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Colonial Buganda and the End of Empire
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Book description

Colonial Buganda was one of the most important and richly documented kingdoms in East Africa. In this book, Jonathon L. Earle offers the first global intellectual history of the Kingdom, using a series of case studies, interviews and previously inaccessible private archives to offer new insights concerning the multiple narratives used by intellectuals. Where previous studies on literacy in Africa have presupposed 'sacred' or 'secular' categories, Earle argues that activists blurred European epistemologies as they reworked colonial knowledge into vernacular debates about kingship and empire. Furthermore, by presenting Catholic, Muslim and Protestant histories and political perspectives in conversation with one another, he offers a nuanced picture of the religious and social environment. Through the lives, politics, and historical contexts of these African intellectuals, Earle presents an important argument about the end of empire, making the reader rethink the dynamics of political imagination and historical pluralism in the colonial and postcolonial state.


‘Buganda is one of the most studied societies in sub-Saharan Africa, but in this thoughtful and innovative book Jonathon L. Earle shows us how much more there is to explore. Using a series of illuminating case studies, based on pioneering research in private archives, Earle demonstrates how vivid, and how complex, were the political and historical imaginations of the kingdom's leading intellectuals in the late colonial moment. This book represents a thrilling new strand in Ganda historiography, and scholars of Uganda, and intellectual historians more broadly, owe Jonathon L. Earle a debt of gratitude.'

Richard Reid - School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

‘With this book Earle becomes a leader in re-thinking the history of African nationalisms. His scrutiny of private papers undiscovered by previous historians allows us to eavesdrop on the political thought of late-colonial activists as never before. Widely read in comparative politics, they thought deeply, from different religious viewpoints, Christian, Muslim, and ‘popular', about political responsibility and obligation – with a view to the right governance of their kingdom.'

John Lonsdale - Emeritus Professor, Fellow of Trinity College Cambridge

‘Essentially, this is an important examination of the end of empire in Uganda during the 1950s and 1960s. Many interviews with survivors from this period as well as careful analysis of a cornucopia of written sources make this a major study of a vital period in mid-twentieth century African history.'

Michael Twaddle - University of London

‘This unique book offers carefully constructed intellectual biographies of four critical patriots of Uganda's independence era: Musazi, Mulira, Abu Mayanja and Kiwanuka. Their historical imaginations and deep political commitments come alive through Earle's meticulous research. No other historian of Buganda has used these sources.'

Holly Hanson - Mount Holyoke College, Massachusetts

‘The most exciting thing about this valuable new book is the insight that it sheds into the mechanics of political innovation. The Ganda intellectuals who are the book's subjects mined their libraries, looking for snippets of text that could expand old ideas and launch new ways of thinking about public life. Earle's meticulous book helps us see how an African people defined and debated the principles that held them together.'

Derek R. Peterson - University of Michigan

‘I strongly recommend you read this book. Jonathon L. Earle uses evidence from some one hundred authoritative individuals, thirty-three official and private archives as well as from hundreds of secondary sources to show that multiple literacies conditioned the political behavior and actions of Buganda's political activists towards the end of British rule in Buganda. Sources of their inspiration for imagining the kingdom they wanted were Buganda's past, Christian and Islamic literacies as well as European political and intellectual thought. Multiplicity of literacies created ambiguity and plurality of the vision of the state for both the activists and departing administrators with the British Empire.'

A. B. K. Kasozi - Makerere Institute of Social Research, Makerere University Kampala, Uganda

'This book effectively demonstrates the multiplicity of conceptualizations of political futures in the late colonial Buganda kingdom, emphasizing especially the roles of religious and historical interpretation in defining political preferences … of interest to scholars of African studies, intellectual history, and religious studies. Highly Recommended.'

M. M. Heaton Source: Choice

'Earle’s work in elaborating the intellectual journeys of these individuals is vivid and methodologically innovative. It reclaims fragmentary sources and interprets intellectual leaps to emphasize a contingent and creative literary culture connecting diverse narratives of Uganda’s history, religious ideas, and secular visions of progress, development, and (sometimes) democracy.'

Carol Summers Source: African Studies Review

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The following archival material was consulted during the research of this book.

Institutional Archives

Archives in Italy

Archives des Missionnaires d'Afrique, Rome

With the assistance of the photography archivist of the collection, Father François Richard, I located numerous photographs of early colonial Buddu, some of which have been included in this book. The photographs from the collection are signified: Photothèque Missionnaires d'Afrique Rome.

Archives in Uganda

King's College, Budo

The File Records of Budo highlight the educational performance of the school's former students. They also provide insight into the College's relationship with eastern Africa's Islamic political institutions, including the East African Muslim Welfare Society and the Young Men's Muslim Association.

Makerere University Africana Archives

At the time of my research, the Africana Archives was in the process of being reclassified. In addition to consulting the papers of Apolo Kaggwa and Hamu Mukasa, I worked closely with the material in the Buganda Government files, Kabaka Yekka files, and Extra Mural records.

Files: AF PSF; AF UC; Unmarked Buganda Government Files; KY Files; Hamu Mukasa Papers AR/BUG/78

Hamu Mukasa Library, Kwata Mpola House, Mukono

The personal library of Hamu Mukasa includes an extensively annotated library, manuscripts, and photographic images from early colonial Buganda.

