Robert D. Informal Empire: Mexico and Central America in Victorian Culture. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2005.
Altick, Richard D. The Shows of London. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1978.
Arata, Stephen. Fictions of Social Loss in the Victorian Fin de Siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Arnold, Dana. “Ambivalent Geographies: The British Concession in Tianjin, China, c.1860–1946.” In Julie F. Codell, ed., Transculturation in British Art, 1770–1930. Farnham: Ashgate, 2012. 143–155.
Arrighi, Giovanni, Takeshi Hamashita, and Mark Selden. “Introduction: The Rise of East Asia in Regional and World Historical Perspectives.” In Giovanni Arrighi, Takeshi Hamashita, and Mark Selden, eds., The Resurgence of East Asia: 500, 150 and 50 Year Perspectives. London: Routledge, 2003. 1–16.
Assael, Brenda. The Circus and Victorian Society. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005. 62–84.
Auerbach, Sascha. Race, Law, and “The Chinese Puzzle” in Imperial Britain. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
Barr, Patricia Miriam. To China with Love: The Lives and Times of Protestant Missionaries in China. London: Secker and Warburg, 1972.
Batchelor, Robert. “Concealing the Bounds: Imagining the British Nation through China.” In Felicity A. Nussbaum, ed., The Global Eighteenth Century. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. 79–92.
Batchelor, Robert. “On the Movement of Porcelains: Rethinking the Birth of Consumer Society as Interactions of Exchange Networks, 1600–1750.” In John Brewer and Frank Trentmann, eds., Consuming Cultures, Global Perspectives: Historical Trajectories, Transnational Exchanges. Oxford: Berg, 2006. 95–121.
Bayly, C. A.The Boxer Uprising and India: Globalizing Myths.” In Robert Bickers, ed., The Boxers, China, and the World. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. 147–155.
Bennett, Geoffrey. Charlie B: A Biography of Admiral Lord Beresford of Metemmeh and Curraghmore. London: Peter Dawnway, 1968.
Berridge, Virginia, and Griffith Edwards. Opium and the People: Opiate Use in Nineteenth-century England. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987.
Bickers, Robert, ed. The Boxers, China, and the World. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.
Bickers, Robert, Britain in China: Community, Culture and Colonialism 1900–1949. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999.
Bickers, Robert, and Christian Henriot, eds. New Frontiers: Imperialism’s New Communities in East Asia, 1842–1953. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000.
Blake, Andrew. “Foreign Devils and Moral Panics: Britain, Asia and the Opium Trade.” In Bill Schwarz, ed., The Expansion of England: Race, Ethnicity and Cultural History. London: Routledge, 1996. 240–249.
“The Blind Banker.” Sherlock, Series 1, episode 2 of 3. BBC One.
Blue, Gregory. “Opium for China: The British Connection.” In Timothy Brook and Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi, eds. Opium Regimes: China, Britain, and Japan, 1839–1952. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000. 31–54.
Boehmer, Elleke. Colonial and Postcolonial Literature: Migrant Metaphors. 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Boyd, Kelly. Manliness and the Boys’ Story Paper in Britain: A Cultural History, 1855–1940. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 123–152.
Brantlinger, Patrick. The Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism, 1830–1914. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988.
Bratton, J. S.British Heroism and the Structure of Melodrama.” In J. S. Bratton, Richard Allen Care, Brendan Gregory, Heidi J. Holder, and Michael Pickering, eds., Acts of Supremacy: The British Empire and the Stage, 1790–1930. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991. 18–61.
Bratton, J. S.Theatre of War: The Crimea on the London Stage 1854–5.” In David Bradby, Louis James, and Bernard Sharratt, eds., Performance and Politics in Popular Drama: Aspects of Popular Entertainment in Theatre, Film and Television 1800–1976. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980. 119–137.
Bratton, J. S., Richard Allen Cave, Brendan Gregory, Heidi J. Holder, and Michael Pickering, eds., Acts of Supremacy: The British Empire and the Stage, 1790–1930. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991.
Bright, Rachel. “‘Irregular Unions’: Alicia Bewicke Little’s A Marriage in China and British–Chinese Relations in the Late-Nineteenth Century.” Schuylkill 5.1 (2002): 38–53.
