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    Lau, Harriet C. P. Mitrovica, Jerry X. Austermann, Jacqueline Crawford, Ophelia Al-Attar, David and Latychev, Konstantin 2016. Inferences of mantle viscosity based on ice age data sets: Radial structure. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 121, Issue. 10, p. 6991.

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    Lenaerts, Jan T. M. Vizcaino, Miren Fyke, Jeremy van Kampenhout, Leo and van den Broeke, Michiel R. 2016. Present-day and future Antarctic ice sheet climate and surface mass balance in the Community Earth System Model. Climate Dynamics, Vol. 47, Issue. 5-6, p. 1367.

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    Nagai, H. Fujita, K. Sakai, A. Nuimura, T. and Tadono, T. 2016. Comparison of multiple glacier inventories with a new inventory derived from high-resolution ALOS imagery in the Bhutan Himalaya. The Cryosphere, Vol. 10, Issue. 1, p. 65.

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  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: June 2014

Chapter 4 - Observations: Cryosphere

Summary

Executive Summary

The cryosphere, comprising snow, river and lake ice, sea ice, glaciers, ice shelves and ice sheets, and frozen ground, plays a major role in the Earth's climate system through its impact on the surface energy budget, the water cycle, primary productivity, surface gas exchange and sea level. The cryosphere is thus a fundamental control on the physical, biological and social environment over a large part of the Earth's surface. Given that all of its components are inherently sensitive to temperature change over a wide range of time scales, the cryosphere is a natural integrator of climate variability and provides some of the most visible signatures of climate change.

Since AR4, observational technology has improved and key time series of measurements have been lengthened, such that our identification and measurement of changes and trends in all components of the cryosphere has been substantially improved, and our understanding of the specific processes governing their responses has been refined. Since the AR4, observations show that there has been a continued net loss of ice from the cryosphere, although there are significant differences in the rate of loss between cryospheric components and regions. The major changes occurring to the cryosphere are as follows.

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Climate Change 2013 – The Physical Science Basis
  • Online ISBN: 9781107415324
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324
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