Rubaga Diocesan Archives, Kampala

The Rubaga Archives provide extensive amounts of material concerning Catholic politics in late colonial Uganda. The library also houses the most complete collection of both Munno and the bounded records of Uganda's postcolonial parliamentary assemblies.

Files: 31; 81; 99; 128; 904

Uganda Christian University Archives, Archives of the Bishop of Uganda, Mukono

This is the most extensive collection of sources regarding local Protestant activism during the colonial period.

Files: 1/41; 1/66; 1/72; 1/112; 1/113; 1/136; 1/179

Uganda Museum Library, Kampala

The library maintains an extensive, unpublished volume of the early Luganda press, with English translations. At the time of this project, the volume was found on the regular bookshelves.

Uganda National Archives, Library

The library houses copies of the Agreed Recommendations of the Namirembe Conference; and an extensive amount of constitutional documents and government reports.

Uganda National Archives, Secretariat Minute Papers

At the time of my research the National Archives was housed in Entebbe, the colonial capital of Uganda. The Archive is now in Kampala. It houses district reports, correspondence between Uganda's and Buganda's respective statebuilders, economic studies, and material related to the general operation of the colonial government.

Files: A43; A44; A45; A46

Archives in United Kingdom

British National Archives, Colonial Office Records Series, Kew Gardens

Material includes intelligence reports, commissions of inquiry, dispatches, interview transcriptions, political party manifestos, petitions, newspaper clippings, court records, and academic summaries provided by the East African Institute of Social Research.

Files: CO 536; CO 537; CO 822; MP K122

Centre of African Studies, University of Cambridge

During the 1960s, the Centre acquired a series of studies and governmental records through Audrey Richards and the East African Institute of Social Research.

Files: 676

The papers of E.M.K. Mulira include an unpublished biography, unpublished essays, personal correspondence and political pamphlets. Large portions of the collection are now accessible through Apollo, the digital repository of the University of Cambridge. The classifications for the Mulira papers have been moderately revised since the completion of this book.

Church Missionary Society Papers, Cadbury Research Library, University of Birmingham

Material produced by Anglican missionaries and Buganda's early Christian converts offered important insights into the area's competing regional interests. The CMS Papers also include material produced by E.M.K. Mulira and his father, Nasanaeri Ndawula Kiwomamagaaya.

Files: ACC 265; ACC 549; ACC 549–50

Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London

The ICS contains a number of pamphlets and manifestos produced by Uganda's political parties in the late 1950 and early 1960s. The collection also includes the private papers of Professor Keith Hancock, which illuminates the inner workings of the Namirembe Conference and the Lukiiko's international delegation. The delegation was a committee that was charged with securing the return of Kabaka Muteesa II from exile during the 1950s.

Files: PP.UG

Professor Keith Hancock Papers (Files: 29)

King's College, Cambridge

The Annual Reports of the College highlight Abubakar Mayanja's studies at Cambridge during the mid-1900s. The papers of the broadcaster Sir George Reginald Barnes contain correspondence to and from the Ganda intellectual Erisa Kironde.

Files: Annual Reports

George Reginald Barnes Papers (Files: GRB 2)

Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge

The Museum contains records surrounding the acquisition of the remains of the Ganda hero-god, Kibuuka, and the return of his remains to Uganda in the early 1960s. This material was removed from the final book.

Dame Margery F. Perham Papers, Bodleian Library of Commonwealth and African Studies, Rhodes House, University of Oxford

The papers of Margery Perham include personal correspondence with Ugandan activists and Colonial Reports.

Files: 514; 515; 529

Professor Audrey Richards Papers, London School of Economics

The papers of Audrey Richards include field notes and correspondence from her work in Uganda in the 1950s.

Files: 6; 7

Royal Commonwealth Society Collections, University Library, University of Cambridge

In addition to providing English translations of Munno in the early 1900s, the papers of Sir John Gray include copies of letters that illuminate political negotiation and conflict between Buganda's competing religious communities in the late nineteenth century.

Files: 126; 150

School of Oriental and African Studies, Archives and Special Collections

The library of SOAS contains one of the most extensive collections of early Luganda grammars and dictionaries. The Special Collections provide insight into E.M.K. Mulira's work on a Luganda grammar and dictionary during the mid-twentieth century. It also houses a copy of Mulira's play, ‘Mackay the Dauntless: A Play in Three Acts’ (c. 1944).

Files: MS 380474

Archives in United States

James Aggrey Papers, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University, Washington, D.C.

During the course of my research on E.M.K. Mulira, I spent time conducting research with the papers of the Ghanaian intellectual James Emman Kwegyir Aggrey, whose career influenced Mulira's philosophy of co-education. Ultimately, much of this material was removed from the final draft.

Series B

Box 147: 1–3

Series C

Box 147–3

Series E

Box 147: 3–4

Series H

Box 147: 5 & 7

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, Smithsonian National Museum of African Art

The Elisofon collection includes a rich assembly of photographs from early twentieth-century Uganda. Richard H. Leakey assembled the collection in the early 1900s.

Lloyd A. Fallers Papers, Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago

The collection, comprised of 28 linear feet of material, includes correspondence and field notes from Fallers’ work in Uganda. It also contains a copy of John Rowe's English translation of Ali Kulumba's Ebyafayo By'obusiramu mu Uganda.