Bristow, Joseph. Effeminate England: Homoerotic Writing after 1885. Buckingham: Open University Press, 1995.
Bristow, Joseph. Empire Boys: Adventures in a Man’s World. London: HarperCollins Academic, 1991.
British Chinese Online Forums. “Foot ’n’ Mouth – The Yellow Peril.”
Brown, J. B.The Politics of the Poppy: The Society for the Suppression of the Opium Trade, 1874–1916.” Journal of Contemporary History 8.3 (1973): 97–111.
Burrows, Jon. “‘A Vague Chinese Quarter Elsewhere’: Limehouse in the Cinema 1914–36.” Journal of British Cinema and Television 6.2 (2009): 282–301.
Butt, Rudi. “Hong Kong’s First: Newsies in the Nineteenth Century.”
Buzard, James. Disorienting Fiction: The Autoethnographic Work of 19th-Century British Novels. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.
Cameron, Nigel. Barbarians and Mandarins: Thirteen Centuries of Western Travelers in China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.
Casarino, Cesare. Modernity at Sea: Melville, Marx, Conrad in Crisis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002.
Case, Shannon. “Lilied Tongues and Yellow Claws: The Invention of London’s Chinatown, 1915–45.” In Stella Dean, ed., Challenging Modernism: New Readings in Literature and Culture, 1914–45. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002. 17–34.
Cayford, Joanne M.In Search of ‘John Chinaman’: Press Representations of the Chinese in Cardiff, 1906–19.” Llafur: Journal of Welsh History 5.4 (1991): 37–50.
Chakrabarty, Dipesh. Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Chambers, Colin. Black and Asian Theatre in Britain. Abingdon: Routledge, 2011.
Chang, Dong-Shin. “Chinese Sorcerer: Spectacle and Anglo-Chinese Relations.” Conference on “Race, Nation, and the Empire on the Victorian Popular Stage,” University of Lancaster, July 13, 2012.
Chang, Elizabeth Hope. Britain’s Chinese Eye: Literature, Empire and Aesthetics in Nineteenth-century Britain. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010.
Chang, Elizabeth Hope. “‘Eyes of the Proper Almond-Shape’: Blue-and-White China in the British Imaginary, 1823–1883.” Nineteenth Century Studies 19 (2005): 17–34.
Chen, Anna. “The Triumph and Turmoil of Niall Ferguson’s Obsession with China.”, March 13, 2010.
Chen, Jeng-Guo S.The British View of Chinese Civilization and the Emergence of Class Consciousness.” Eighteenth Century 45.2 (2004): 193–206.
Chen, Tina. “‘Dissecting the ‘Devil Doctor’: Stereotype and Sensationalism in Sax Rohmer’s Fu Manchu.” In Josephine Lee, Imogene L. Lim, and Yuko Matsukawa, eds., Re/collecting Early Asian America: Essay in Cultural History. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2002. 228–237.
Cheng, W. K.Constructing Cathay: John Macgowan, Cultural Brokerage, and Missionary Knowledge of China.” Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 12.2 (2002): 269–290.
Clarke, I. F. Voices Prophesying War: Future Wars, 1763–1984. 2nd edn. London: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Clifford, Nicholas J. “A Truthful Impression of the Country”: British and American Travel Writing in China, 1880–1949. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001.
Cohen, Matthew Isaac. Performing Otherness: Java and Bali on International Stages, 1905–1952. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Cohen, Paul A. History in Three Keys: The Boxers as Event, Experience, and Myth. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
Cook, James A.Reimagining China: Xiamen, Overseas Chinese, and a Transnational Modernity.” In Madeline Yue Dong and Joshua L. Goldstein, eds., Everyday Modernity in China. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2006. 156–194.
Cooper, Frederick, and Ann Laura Stoler. “Between Metropole and Colony: Rethinking a Research Agenda.” In Frederick Cooper and Ann Laura Stoler, eds., Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. 1–56.
Deans, Jason. “Sherlock on the Case with 6.4 Million.” Guardian. August 2, 2010.
Dunch, Ryan. Fuzhou Protestants and the Making of a Modern China, 1857–1927. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001.
Dupée, Jeffrey N. British Travel Writers in China – Writing Home to a British Public, 1890–1914. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2004.
