Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Pracheil, Brenda M. Lyons, John Hamann, Ellen J. Short, Patrick H. and McIntyre, Peter B. 2019. Lifelong population connectivity between large rivers and their tributaries: A case study of shovelnose sturgeon from the Mississippi and Wisconsin rivers. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, Vol. 28, Issue. 1, p. 20.

    Couto, Thiago Belisario d’Araújo Zuanon, Jansen Olden, Julian D. and Ferraz, Gonçalo 2018. Longitudinal variability in lateral hydrologic connectivity shapes fish occurrence in temporary floodplain ponds. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 75, Issue. 2, p. 319.

    Arthington, Angela H. Dulvy, Nicholas K. Gladstone, William and Winfield, Ian J. 2016. Fish conservation in freshwater and marine realms: status, threats and management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, Vol. 26, Issue. 5, p. 838.

  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: December 2015

11 - Conservation of migratory fishes in freshwater ecosystems


Migratory fishes are natural wonders. For many people, the term migratory fish evokes images of salmon audaciously jumping at waterfalls as they return to their own riverine birthplace to spawn after years of growth in the ocean, but freshwater fishes actually show a broad spectrum of migration strategies. Migratory fishes include small species – three-spined sticklebacks that spawn in coastal streams around the northern Pacific and gobies that move from the ocean into tropical island streams by climbing waterfalls (McDowall, 1988) – as well as some of the largest freshwater fishes in the world, such as the Mekong dog-eating catfish and the Chinese paddlefish (Stone, 2007). Aside from migratory habits, these species have few shared characteristics; they encompass numerous evolutionary lineages, enormous differences in life history, and every possible direction and distance of migration. Biologists treat migratory freshwater fishes as a functional group because their life-history strategy revolves around long-distance movement between ecosystems in a perilous quest to take advantage of both high-quality breeding sites and bountiful feeding areas. As humans have physically blocked fish migrations, degraded breeding and feeding grounds and relentlessly harvested migrants for their flesh and roe, many populations have declined or been extirpated. This chapter will provide an overview of fundamental and applied research that is helping to guide efforts to conserve migratory freshwater fishes.

For practical purposes, we define migratory behaviour as the synchronized movement of a substantial proportion of a population between distinct habitats, which is repeated through time within or across generations. Modern definitions of fish migrations typically recognise both the adaptive benefits of migrating and individual variation in executing the general strategy (see McDowall, 1988; Lucas & Baras, 2001). Not every individual must move, the timing may vary somewhat from year to year, and the motive for migrating may include seeking refuge from harsh conditions in addition to breeding and feeding. Nonetheless, in most cases, migration is critical to individual fitness and population persistence because it enables specialised use of different habitats for growth and reproduction. Where their migration routes are blocked or key habitats are lost, migratory fishes often suffer rapid and catastrophic losses.