Fallers’ material on Buganda is contained largely in boxes: 29; 30; 54.

National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland

The records of the National Archives concern Uganda's postcolonial politics, which is largely beyond the scope of the current volume. The site in College Park also maintains the CIA's declassified searchable database, which highlights the involvement of the American government in central and eastern Africa during the late 1950s and early 1960s.

Private Papers (not institutionally deposited)

Throughout the duration of this project, numerous private collections were revewied.

Buganda Lukiiko Archives

The collection contains the parliamentary assembly minutes, between 1894 and 1918.

Neal Ascherson Papers, United Kingdom

In the late 1950s, the journalist and writer Neal Ascheron worked with the Uganda National Congress in Uganda, a movement with which he became familiar through Abubakar Mayanja at King's College, Cambridge. Mr Ascherson graciously made his Uganda field notes from this period available.

Erieza Bwete Papers, Uganda

The tin-trunk archive of the trade unionist Erieza Bwete, which I unearthed in the former county of Ssingo, contains loose manuscripts, letters, petitions and memoirs. The collection deals mostly with farmers’ and cooperative activism from the mid- to late twentieth century.

Jonathon L. Earle Papers

This modest collection includes correspondence between the author and anti-colonial activists and their families; printed Luganda pamphlets; audio and video recorded interviews and ethnographic material.

Canon Harold Myers and Mollie Grace Papers, United Kingdom

The private collection of the Graces includes correspondence, political pamphlets, and photographic sources. These chronicle the Grace's work in Ankole, Buganda and Achimota.

Benedicto K.M. Kiwanuka Papers, Uganda

In partnership with the Kiwanuka family, I digitised Prime Minister Benedicto Kiwanuka's personal papers. In this book, I use the folder titles originally designated by Kiwanuka. The collection includes letters, journals, government records, course notebooks, photographic sources and an annotated library. The files and loose papers comprise approximately 5900 artefacts.

Jolly Joe Kiwanuka Papers, Uganda

The papers are comprised of bounded volumes of the Luganda press, mostly chronicling Joseph Kiwanuka's output during the late 1950s and the activism of the Uganda National Congress and its successor: Uganda People's Congress.

Ignatius K. Musazi Library, Uganda

The annotated library of Ignatius Musazi, located in northern Buganda, contains approximately 100 volumes.

Ssemujju Ibrahim Nganda Papers, Uganda

This collection includes notes and transcripts taken from interviews with Abubakar Mayanja. Before his passing, Mayanja had begun the process of co-authoring an autobiography with Nganda.


  • Assorted, 13 July 2010, Kkungu

  • Ascherson, Neal, 17 August 2010, London

  • Barlow, Hugo, 11 November 2010, Munyonyo (Kampala)

  • Bonabana, Euginia, and Rose Nakimera, 19 January 2010, Mutundwe

  • Guwedeko, Fred, 25 February 2010, Makerere University

  • Kaggwa, Kawalya, Interview by Audrey Richards, 8 February 1954, in ARP 7/6/69 Audrey Richards, Field Notes

  • Kakyama, Asiya, 9 December 2009, Kampala

  • Kalema, Rhoda, 5 & 7 January 2010, Kampala

  • Kajubi, William S., 2 December 2009 & 17 February 2010, Kampala

  • Kayunga, Sallie S., 25 November 2010, Makerere University

  • Kisitu, Gideon, 14 January 2010, Nakulabye

  • Kiwanuka, Josephine, 7 July 2011, London

  • Kiwanuka, Maurice P.K., 29 May 2010, Kampala

  • Kiwanuka, Semakula M., 9 November 2010, Muyenga (Kampala)

  • Kiwanuka, Yusufu, Interview by Arye Oded, 12 November 1967, Lwanjaza, Singo County, in Arye Oded, Islam in Uganda: Islamization through a Centralized State in Pre-Colonial Africa (New York: Israel Universities Press, 1974)

  • Laetitia, Kinyingi, 7 January 2010, Kampala

  • Lubowa, A.D., 23 November 2009, Maya, Mpigi District

  • Lukwago, Al-Hajj Isa, 11 February 2010, Kampala

  • Mugwisa, Samuel, 16 December 2009, Kampala

  • Mukasa, George Kasedde, 23 June 2010, Kampala

  • Mulira, Eve, 10 November 2009, Kampala

  • Mulira, James, 25 June 2010, Kampala

  • Mulira, Mary, 11 June 2010, Kampala

  • Mulira, Peter, 3 November 2009, Kampala

  • Musazi, E.N., 11 December 2009, Timina (Luwero)

  • Musazi, Elizabeth, 10 February 2010, Kampala

  • Musazi, I.K., Interview by Neal Ascherson, 9 June 1956, Uganda Club, Kampala, in Neil Ascherson Papers

  • Musazi, I.K., Interview by Simba S. Kayunga, June 1988, Tinda (Kampala), in Sallie S. Kayunga, ‘Uganda National Congress and the Struggle for Democracy: 1952–1962’ (Working Paper No. 14, Centre for Basic Research Publications, Kampala, 1995)