Elliott, Jane E. Some Did It for Civilisation, Some Did It for Their Country: A Revised View of the Boxer War. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2002.
Elliott, Valerie, and Philip Webster. “Smuggled Meat Blamed for Epidemic.” Times. March 27, 2001. 1.
Engardio, Peter, ed. Chindia: How China and India Are Revolutionizing Global Business. New York: McGraw Hill, 2007.
Esherick, Joseph W.Modernity and Nation in the Chinese City.” In Joseph W. Esherick, ed., Remaking the Chinese City: Modernity and National Identity, 1900–1950. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2000. 1–16.
Esherick, Joseph W. The Origins of the Boxer Uprising. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
“The Ethnic Population of Britain Broken Down by Local Authority.” Guardian. May 18, 2011.
Faulkner, David. “The Confidence Man: Empire and the Deconstruction of Muscular Christianity in The Mystery of Edwin Drood.” In Donald E. Hall, ed., Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. 175–193.
Ferguson, Niall. China: Triumph and Turmoil. Dir. Adrian Pennink. Chimerica Media and Educational Broadcasting Corporation for Channel 4, 2012.
Ferguson. Niall. Civilisation: The West and the Rest. London: Allen Lane, 2011.
Ferguson. Niall. Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire. London: Penguin, 2004.
Ferguson. Niall. “Get Ready to Be a Slave in China’s World Order.”
Ferguson. Niall. “In China’s Orbit.” Wall Street Journal. November 18, 2010.
Ferguson. Niall. “Letters: Watch This Man.” London Review of Books 33.23. December 1, 2011. 4.
Firpo, Christina. “Crises of Whiteness and Empire in Colonial Indochina: The Removal of Abandoned Eurasian Children from the Vietnamese Milieu, 1890–1956.” Journal of Social History 43.3 (2010): 587–613.
Fiske, Shanyn. “Orientalism Reconsidered: China and the Chinese in Nineteenth-century Literature and Victorian Studies.” Literature Compass 8.4 (2011): 214–226.
Fleming, Peter. The Siege at Peking. 1959. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Forman, Ross G.Eating out East: Representing Chinese Food in Victorian Travel Literature and Journalism.” In Julia Kuehn and Douglas Kerr, eds., A Century of Travels in China: A Collection of Critical Essays on Travel Writing from the 1840s to the 1940s. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2007. 63–73.
Frank, Andre Gunder. ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
Franklin, J. Jeffrey. The Lotus and the Lion: Buddhism and the British Empire. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2008.
Gagnier, Regenia. “Evolution and Information, or Eroticism and Everyday Life, in Dracula and Late Victorian Aestheticism.” In Regina Barreca, ed., Sex and Death in Victorian Literature. London: Macmillan, 1990. 140–157.
Gallagher, Catherine. “Floating Signifiers of Britishness in the Novels of the Anti-Slave-Trade Squadron.” In Wendy S. Jacobson, ed., Dickens and the Children of Empire. London: Palgrave, 2000. 78–93.
Gallagher, John, and Ronald Robinson. “The Imperialism of Free Trade.” 1953. In William Roger Louis, ed., Imperialism: The Robinson and Gallagher Controversy. New York: New Viewpoints, 1976. 53–72.
Girandot, Norman J. The Victorian Translation of China: James Legge’s Oriental Pilgrimage. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
Gould, Marty. Nineteenth-century Theatre and the Imperial Encounter. Abingdon: Routledge, 2011.
Griffiths, Alison. “‘Shivers Down Your Spine’: Panoramas and the Origins of the Cinematic Reenactment.” Screen 44.1 (2003): 1–37.
Hall, Catherine. “‘A Jamaica of the Mind’ 1820–1854.” In Civilising Subjects: Metropole and Colony in the English Imagination, 1830–1867. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. 174–208.
Hampson, Robert. Cross-Cultural Encounters in Joseph Conrad’s Malay Fiction. London: Palgrave, 2000.
Hanan, Patrick. “The Missionary Novels of Nineteenth-century China.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 60.2 (2000): 413–443.
Hardy, Steven Ralph. “Expatriate Writers, Expatriate Readers: English-Language Fiction Published along the China Coast in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries.” Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2003.
