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    Bauze, Daiga Piekuse, Linda Kevere, Laura Kronberga, Zane Riževs, Arnis Vaivade, Iveta Vīksne, Kristīne Andrēziņa, Raisa and Lāce, Baiba 2014. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Chromosome 11 with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences., Vol. 67, Issue. 6, p. 453.

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  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: August 2009

16 - Autism spectrum disorders

Summary

Introduction

Some children are less socially interactive and communicative than others. When the combination of social and communication problems takes on the quality of a clinically severely impairing condition one needs to consider the possibility of a disorder of social interaction, particularly one that may fall under the diagnostic umbrella of ‘autism spectrum disorders’.

Autism was first delineated as a syndrome of childhood onset by Leo Kanner in the US in the 1940s. Long before that – at the turn of the eighteenth century – classic autism cases had been described by John Haslam in the UK and Jean Itard in France. The word autism (from the Greek autos for self) was introduced by Eugen Bleuler to depict the self-centred thinking believed to be typical of schizophrenia. Considered by Kanner to be a discrete disease entity, early infantile autism was conceptualized as an extremely rare disorder, and one which would be easy to identify and diagnose. It was only in the early 1980s that the concept of autism spectrum disorder was introduced by Wing and Gillberg. Wing put forward the notion of a fairly specific triad of impairments of social, communicative and imaginative functioning as being at the basis of all autism spectrum disorders. She also coined the term Asperger's syndrome for the kind of ‘high-functioning’ autism spectrum disorder described originally by Hans Asperger (who used the term autistic psychopathy) at about the same time that Kanner described his more ‘low-functioning’ variant of autism.

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A Clinician's Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • Online ISBN: 9780511543807
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511543807
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SUGGESTED READING
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, D. Cohen & , F. R. Volkmar, Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. (New York: Chichester, Wiley, 1997).
, U. Frith, Autism. Explaining the Enigma. 2nd Edn. (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003).
, C. Gillberg, A Guide to Asperger Syndrome. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
, C. Gillberg & , M. Coleman, The Biology of the Autistic Syndromes. 3rd edn. (London: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
Howlin, P., Prognosis in autism: do specialist treatments affect long-term outcome?European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 6 (1997), 55–72.
Wing, L., Autistic spectrum disorders. British Medical Journal, 312 (1996), 327–8.
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