  • Musoke, Kintu, 26 February 2010, Masaka

  • Mutiaba, Al-Hajj Mustafa, 3 March 2010, Kampala

  • Mwebe, Simon, 11 February & 17 March 2010, Kampala

  • Naniskombi, Rita, 11 & 16 November 2009, Luteete, Wakiso District

  • Nganda, Ssemujju I., 22 & 27 July 2010, Kampala

  • Nsambo, Shaikh al-Islām Ahmad, Interview by Arye Oded, 11 November & 16 December 1967, Natete, in Arye Oded, Islam in Uganda: Islamization through a Centralized State in Pre-Colonial Africa (New York: Israel Universities Press, 1974)

  • Sempebwa, Ernest, Interview by Gordon P. McGregor, March 2002, Makerere, in Gordon P. McGregor, King's College Budo: A Centenary History, 1906–2006 (Kampala: Fountain Publishers, 2006)

  • Ssali, Nick, 17 November 2009, Radio One (Kampala)

  • Tyaba, L. Mathias, and Simon Mwebe, 30 July 2010, Kampala

  • Wamala, Osmani, Interview by Amin Mutyaba, A.K. Kasozi, Noel King, and William M. Watt, May & September 1967, Buyanga, Butambala County, in Noel Quinton King, A.B.K. Kasozi and Arye Oded, Islam and the Confluence of Religions in Uganda, 1840–1966 (Tallahassee, FL: American Academy of Religion, 1973)


  • African Pilot. Uganda Information Department: Summary of the Local Press

  • Bukedde. Personal collection;

  • Daily Herald. British Library

  • Daily Mail. British Library

  • Daily Telegraph. British Library

  • Dobozi lya Buganda. Makerere University Africana Archives; Uganda Information Department: Summary of the Local Press

  • Drum. In, Uganda: The Bloodstained Pearl of Africa and its Struggle for Peace: From the Pages of Drum, ed. by Adam Seftel (Kampala: Fountain Publishers, 1994)

  • East Africa and Rhodesia. Rare Books Room (University Library, Cambridge)

  • Ebifa mu Buganda (Ebifa mu Uganda). Makerere University Africana Archives

  • Evening News. British Library

  • Emambya Esaze. Makerere University Africana Archives

  • Gambuze. Makerere University Africana Archives; Uganda Information Department: Summary of the Local Press

  • Guardian. The Guardian and Observer Digital Archives: archive

  • Ggwanga. Personal collection

  • Independent. British Library

  • Monitor. Personal collection; Digital Archives:

  • New Vision. Personal collection; Digital Archives:

  • Munno. British Library; Rubaga Diocesan Archives; Sir John Gray Papers; Uganda Information Department: Summary of the Local Press

  • Ndimugezi. Uganda Information Department: Summary of the Local Press

  • New Times of Burma. British Library

  • Obugagga. Makerere University Africana Archives; Uganda Information Department: Summary of the Local Press

  • Observer. The Guardian and Observer Digital Archives: archive

  • Sekanyolya. Uganda Information Department: Summary of the Local Press

  • Taifa Empya. Makerere University Africana Archives; Uganda Information Department: Summary of the Local Press

  • Times. The Times Digital Archives:

  • Transition. West Room (University Library, Cambridge)

  • Uganda Empya. Makerere University Africana Archives; Uganda Information Department: Summary of the Local Press

  • Uganda Express. Personal collection of Sam Kiwanuka; Uganda Information Department: Summary of the Local Press

  • Uganda Eyogera. Makerere University Africana Archives; Uganda Information Department: Summary of the Local Press

  • Uganda Herald (Uganda Argus). British Library; Makerere University Africana Archives

  • Uganda Mail. Uganda Information Department: Summary of the Local Press

  • Uganda Post. Makerere University Africana Archives; Personal Collection of Sam Kiwanuka; Uganda Information Department: Summary of the Local Press

  • United Asia [Bombay]. Rare Books (University Library, Cambridge) Washington Post. Digital Archives