Harris, Charles Alexander, rev. T. G. Otte. “Medhurst, Sir Walter Henry.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, January 2008,
Harris, Paul, and Anthony Browne. “Smuggled Meat Threatens UK with Catastrophic Viruses.” Guardian, April 1, 2001,
Hayot, Eric. “Chinese Bodies, Chinese Futures: Nationalism and Its Discontents.” Representations 99 (2007): 99–129.
Hayot, Eric. The Hypothetical Mandarin: Sympathy, Modernity, and Chinese Pain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Hayter, Althea. Opium and the Romantic Imagination. London: Faber & Faber, 1968.
Hevia, James L. Cherishing Men from Afar: Qing Guest Ritual and the Macartney Embassy of 1793. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995.
Hevia, James L. English Lessons: The Pedagogy of Imperialism in Nineteenth-century China. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003.
Hevia, James L.Looting and Its Discontents: Moral Discourse and the Plunder of Beijing, 1900–1901.” In Robert Bickers, ed., The Boxers, China, and the World. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. 93–114.
Hitchens, Peter. “Brown’s Chinese Restaurant Lie.” Daily Mail. April 15, 2001.
Hoad, Neville. “Arrested Development or the Queerness of Savages: Resisting Evolutionary Narratives of Difference.” Postcolonial Studies 3.2 (2000): 133–158.
Hockx, Michel. Questions of Style: Literary Societies and Literary Journals in Modern China 1911–1937. Leiden: Brill, 2003.
Höglund, Johan A.Mobilising the Novel: The Literature of Imperialism and the First World War.” PhD thesis, University of Uppsala, 1997.
Holden, Philip. Modern Subjects/Colonial Texts: Hugh Clifford and the Discipline of English Literature in the Straits Settlements and Malaya 1895–1907. Greensboro: ELT Press/University of North Carolina, 2000.
Holder, Heidi J.Melodrama, Realism and Empire on the British Stage.” In J. S. Bratton, Richard Allen Cave, Brendan Gregory, Heidi J. Holder, and Michael Pickering, eds., Acts of Supremacy: The British Empire and the Stage, 1790–1930. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991. 129–149.
Holmes, Colin. “The Chinese Connection.” In Colin Holmes and Geoffrey Alderman, eds., Outsiders and Outcasts: Essays in Honour of William J. Fishman. London: Duckworth, 1993. 71–93.
Holmes, Colin., ed. Immigrants and Minorities in British Society. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1978.
Holmes, Colin. John Bull’s Island: Immigration and British Society, 1871–1971. London: Macmillan Education, 1988.
Holmes, Colin, and Geoffrey Alderman, eds. Outsiders and Outcasts: Essays in Honour of William J. Fishman. London: Duckworth, 1993.
Hook, Leslie, and Jonathan Soble. “China’s Rare Earth Stranglehold in Spotlight.” Financial Times. March 13, 2012.
Hsia, Adrian, ed. The Vision of China in the English Literature of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1998.
Insley, Jill. “A Working Life: The Gangmaster.” Guardian. July 29, 2011.
The Institution of Mechanical Engineers List of Members 1st May 1929. London: Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1929.
Johnson, Matthew D.‘Journey to the seat of war’: The International Exhibition of China in Early Cinema.” Journal of Chinese Cinemas 3.2 (2009): 109–122.
Jolly, Roslyn. “Piracy, Slavery, and the Imagination of Empire in Stevenson’s Pacific Fiction.” Victorian Literature and Culture 35 (2007): 157–173.
Joshi, Priya. “Globalizing Victorian Studies.” The Yearbook of English Studies 41.2 (2011): 20–40.
Joshi, Priya. In Another Country: Colonialism, Culture, and the English Novel in India. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.
Keeton, G. W. Extraterritoriality in China. Vol. i. London: Longman, Green and Co., 1928.
Kennedy, Dane. “Imperial History and Post-colonial Theory.” The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 24.3 (1996): 345–363.
Kepley, Jr., Vance. “Griffith’s ‘Broken Blossoms’ and the Problem of Historical Specificity.” Quarterly Review of Film Studies 3.1 (1978): 37–47.