Human appropriation and degradation of the Earth's freshwater ecosystems (Vörösmarty et al., 2010; Carpenter et al., 2011) have transformed this reliance on multiple habitats into a detriment for many migratory fishes.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Conservation of Freshwater Fishes
  • Online ISBN: 9781139627085
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Acreman, M. C. & Ferguson, A. J. D. (2010). Environmental flows and the European water framework directive. Freshwater Biology, 55, 32–48.
Agostinho, C. S., Agostinho, A. A., Pelicice, F., Almeida, D. A. A. & Marques, E. E. (2007). Selectivity of fish ladders: a bottleneck in Neotropical fish movement. Neotropical Ichthyology, 5, 205–213.
Agostinho, A. A., Pelicice, F. M. & Gomes, L. C. (2008). Dams and the fish fauna of the Neotropical region: impacts and management related to diversity and fisheries. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 68, 1119–1132.
Ahas, R. & Aasa, A. (2006). The effects of climate change on the phenology of selected Estonian plant, bird and fish populations. International Journal of Biometeorology, 51, 17–26.
Allan, J. D. & Castillo, M. M. (2007). Stream Ecology: Structure and Function of Running Waters, second edition. New York, NY: Springer.
Allan, J. D., Abell, R., Hogan, Z. E. B., et al. (2005). Overfishing of inland waters. BioScience, 55, 1041–1051.
Alvarez-Romero, J. G., Pressey, R. L., Ban, N. C., et al. (2011). Integrated land–sea conservation planning: the missing links. Annual Reviews of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 42, 381–409.
Baker, M. R., Schindler, D. E., Holtgrieve, G. W. & St. Louis, V. L. (2009). Bioaccumulation and transport of contaminants: migrating sockeye salmon as vectors of mercury. Environmental Science and Technology, 43, 8840–8846.
Baker, R. R. (1978). The Evolutionary Ecology of Animal Migration. New York, NY: Holmes and Meier.
Bain, M. B., Finn, J. T. & Brooke, H. E. (1988). Streamflow regulation and fish community structure. Ecology, 69, 382–392.
Bain, M. B., Haley, N., Peterson, D. L., et al. (2007). Recovery of a US endangered fish. PLoS ONE, 2(1), e168.
Baran, E. & Myschowoda, C. (2009). Dams and fisheries in the Mekong Basin. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 12, 227–234.
Barlow, C., Baran, E., Halls, A. & Kshatriya, M. (2008). How much of the Mekong fish catch is at risk from mainstem dam development?Catch and Culture, 14, 16–21.
Baumgartner, L. J., Marsden, T., Singhanouvong, D., et al. (2011). Using an experimental in situ fishway to provide key design criteria for lateral fish passage in tropical rivers: a case study from the Mekong River, Central Lao PDR. River Research and Applications, 28, 1217–1229.
Bayley, P. B. (1995). Understanding large river–floodplain ecosystems. BioScience, 45, 153–158.
Beard, T. D., Arlinghaus, R., Cooke, S. J., et al. (2011). Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research needs and implementation strategies. Biology Letters, 7, 481–483.
Beck, M. W., Claassen, A. H. & Hunt, P. J. (2012). Environmental and livelihood impacts of dams: common lessons across development gradients that challenge sustainability. International Journal of River Basin Management, 10, 73–92.
Benstead, J. P., March, J. G., Pringle, C. M. & Scatena, F. N. (1999). Effects of a low-head dam and water abstraction on migratory tropical stream biota. Ecological Applications, 9, 656–668.
Bilby, R. E., Beach, E. W., Fransen, B. R., Walter, J. K. & Bisson, P. A. (2003). Transfer of nutrients from spawning salmon to riparian vegetation in western Washington. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 132, 733–745.
Bleackley, N. A., Landman, M. J. & Ling, N. (2009). Ecology of common bully (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) in the Tarawera and Rangitaiki rivers: isolation by inland distance or anthropogenic discharge?New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 43, 889–899.
Bowman, M. B. (2002). Legal perspectives on dam removal. BioScience, 52, 739–747.
Brasher, A. M. D. (2003). Impacts of human disturbances on biotic communities in Hawaiian streams. BioScience, 53, 1052–1060.
Brenkman, S. J., Duda, J. J., Torgersen, C. E., et al. (2012). A riverscape perspective of Pacific salmonids and aquatic habitats prior to large-scale dam removal in the Elwha River, Washington, USA. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 19, 36–53.
Browder, R. G. & Garman, G. C. (1994). Increased ammonium concentrations in a tidal freshwater stream during residence of migratory clupeid fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 123, 993–996.
Brown, J. H. & Kodric-Brown, A. (1977). Turnover rates in insular biogeography – effect of immigration on extinction. Ecology, 58, 445–449.
Brown, J. J., Limburg, K. E., Waldman, J. R., et al. (2013). Fish and hydropower on the U.S. Atlantic coast: failed fisheries policies from half-way technologies. Conservation Letters, 6, 280–286.
Bunn, S. E. & Arthington, A. H. (2002). Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic biodiversity. Environmental Management, 30, 492–507.