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West, Henry W., The Mailo System in Buganda: A Preliminary Case Study in African Land Tenure (Entebbe: Government Printer, 1965).
White, Luise Speaking with Vampires: Rumor and History in Colonial Africa (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000).
Wild, J.V., The Uganda Mutiny, 1897 (Kampala: Uganda Bookshop, 1954).
Wild-Wood, Emma, Migration and Christian Identity in Congo (DRC) (Leiden: Brill, 2008).
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, Philosophical Investigations, trans. by Anscombe, G.E.M., 2nd edn (Oxford: Blackwell, 1997).
Wood, Laurence W., God and History (Lexington, KY: Emeth Press, 2005).
Wrigley, C.C., Crops and Wealth in Uganda: A Short Agrarian History (Kampala: East African Institute of Social Research, 1959).
Wrigley, Christopher, Kingship and State: The Buganda Dynasty (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
Zachernuk, Philip S., Colonial Subjects: An African Intelligentsia and Atlantic Ideas (Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 2000).
Chapters in Edited Books
Barber, Karin, ‘Introduction: Hidden Innovators in Africa’, in Africa's Hidden Histories: Everyday Literacy and Making the Self, ed. by Barber, Karin (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2006), pp. 124.
Bayly, Christopher, ‘History and World History’, in A Concise Companion to History, ed. by Rublack, Ulinka (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 325.
Brett, Annabel S., ‘What Is Intellectual History Now?’, in What Is History Now?, ed. by Cannadine, David (Palgrave Macmillan Ltd., 2002), pp. 113–32.
Breuilly, John, ‘Introduction’, in Nations and Nationalism, trans. by Gellner, Ernest, 2nd edn (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2008), pp. xiiiliii.
Chartier, Roger, ‘Reading Matter and “Popular” Reading: From the Renaissance to the Seventeenth Century’, in A History of Reading in the West, ed. by Cavallo, Guglielmo and Chartier, Roger, trans. by Cochrane, Lydia G. (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1999), pp. 269–83.
Creppel, Ingrid, ‘Secularisation: Religion and the Roots of Innovation in the Political Sphere’, in Religion and the Political Imagination, ed. by Katznelson, Ira and Jones, Gareth S. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 2345.
Earle, Jonathon L., ‘Hamu Mukasa’, in Dictionary of African Biography, ed. by Gates, Henry Louis Jr. and Akyeampong, Emmanuel (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).
Earle, Jonathon L., ‘‘Nuhu Kyabasinga Mbogo’, in Dictionary of African Biography, ed. by Gates, Henry Louis Jr. and Akyeampong, Emmanuel (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).
Evans, Richard J., ‘Prologue: What Is History? – Now’, in What Is History Now? ed. by Cannadine, David (New York: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd., 2002), pp. 118.
Fallers, Lloyd A., ‘Introduction’, in The King's Men: Leadership and Status in Buganda on the Eve of Independence, ed. by Fallers, Lloyd A. (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), pp. 119.
Feierman, Steven, ‘African Histories and the Dissolution of World History’, in Africa and the Disciplines: The Contributions of Research in Africa to the Social Sciences and Humanities, ed. by Bates, Robert H., Mudimbe, V.Y. and O'Barr, Jean F. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1993), pp. 167212.
Fortt, J.M., ‘The Distribution of the Immigrant and Ganda Population within Buganda’, in Economic Development and Tribal Change: A Study of Immigrant Labour in Buganda, ed. by Richards, Audrey I., 2nd edn (Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1973), pp. 77118.
Foucault, Michel, ‘Nietzsche, Genealogy, History’, in The Foucault Reader, ed. by Rabinow, Paul (New York: Pantheon, 1984), pp. 76100.
Foucault, Michel, ‘‘What Is an Author?’, in The Foucault Reader, ed. by Rabinow, Paul (New York: Pantheon, 1984), pp. 101–20.
Gilmartin, David, ‘Customary Law and Sharī'at in British Punjab’, in Sharī'at and Ambiguity in South Asian Islam, ed. by Ewing, Katherine P. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1988), pp. 4362.
Greene, Theodore M., in Kant, Immanuel, Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone, trans. by Greene, Theodore M. and Hudson, Hoyt H. (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1960), pp. ixlxxviii.
Gourevitch, Victor, ‘Introduction’, in Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, ‘The Social Contract’ and Other Later Political Writings, ed. by Gourevitch, Victor, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), II, pp. ixxxxi.
Hanson, Holly E., ‘Queen Mothers and Good Government in Buganda: The Loss of Women's Political Power in the Nineteenth Century’, in Women in African Colonial Histories, ed. by Allman, Jean, Geiger, Susan and Musisi, Nakanyike (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2002), pp. 101–34.
Holdrege, Barbara, ‘What's Beyond the Post? Comparative Analysis as Critical Method’, in A Magic Still Dwells: Comparative Religion in the Postmodern Age, ed. by Patton, Kimberley C. and Ray, Benjamin C. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000), pp. 7791.
Howell, Caroline, ‘Church and State in Crisis: The Deposition of the Kabaka of Buganda, 1953–1955’, in Missions, Nationalism, and the End of Empire, ed. by Stanley, Brian and Low, Alaine (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2003), pp. 194211.
Hufton, Olwen, ‘What Is Religious History Now?’, in What Is History Now?, ed. by Cannadine, David (Palgrave Macmillan Ltd., 2002), pp. 5779.
Iliffe, John, ‘The Spokesman: Martin Kayamba’, in Modern Tanzanians: A Volume of Biographies (Nairobi: East African Publishing House, 1973), pp. 6694.
Lonsdale, John, ‘Jomo Kenyatta, God and the Modern World’, in African Modernities: Entangled Meanings in Current Debate, ed. by Deutsch, Jan G., Probst, Peter and Schmidt, Heike (London: James Currey, 2002), pp. 3166.
Lonsdale, John, ‘The Moral Economy of Mau Mau: The Problem’, in Unhappy Valley: Conflict in Kenya and Africa, ed. by Berman, Bruce and Lonsdale, John (London: James Currey, 1992), pp. 265314.
Lonsdale, John, ‘Moral Ethnicity and Political Tribalism’, in Inventions and Boundaries: Historical and Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism, ed. by Kaarsholm, Preben and Hultin, Jan (Roskilde: International Development Studies, Roskilde University, 1994), pp. 131–50.