Kerr, Douglas, and Julia Kuehn, eds. A Century of Travels in China: A Collection of Critical Essays on Travel Writing from the 1840s to the 1940s. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2007.
Kohn, Marek. Dope Girls: The Birth of the British Drug Underground. London: Granta, 1992.
Koven, Seth. Slumming: Sexual and Social Politics in Victorian London. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004. 88–139.
Lane, Christopher. The Ruling Passion: British Colonial Allegory and the Paradox of Homosexual Desire. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995.
Leask, Nigel. Romantic Writers and the East: Anxieties of Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Lee, Ho Yin, and Lynne DiStefano. “Chinese-Built Western Towers: The Hyper-Tradition of the Overseas Chinese’s Fortified Towers in the Cantonese Counties of Kaiping and Taishan.” Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments 18.1 (2006): 27–28.
Lee, James Z., and Wang Feng. One Quarter of Humanity: Malthusian Mythology and Chinese Realities, 1700–2000. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Lee, Josephine. The Japan of Pure Invention: Gilbert and Sullivan’s The Mikado. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2010.
Lee, Josephine, Imogene L. Lim, and Yuko Matsukawa, eds. Re/collecting Early Asian America: Essays in Cultural History. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2002.
Lee, Leo Ou-Fan. “Literary Trends: The Quest for Modernity, 1895–1927.” In Merle Goldman and Leo Ou-Fan Lee, eds., An Intellectual History of Modern China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 142–195.
Lee, Leo Ou-Fan. Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Lesage, Julia. “Broken Blossoms: Artful Racism, Artful Rape.” Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Cinema 26 (1981): 51–55.
Levine, Philippa. Prostitution, Race, and Politics: Policing Venereal Disease in the British Empire. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Li, Xiaobing. “Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864).” In Xiaobing Li, ed., China at War: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2012. 440–442.
Lin, Dong Ning. “Power and Representation in Victorian Discourse on China.” Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Maryland, 1994.
Liu, Lydia H. The Clash of Empires: The Invention of China in Modern World Making. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.
Lodwick, Kathleen L. Crusaders against Opium: Protestant Missionaries in China, 1874–1917. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995.
Lovell, Julia. The Great Wall: China against the World, 1000 bcad 2000. London: Atlantic, 2006.
Lovell, Julia. The Opium War: Drugs, Dreams and the Making of China. London: Picador, 2011.
, Yixu. “German Colonial Fiction on China: The Boxer Uprising of 1900.” German Life and Letters 59.1 (2006): 78–100.
Lye, Colleen. America’s Asia: Racial Form and American Literature, 1893–1945. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.
McAllister, Susan Fleming. “Between Romantic Revolution and Victorian Propriety: The Cultural Work of British Missionary Narratives.” Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Oregon, 1997.
McClintock, Anne. Imperial Leather. London: Routledge, 1994.
McDonagh, Josephine. Child Murder and British Culture, 1720–1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
McDonagh, Josephine. “Infanticide and the Boundaries of Culture from Hume to Arnold.” In Susan C. Greenfield and Carol Barash, eds., Inventing Maternity: Politics, Science, and Literature, 1650–1865. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1999. 215–237.
McDonagh, Josephine. “Opium and the Imperial Imagination.” In Philip W. Martin and Robin Jarvis, eds., Reviewing Romanticism. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992. 116–133.
MacNair, Harley Fransworth. The Chinese Abroad: Their Position and Protection: A Study in International Law and Relations. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1924.
Marez, Curtis. Drug Wars: The Political Economy of Narcotics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004.
Marez, Curtis. “The Other Addict: Oscar Wilde’s Opium Smoke Screen.” ELH 64.1 (1997): 257–287.
Marinelli, Maurizio. “Making Concessions in Tianjin: Heterotopia and Italian Colonialism in Mainland China.” Urban History 36.3 (2009): 399–425.
Markley, Robert. The Far East and the English Imagination, 1600–1730. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Markovits, Claude. “Indian Communities in China, c. 1842–1949.” In Robert Bickers and Christian Henriot, eds., New Frontiers: Imperialism’s New Communities in East Asia, 1842–1953. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000. 55–74.
Markus, Andrew. Fear and Hatred: Purifying Australia and California 1850–1901. Sydney: Hale & Iremonger, 1979.