Bunt, C. M., Castro-Santos, T. & Haro, A. (2012). Performance of fish passage structures at upstream barriers to migration. River Research and Applications, 28, 457–478.
Cada, G. F. (1990). A review of studies relating to the effects of propeller-type turbine passage on fish early life stages. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 10, 418–426.
Carolsfeld, J., Harvey, B., Ross, C. & Baer, A. (2004). Migratory Fishes of South America: Biology, Fisheries, and Conservation Status. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.
Carpenter, S. R., Stanley, E. & Vander Zanden, M. J. (2011). State of the world's freshwater ecosystems: physical, chemical, and biological changes. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 36, 75–99.
Carwardine, J., Wilson, K. A., Watts, M., et al. (2008). Avoiding costly conservation mistakes: the importance of defining actions and costs in spatial priority setting. PLoS ONE, 3, e2586.
Childress, E., Allan, J. D. & McIntyre, P. B. (2014). Nutrient subsidies from native migratory fish enhance productivity in Great Lakes tributaries. Ecosystems, 17, 522–534.
Christie, K. S. & Reimchen, T. E. (2008). Presence of salmon increases passerine density on Pacific Northwest streams. The Auk, 125, 51–59.
Collins, S., Bickford, N., McIntyre, P. B., et al. (2013). Population structure of a Neotropical migratory fish: contrasting perspectives from genes and otolith microchemistry. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 142, 1192–1201.
Cooke, S. J., Bunt, C. M., Hamilton, S. J., et al. (2005). Threats, conservation strategies, and prognosis for suckers (Catostomidae) in North America: insights from regional case studies of a diverse family of non-game fishes. Biological Conservation, 121, 317–331.
Correa, C. & Gross, M. R. (2008). Chinook salmon invade southern South America. Biological Invasions, 10, 615–639.
Costa-Pierce, B. (1997). From Farmers to Fishers: Developing Reservoir Aquaculture for People Displaced by Dams, Vol. 369. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.
Coutant, C. C. & Whitney, R. R. (2000). Fish behavior in relation to passage through hydropower turbines: a review. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 129, 351–380.
Crespi, B. J. & Teo, R. (2002). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of semelparity and life history in salmonid fishes. Evolution, 56, 1008–1020.
Crook, V. (2010). Trade in Anguilla species, with a focus on recent trade in European eel, A. anguilla. TRAFFIC report prepared for the European Commission, 52.
da Silva, L. G. M., Nogueira, L. B., Maia, B. P. & de Resende, L. B. (2012). Fish passage post-construction issues: analysis of distribution, attraction and passage efficiency metrics at the Baguari Dam fish ladder to approach the problem. Neotropical Ichthyology, 10, 751–762.
Doyle, M. W. & Havlick, D. G. (2009). Infrastructure and the environment. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 34, 349–373.
Dudgeon, D. (2010). Requiem for a river: extinctions, climate change and the last of the Yangtze. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 20, 127–131.
Duncan, J. P. (2013). Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through the Fish Weir and Turbine Unit 1 at Foster Dam, Oregon, using Sensor Fish, 2012. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Fagan, W. F. (2002). Connectivity, fragmentation, and extinction risk in dendritic metapopulations. Ecology, 83, 3243–3249.
FAO [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations]. (2012). Fish-Stat Plus database.
Fausch, K. D., Rieman, B. E., Dunham, J. B., Young, M. K. & Peterson, D. P. (2009). Invasion versus isolation: trade-offs in managing native salmonids with barriers to upstream movement. Conservation Biology, 23, 859–870.
Feutry, P., Tabouret, H., Maeda, K., Pecheyran, C. & Keith, P. (2012). Diadromous life cycle and behavioural plasticity in freshwater and estuarine Kuhliidae species (Teleostei) revealed by otolith microchemistry. Aquatic Biology, 15, 195–204.
Finer, M. & Jenkins, C. N. (2012). Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes–Amazon connectivity. PLoS ONE, 7, e35126.
Finney, B. P., Gregory-Eaves, I., Douglas, M. S. V. & Smol, J. P. (2002). Fisheries productivity in the northeastern Pacific Ocean over the past 2,200 years. Nature, 416, 729–733.
Flecker, A. S. (1996). Ecosystem engineering by a dominant detritivore in a diverse tropical stream. Ecology, 77, 1845–1854.
Flecker, A. S., McIntyre, P. B., Moore, J. W., et al. (2010). Migratory fishes as material and process subsidies in riverine ecosystems. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 73, 559–592.
Frankham, R. (1995). Conservation genetics. Annual Review of Genetics, 29, 305–327.
Gerrard, J. M., Gerrard, P., Maher, W. J. & Whitfield, D. W. A. (1975). Factors influencing nest site selection of bald eagles northern Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Blue Jay, 33, 169–176.
Godinho, A. L. & Kynard, B. (2008). Migratory fishes of Brazil: life history and fish passage needs. River Research and Applications, 25, 702–712.