Lonsdale, John, ‘The Moral Economy of Mau Mau: Wealth, Poverty and Civic Virtue in Kikuyu Political Thought’, in Unhappy Valley: Conflict in Kenya and Africa, ed. by Berman, Bruce and Lonsdale, John (London: James Currey, 1992), pp. 315504.
Low, D.A., ‘The Making and Implementation of the Uganda Agreement of 1900’, in Buganda and British Overrule, 1900–1955: Two Studies, ed. by Low, D.A. and Pratt, R.C. (London: Oxford University Press, 1960), pp. 3159.
Mbembe, Achille, ‘The Power of the Archive and Its Limits’, in Refiguring the Archive, ed. by Hamilton, Carolyn, Harris, Verne, Pickover, Michèle, Reid, Graeme, Saleh, Razia and Taylor, Jane (London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002), pp. 1926.
Peterson, Bhekizizwe, ‘The Bantu World and the World of the Book: Reading, Reading, and “Enlightenment”’, in Africa's Hidden Histories: Everyday Literacy and Making the Self, ed. by Barber, Karin (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2006), pp. 236–57.
Peterson, Derek R., ‘The Rhetoric of the Word: Bible Translation and Mau Mau in Colonial Central Kenya’, in Missions, Nationalism, and the End of Empire, ed. by Stanley, Brian and Low, Alaine (Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2003), pp. 165–79.
Peterson, Derek R., and Walhof, Darren R., ‘Rethinking Religion’, in The Invention of Religion: Rethinking Belief in Politics and History, ed. by Peterson, Derek R. and Walhof, Darren R. (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002), pp. 116.
Powesland, P.G., ‘History of the Migration in Uganda’, in Economic Development and Tribal Change: A Study of Immigrant Labour in Buganda, ed. by Richards, Audrey I., 2nd edn (Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1973), pp. 1751.
Pratt, R.C., ‘The Politics of Indirect Rule: Uganda, 1900–1955’, in Buganda and British Overrule, ed. by Low, D.A. and Pratt, R.C. (London: Oxford University Press, 1960), pp. 163316.
Ranger, Terence, ‘The Invention of Tradition Revisited: The Case of Colonial Africa’, in Legitimacy and the State in Twentieth Century Africa, ed. by Ranger, Terence and Vaughan, Olufemi (Hampshire: Macmillan Press, 1993), pp. 62111.
Richards, Audrey I., ‘Epilogue’, in The King's Men: Leadership and Status in Buganda on the Eve of Independence, ed. by Fallers, Lloyd A. (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), pp. 357–94.
Richards, Audrey I., ‘The Assimilation of the Immigrants’, in Economic Development and Tribal Change: A Study of Immigrant Labour in Buganda, ed. by Richards, Audrey I., 2nd edn (Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1973), pp. 161–93.
Richards, Audrey I., ‘Traditional Values and Current Political Behaviour’, in The King's Men: Leadership and Status in Buganda on the Eve of Independence, ed. by Fallers, Lloyd A. (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), pp. 294335.
Rubin, Miri, ‘Religion’, in A Concise Companion to History, ed. by Rublack, Ulinka (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 317–30.
Twaddle, Michael, ‘Was the Democratic Party of Uganda a Purely Confessional Party?’, in Christianity in Independent Africa, ed. by Fasholé-Luke, Edward (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1978), pp. 255–66.
Twaddle, Michael, and Bernt Hansen, Holger, ‘The Changing State of Uganda’, in Developing Uganda, ed. by Twaddle, Michael and Bernt Hansen, Holger (Oxford: James Currey Ltd., 1998), pp. 118.
Vaughan, Megan, ‘Culture’, in A Concise Companion to History, ed. by Rublack, Ulinka (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 227–45.
Weber, Max, ‘Politics as a Vocation’, in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, ed. by Gerth, H.H. and Mills, C. Wright, trans. by Gerth, H.H. and Mills, C. Wright (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946), pp. 77128.
Wittmann, Reinhard, ‘Was There a Reading Revolution at the End of the Eighteenth Century?’, in A History of Reading in the West, ed. by Cavallo, Guglielmo and Chartier, Roger, trans. by Cochrane, Lydia G. (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1999), pp. 284312.
Wong, R. Bin, ‘Causation’, in A Concise Companion to History, ed. by Rublack, Ulinka (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 2754.
Wrigley, C.C., ‘The Changing Economic Structure of Buganda’, in The King's Men: Leadership and Status in Buganda on the Eve of Independence (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), pp. 1663.
Adatia, A.K., and King, N.Q., ‘Some East African Firmans of H.H. Aga Khan III’, Journal of Religion in Africa, 2 (1969), 179–91.
Alam, Muzaffar, and Subrahmanyam, Sanjay, ‘Envisioning Power: The Political Thought of a Late Eighteenth-century Mughal Prince’, The Indian Economic and Social History Review, 43 (2006), 131–61.
Bayly, Christopher, ‘Rammohan Roy and the Advent of Constitutional Liberalism in India, 1800–30’, Modern Intellectual History, 4 (2007), 2541.
Berry, Sara, ‘Hegemony on a Shoestring: Indirect Rule and Access to Agricultural Land’, Africa, 62 (1992), 327–55.
Bowles, B.D., ‘Economic Anti-Colonialism and British Reaction in Uganda, 1936–1955’, Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne Des Études Africaines, 9 (1975), 5160.
Brizuela-García, Esperanza, ‘The History of Africanization and the Africanization of History’, History in Africa, 33 (2006), 85100.
Burguière, André, ‘Histoire D'une Histoire: La Naissance Des Annales’, Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales, 34 (1979), 1347–59.
Cabrita, Joel, ‘Politics and Preaching: Chiefly Converts to the Nazaretha Church, Obedient Subjects and Sermon Performance in South Africa’, Journal of African History, 51 (2010), 2140.
Carter, Felice, ‘The Education of African Muslims in Uganda’, Uganda Journal, 29 (1965), 193–99.
Cobley, Alan G., ‘Literacy, Libraries and Consciousness: The Provision of Library Services for Blacks in South Africa in the pre-Apartheid Era’, Libraries & Culture, 32 (1997), 5780.
Connan, Dominique, and Siméant, Johanna, ‘John Lonsdale, Le Nationalisme, l’Éthnicité Et l’Économie Morale: Parcours D'un Pionnier De l'Histoire Africaine’, Genèses, 83 (2011), 133–54.
Cooper, Frederick, ‘Africa's Pasts and Africa's Historians’, Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne Des Études Africaines, 34 (2000), 298336.
Cooper, Frederick, ‘The Problem of Slavery in African Studies’, The Journal of African History, 20 (1979), 103–25.