May, J. P.The Chinese in Britain.” In Colin Holmes, ed., Immigrants and Minorities in British Society. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1978. 111–124.
Millett, Fred B.Thomas Burke.” In John M. Manly and Edith Rocker, eds., Contemporary British Literature: A Critical Survey and 232 Author-Bibliographies. 3rd edn. London: George G. Harrap & Co., 1935. 160.
Milligan, Barry. Pleasures and Pains: Opium and the Orient in Nineteenth-century British Culture. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995.
Mishra, Pankaj. “Letters: Watch This Man.” London Review of Books 33.23. December 1, 2010. 4.
Mommsen, Wolfgang J., and Jürgen Osterhammel, eds. Imperialism and After: Continuities and Discontinuities. London: German Historical Institute/Allen & Unwin, 1986.
Mukherjee, Pablo. “Introduction: Victorian World Literatures.” The Yearbook of English Studies 41.2 (2011): 1–19.
Mungello, D. E. The Great Encounter of China and the West, 1500–1800. 2nd edn. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.
Ng, Kwee Choo. The Chinese in London. London: Institute of Race Relations/Oxford University Press, 1968.
Nicoll, Allardyce. English Drama 1900–1930: The Beginnings of the Modern Period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973.
Nicoll, Allardyce. A History of English Drama 1660–1900, 2nd edn., 5 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959.
Northcott, Richard. Jacques Offenbach: A Sketch of His Life and a Record of His Operas. London: The Press Printers, 1917.
O’Connor, Erin. “Preface for a Post-Postcolonial Criticism.” Victorian Studies 45.2 (2003): 217–246.
Office of National Statistics (UK). “Population Estimates by Ethnic Group, 2002–2009.” May 18, 2011.
Osterhammel, Jürgen. “Britain and China, 1842–1914.” In Andrew Porter and Alaine Low, eds., The Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. 146–169. Vol. III of The Oxford History of the British Empire.
Osterhammel, Jürgen. “Semi-Colonialism and Informal Empire in Twentieth-Century China: Towards a Framework of Analysis.” In Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Jürgen Osterhammel, eds., Imperialism and After: Continuities and Discontinuities. London: German Historical Institute/Allen & Unwin, 1986. 290–314.
Otis, Laura. Membranes: Metaphors of Invasion in Nineteenth-century Literature, Science and Politics. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd edn. Rev. March 2009.
Pagani, Catherine. “Objects and the Press: Images of China in Nineteenth-century Britain.” In Julie Codell, ed., Imperial Co-histories: National Identities and the British Colonial Press. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2003. 147–166.
Panikos, Panayi. Immigration, Ethnicity and Racism in Britain, 1815–1945. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994.
Parssinen, Terry M. Secret Passions, Secret Remedies: Narcotic Drugs in British Society, 1820–1930. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1983.
Pickering, Michael. “Mock Blacks and Racial Mockery: The ‘Nigger’ Minstrel and British Imperialism.” In J. S. Bratton, Richard Allen Care, Brendan Gregory, Heidi J. Holder, and Michael Pickering, eds., Acts of Supremacy: The British Empire and the Stage, 1790–1930. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991. 179–236.
Pomeranz, Kenneth. The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.
Pomeranz, Kenneth. “Without Coal? Colonies? Calculus?” In Philip E. Tetlock, Richard Ned Lebow, and Geoffrey Parker, eds., Unmaking the West: “What-If” Scenarios that Rewrite World History. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006. 241–276.
Porter, Bernard. The Absent-minded Imperialists: Empire, Society and Culture in Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Porter, Bernard. The Lion’s Share: A Short History of British Imperialism 1850–1995. 3rd edn. London: Longman, 1996.
Porter, David. “Historicizing the History of Chinese Literature.” Unpublished paper, Inter-Asian Connections III, University of Hong Kong, June 8, 2012.
Porter, David. Ideographia: The Chinese Cipher in Early Modern Europe. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001.
Porter, David. “Power|Play: China’s Empress Dowager.”
Proschan, Frank. “Eunuch Mandarins, Soldats Mamzelles, Effeminate Boys, and Graceless Women: French Colonial Constructions of Vietnamese Genders.” GLQ 8.4 (2002): 435–468.