Cox, A.H., ‘The Growth and Expansion of Buganda’, Uganda Journal, 14 (1950), 153–59.
Doyle, Shane, ‘The Cwezi-Kubandwa Debate: Gender, Hegemony and Pre-colonial Religion in Bunyoro, Western Uganda’, Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 77 (2007), 559–81.
Earle, Jonathon L., ‘Dreams and Political Imagination in Colonial Buganda’, Journal of African History, 58 (2017), 85105.
Earle, Jonathon L., ‘Reading Revolution in Late Colonial Buganda’, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 6 (2012), 507–26.
Ehrlich, Cyril, ‘Cotton and the Uganda Economy, 1903–1909’, Uganda Journal, 21 (1957), 162–75.
Ehrlich, Cyril, ‘The Economy of Buganda’, Uganda Journal, 20 (1956), 1725.
Ellis, Stephen, ‘Writing Histories of Contemporary Africa’, The Journal of African History, 43 (2002), 126.
Gee, T.W., ‘A Century of Muhammedan Influence in Buganda, 1852–1951’, Uganda Journal, 22 (1958), 139–50.
Gee, T.W., ‘Uganda's Legislative Council between the Wars’, Uganda Journal, 25 (1961), 5464.
Gray, John M., ‘Ahmed Bin Ibrahim – The First Arab to Reach Buganda’, Uganda Journal, 10 (1947), 8097.
Gray, John M., ‘Kakungulu in Bukedi’, Uganda Journal, 27 (1963), 3159.
Gray, John M., ‘Kibuka’, Uganda Journal, 20 (1956), 5271.
Gray, John M., ‘The Year of the Three Kings of Buganda’, Uganda Journal, 14 (1949), 1552.
Hancock, I.R., ‘Patriotism and Neo-Traditionalism in Buganda: The Kabaka Yekka (‘The King Alone’) Movement, 1961–1962’, The Journal of African History, 11 (1970), 419–34.
Hancock, I.R., ‘The Kakamega Club of Buganda’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 12 (1974), 131–35.
Hughes, A., ‘The Early Days of Education in the Protectorate: White Fathers’ Mission’, Uganda Teachers’ Journal, 1 (1939), 1823.
Huppert, George, ‘Lucien Febvre and Marc Bloch: The Creation of the Annales’, The French Review, 55 (1982), 510–13.
Jones, Colin, ‘Peter Mandler's “Problem with Cultural History”, or, Is Playtime Over?’, Cultural and Social History, 1 (2004), 94117.
Jones, James W., ‘Religion, Health, and the Psychology of Religion: How the Research on Religion and Health Helps Us Understand Religion’, Journal of Religion and Health, 43 (2004), 317–28.
Kajubi, W. Senteza, ‘Coffee and Prosperity in Buganda: Some Aspects of Economic and Social Change’, Uganda Journal, 22 (1965), 135–47.
Karlström, Mikael, ‘Imagining Democracy: Political Culture and Democratisation in Buganda’, Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 66 (1996), 485505.
Kasozi, A.B.K., ‘The Impact of Islam on Ganda Culture, 1844–1894’, Journal of Religion in Africa, 12 (1981), 127–35.
Katumba, Ahmed, and Welbourn, Fred B., ‘Muslim Martyrs of Buganda’, Uganda Journal, 28 (1964), 151–63.
Klagge, James C., ‘Wittgenstein and Neuroscience’, Synthese, 78 (1989), 319–43.
Kodesh, Neil, ‘History from the Healer's Shrine: Genre, Historical Imagination, and Early Ganda History’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 49 (2007), 527–52.
Lonsdale, John, ‘African Studies, Europe and Asia’, Afrika Spectrum, 40 (2005), 377402.
Lonsdale, John, ‘Agency in Tight Corners: Narrative and Initiative in African History’, Journal of African Cultural Studies, 13 (2000), 516.
Lonsdale, John, ‘States and Social Processes in Africa: A Historiographical Survey’, African Studies Review, 24 (1981), 139225.
Lonsdale, John, ‘The Emergence of African Nations: A Historiographical Analysis’, African Affairs, 67 (1968), 1128.
Mandler, Peter, ‘The Problem with Cultural History’, Cultural and Social History, 1 (2004), 94117.
Mazrui, Ali, ‘Religious Strangers in Uganda: From Emin Pasha to Amin Dada’, African Affairs, 76 (1977), 2138.
Maxwell, David, ‘“Sacred History, Social History”: Traditions and Texts in the Making of a Southern African Transnational Religious Movement’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 43 (2001), 502–24.
Miller, Joseph C., ‘History and Africa/Africa and History’, American Historical Review, 104 (1999), 132.
Morefield, Jeanne, ‘States Are Not People: Harold Laski on Unsettling Sovereignty, Rediscovering Democracy’, Political Research Quarterly, 58 (2005), 659–69.
Morgan, A.R., ‘Uganda's Cotton Industry: Fifty Years Back’, Uganda Journal, 22 (1958), 107–12.
Morris, H.S., ‘The Divine Kingship of the Aga Khan: A Study of Theocracy in East Africa’, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 14 (1958), 454–72.
Mulira, James, ‘Nationalism and Communist Phobia in Colonial Uganda, 1945–1960’, Mawazo, 5 (1983), 316.
Mutongi, Kenda, ‘“Worries of the Heart”: Widowed Mothers, Daughters and Masculinities in Maragoli, Western Kenya, 1940–60’, Journal of African History, 40 (1999), 6786.
Norval, Aletta, ‘The Things We Do with Words—Contemporary Approaches to the Analysis of Ideology’, British Journal of Political Science, 30 (2000), 313–46.
Oliver, Roland, ‘The Baganda and the Bakonjo’, Uganda Journal, 18 (1954), 31–3.
Peires, J.B., ‘“Soft” Believers and “Hard” Unbelievers in the Xhosa Cattle-Killing’, The Journal of African History, 27 (1986), 443–61.
Peterson, Derek R., and Taylor, Edgar C., ‘Rethinking the State in Idi Amin's Uganda: The Politics of Exhortation’, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 7 (2013), 5882.
Pirouet, Louise, ‘Evangelists and Subimperialists’, Dini Na Mila, 4 (1969), 2841.
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Plantinga, Alvin, ‘Positive Epistemic Status and Proper Function’, Philosophical Perspectives, 2 (1988), 150.
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Pocock, J.G.A., ‘Present at the Creation: With Laslett to the Lost Worlds’, International Journal of Public Affairs, 2 (2006), 717.
Revel, Jacques, ‘Histoire Et Sciences Sociales: Les Paradigmes Des Annales’, Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales, 34 (1979), 1360–76.
Ricoeur, Paul, ‘History and Hermeneutics’, The Journal of Philosophy, 73 (1976), 683–95.
Rigby, Peter, ‘Prophets, Diviners, and Prophetism: The Recent History of Kiganda Religion’, Journal of Anthropological Research, 31 (1975), 116–48.
Roberts, A.D., ‘The Sub-Imperialism of the Baganda’, Journal of African History, 3 (1962), 435–50.
Roscoe, J., ‘95. Kibuka, the War God of the Baganda’, Man, 7 (1907), 161–66.
Rowe, John A., ‘The Purge of Christians at Mwanga's Court: A Reassessment of This Episode in Buganda History’, Journal of African History, 5 (1963), 5572.
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Unpublished Secondary

Earle, Jonathon L., ‘Political Theologies in Late Colonial Buganda’ (unpublished PhD, Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 2012).
Kalibala, Ernest B., ‘The Social Structure of the Baganda Tribe of East Africa’ (unpublished PhD, University of Harvard, 1946).
Karlström, Mikael, ‘The Cultural Kingdom in Uganda: Popular Royalism and the Restoration of the Buganda Kingship, Volume I’ (unpublished PhD, The University of Chicago, 1999).
Katungulu, M.M., ‘Islam in Buganda’, trans. by Busulwa, J., n.d.
Kayunga, Sallie S., ‘Uganda National Congress and the Struggle for Democracy: 1952–1962’ (Working Paper No. 14, CBR Publications, 1995).
Musoke, W.S., ‘Reverend George Baskerville's Work at Ngogwe and the Rest of Kyaggwe County’ (unpublished Bachelor of Arts thesis, Makerere University, 1970).
Mutyaba, Amin, ‘The Development of Islam in Uganda’, n.d.
Peterson, Derek R., ‘Archive Work in Uganda’ (unpublished manuscript, 2015).
Rowe, John A., ‘Lugard at Kampala’, Makerere History Paper 3, 1969.
Rowe, John A., ‘Revolution in Buganda, 1856–1900. Part One: The Reign of Kabaka Mukabya Mutesa, 1856–1884’ (unpublished PhD, The University of Wisconsin, 1966).
Sanders, Ethan R., ‘The African Association and the Growth and Movement of Politics in Mid-Twentieth Century East Africa’ (unpublished PhD, University of Cambridge, 2012).
Stonehouse, Aidan, ‘Peripheral Identities in an African State: A History of Ethnicity in the Kingdom of Buganda since 1884’ (unpublished PhD, University of Leeds, 2012).
Summers, Carol, ‘All the Kabaka's Wives: Baganda Women, the Kabaka Crisis (1953–6), and the Politics and Perils of Loyalty’, (2007, Draft Paper, New York: African Studies Association, 2007).
Waliggo, John M., ‘The Catholic Church in the Buddu Province of Buganda, 1879–1925’ (unpublished PhD, University of Cambridge, 1976).