Reinders, Eric. Borrowed Gods and Foreign Bodies: Christian Missionaries Imagine Chinese Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
Richards, Grant. Author Hunting by an Old Literary Sportsman: Memories of Years Spent Mainly in Publishing. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1934.
Richards, Thomas. The Imperial Archive: Knowledge and the Fantasy of Empire. London: Verso, 1993.
Robbins, Liz, and Jeffrey E. Singer. “A Delicacy on Chinatown Plates, but a Killer in Water.” New York Times. April 29, 2011.
Robinson, Ronald. “The Excentric Idea of Imperialism, with or without Empire.” In Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Jürgen Osterhammel, eds., Imperialism and After: Continuities and Discontinuities. London: German Historical Institute/Allen & Unwin, 1986. 267–289.
Rollington, Ralph [H. J. Allingham]. A Brief History of Boys’ Journals, with Interesting Facts about the Writers of Boys’ Stories. Leicester: H. Simpson, 1913.
Schmitt, Cannon. Alien Nation: Nineteenth-century Gothic Fictions and English Nationality. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.
Schneer, Jonathan. London 1900: The Imperial Metropolis. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.
Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.
Seed, John. “Limehouse Blues: Looking for Chinatown in the London Docks, 1900–40.” History Workshop Journal 62 (2006): 58–85.
Seitler, Dana. Atavistic Tendencies: The Culture of Science in American Modernity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.
Sharp, Patrick B. Savage Perils: Racial Frontiers and Nuclear Apocalypse in American Culture. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007.
Sharpe, Jenny. Allegories of Empire: The Figure of Woman in the Colonial Text. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.
Spence, Jonathan. The Chan’s Great Continent. New York: Norton, 1998.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Toward a History of the Vanishing Present. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. “Three Women’s Texts and a Critique of Imperialism.” In Henry Louis Gates, Jr., ed., “Race,” Writing and Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.
Stanley, Joaquim. “Opium and Edwin Drood: Fantasy, Reality and What the Doctors Ordered.” Dickens Quarterly 21.1 (2004): 12–27.
Stoler, Ann Laura. Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Race and the Intimate in Colonial Rule. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
Suleri, Sara. The Rhetoric of English India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Sweet, Matthew. Inventing the Victorians. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2001.
Tambling, Jeremy. “Opium, Wholesale, Resale, and for Export: On Dickens and China.” Dickens Quarterly 21.1 (2004): 28–43 and 21.2 (2004): 104–113.
Taylor, Jeremy E.The Bund: The Littoral Space of Empire in the Treaty Ports of East Asia.” Social History 27.2 (2002): 125–142.
Tchen, John Kuo Wei. “Quimbo Appo’s Fear of the Fenians: Chinese–Irish–Anglo Relations in New York City.” In Ronald H. Bayor and Timothy Meagher, eds., The New York Irish. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. 125–152.
Teng, Emma Jinhua. “Artifacts of a Lost City: Arnold Genthe’s Pictures of Old Chinatown and Its Intertexts.” In Josephine Lee, Imogene L. Lim, and Yuko Matsukawa, eds., Re/collecting Early Asian America: Essays in Cultural History. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2002. 54–77.
Teng, Emma Jinhua. “Miscegenation and the Critique of Patriarchy in Turn-of-the-Century Fiction.” Race, Gender & Class 4.3 (1997): 69–87.
Teng, Ssu-yü, and John K. Fairbank, eds., China’s Response to the West: A Documentary Survey, 1839–1923. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1954.
“Thomas Burke.” Obituary. Times. September 24, 1945. 7d.
Thompson, Steve. “The Blind Banker.” BBC Writers Room.
Thurin, Susan Schoenbauer. “China in Dickens.” Dickens Quarterly 8.3 (1991): 99–111.
Thurin, Susan Schoenbauer.. ed. The Far East. Vol. iv of Nineteenth-Century Travels, Explorations and Empires: Writings from the Era of Imperial Consolidation 1830–1910. London: Pickering & Chatto, 2003.
Thurin, Susan Schoenbauer. Victorian Travelers and the Opening of China, 1842–1907. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1999.
“Tinwald Churchyard Inscriptions.”
Topham, Gwyn. “Tourism Bosses Say Visa Red Tape – and Cost – Are Putting off Chinese Visitors.” Guardian, August 17, 2012.
Turnbull, C. Mary. “Hong Kong: Fragrant Harbour, City of Sin and Death.” In Robin W. Winks and James R. Rush, eds., Asia in Western Fiction. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990. 117–136.
Van Ash, Cay, and Elizabeth Sax Rohmer. Master of Villainy: A Biography of Sax Rohmer. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Press Popular Press, 1972.
Volz, Yong Z., and Chin-Chuan Lee. “Semi-colonialism and Journalistic Sphere of Influence.” Journalism Studies 12.5 (2011): 559–574.
Wagner, Tamara S. Occidentalism in Novels of Malaysia, and Singapore, 1819–2004: Colonial and Postcolonial Financial Straits and Literary Style. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2005.
Waley, Arthur David. The Opium War through Chinese Eyes. London: Allen & Unwin, 1958.
Waller, P. J.The Chinese.” History Today 35 (1985): 8–15.
Wang, Gungwu. Anglo-Chinese Encounters since 1800: War, Trade, Science, and Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Watts, Carol. “Adapting Affect: The Melodramatic Economy of Broken Blossoms.” Film Studies 3 (2002): 31–46.
“Weekly Top 30 Programmes,” August 2–8, 2010, Broadcaster’s Association Research Board.
White, Andrea. Joseph Conrad and the Adventure Tradition: Constructing and Deconstructing the Imperial Subject. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Wilgus, Mary H. Sir Claude MacDonald, the Open Door, and British Informal Empire in China, 1895–1900. New York: Garland Publishing, 1987.
Williams, Carolyn. Gilbert and Sullivan: Gender, Genre, Parody. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.
Witchard, Anne. “Thomas Burke, the ‘Laureate of Limehouse’: A Biographical Outline.” ELT/English Literature in Transition, 1880–1920 48.2 (2005): 164–187.
Witchard, Anne. Thomas Burke’s Dark Chinoiserie: Limehouse Nights and the Queer Spell of Chinatown. Farnham: Ashgate, 2009.
Wong, John Yue-Wo. Deadly Dreams: Opium, Imperialism and the “Arrow” War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Wong, John Yue-Wo. The Origins of an Heroic Image: Sun Yatsen in London, 1896–1897. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Sun Yatsen: His Heroic Image a Century Afterwards.” Journal of Asian History 28.2 (1994): 154–176.
Wong, Man Kong. James Legge: A Pioneer at Crossroads of East and West. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Educational Publishing Co., 1996.
Wong, Maria Lin. Chinese Liverpudlians: A History of the Chinese Community in Liverpool. Birkenhead: Liver Press, 1989.
Wood, Frances. No Dogs and Not Many Chinese: Treaty Port Life in China 1843–1943. London: John Murray, 1998.
Wright, Stanley F. The Origin and Development of the Chinese Customs Service, 1843–1911. Shanghai: no pub., 1939.
Wu, William F. The Yellow Peril: Chinese Americans in American Fiction 1850–1940. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1982.
Xu, Wenying. “The Opium Trade and Little Dorrit: A Case of Reading Silences.” Victorian Literature and Culture 25.1 (1997): 53–66.
Xu Xi. “Writing the Literature of Non-denial.” World Englishes 19.3 (2000): 415–428.
Yang, Chi-ming. “Virtue’s Vogues: Eastern Authenticity and the Commodification of Chinese-ness on the 18th-century Stage.” Comparative Literature Studies 39.4 (2002): 326–346.
Young, Jacqueline. “Rewriting the Boxer Rebellion: The Imaginative Creations of Putnam, Weale, Edmund Backhouse, and Charles Welsh Mason.” The Victorian Newsletter 114 (2008): 7–28.
Young, Robert J. C. Colonial Desire: Hybridity in Theory, Culture, and Race. London: Routledge, 1995.
Ziter, Edward. “Orientalist Panoramas and Disciplinary Society.” Wordsworth Circle 32 (2001): 21–24.
Ziter, Edward. “Staging the Geographic Imagination: Imperial Melodrama and the Domestication of the Exotic.” In Elinor Fuchs and Una Chaudhuri, eds., Land/Scape/Theater. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002. 189–208.