Gotelli, N. J. & Taylor, C. M. (1999). Testing metapopulation models with stream-fish assemblages. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 1, 835–845.
Greathouse, E. A., Pringle, C. M., McDowell, W. H. & Holmquist, J. G. (2006). Indirect upstream effects of dams: consequences of migratory consumer extirpation in Puerto Rico. Ecological Applications, 16, 339–352.
Gross, M. R., Coleman, R. M. & McDowall, R. M. (1988). Aquatic productivity and the evolution of diadromous fish migration. Science, 239, 1291–1293.
Hall, C. A. S. (1972). Migration and metabolism in a temperate stream ecosystem. Ecology, 53, 585–604.
Hamann, E. J. & Kennedy, B. P. (2012). Juvenile dispersal affects straying behaviors of adults in a migratory population. Ecology, 93, 733–740.
Hanski, I. (1999). Metapopulation Ecology, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hanson, N., Fogel, M., Fong, D. W. & MacAvoy, S. E. (2010). Marine nutrient transport: anadromous fish migration linked to the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fasciatus. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 88, 546–552.
Hard, J. J., Gross, M. R., Heino, M., et al. (2008). Evolutionary consequences of fishing and their implications for salmon. Evolutionary Applications, 1, 388–408.
Harden Jones, F. R. (1968). Fish Migration. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press.
Hasler, A. D. (1966). Underwater Guideposts: Homing of Salmon, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Hermoso, V., Januchowski-Hartley, S., Linke, S. & Possingham, H. P. (2011). Reference vs. present-day condition: early planning decision influence the achievement of conservation objectives. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 21, 500–509.
Hicks, B. J., Wipfli, M. S., Lang, D. W. & Lang, M. E. (2005). Marine-derived nitrogen and carbon in freshwater-riparian food webs of the Copper River Delta, south-central Alaska. Oecologia, 144, 558–569.
Hilderbrand, G. V., Hanley, T. A., Robbins, C. T. & Schwartz, C. C. (1999). Role of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the flow of marine nitrogen into a terrestrial ecosystem. Oecologia, 121, 546–550.
Hogan, J. D., McIntyre, P. B., Blum, M. J., Gilliam, J. F. & Bickford, N. (2014). Consequences of alternative dispersal strategies in a putatively amphidromous fish. Ecology, 95, 2397–2408.
Hortle, K. G. (2009). Fisheries of the Mekong river basin. In The Mekong. Biophysical Environment of a Transboundary River. New York, NY: Elsevier.
Huey, J. A., Crook, D. A., Macdonald, J. I., et al. (2014). Is variable connectivity among populations of a continental gobiid fish driven by local adaptation or passive dispersal?Freshwater Biology, 59, 1672–1686.
Humphries, P. L. & Winemiller, K. O. (2009). Historical impacts on river fauna, shifting baselines and challenges for restoration. BioScience, 59, 673–684.
Irvine, J. R. & Fukuwaka, M. (2011). Pacific salmon abundance trends and climate change. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68(6), 1122–1130.
Jackson, C. R. & Pringle, C. M. (2010). Ecological benefits of reduced hydrologic connectivity in intensively developed landscapes. BioScience, 60, 37–46.
Janetski, D. J., Chaloner, D. T., Tiegs, S. D. & Lamberti, G. A. (2009). Pacific salmon effects on stream ecosystems: a quantitative synthesis. Oecologia, 159, 583–595.
Janetski, D. J., Chaloner, D. T., Moerke, A. H., et al. (2012). Resident fishes display elevated organic pollutants in salmon spawning streams of the Great Lakes. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 8035–8043.
Januchowski-Hartley, S., McIntyre, P. B., Diebel, M. & Doran, P. J. (2013). Restoring aquatic ecosystem connectivity requires expanding inventories of both dams and road crossings. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, 11, 211–217.
Januchowski-Hartley, S., Diebel, M. H., Doran, P. J. & McIntyre, P. B. (2014). Predicting road culvert passability for migratory fishes. Diversity and Distributions, 20, 1414–1424.
Jeffres, C. & Moyle, P. (2012). When good fish make bad decisions: coho salmon in an ecological trap. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 32, 87–92.
Jennings, C. A. & Zigler, S. J. (2009). Biology and life history of paddlefish in North America: an update. In Paddlefish Management, Propagation, and Conservation in the 21st Century. Bethesda, MD: American Fisheries Society, pp. 1–22.
Johnson, G. E. & Dauble, D. D. (2006). Surface flow outlets to protect juvenile salmonids passing through hydropower dams. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 14, 213–244.
Johnson, S. E. & Graber, B. E. (2002). Enlisting the social sciences in decisions about dam removal. BioScience, 52, 731–738.
Juanes, F., Gephard, S. & Beland, K. (2004). Long-term changes in migration timing of adult Atlantic 480 salmon (Salmo salar) at the southern edge of the species distribution. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 61, 2392–2400.
Kareiva, P. M. (2012). Dam choices: analyses for multiple needs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 5553–5554.
Katopodis, C. & Williams, J. G. (2012). The development of fish passage research in a historical context. Ecological Engineering, 49, 8–18.
Kemp, P. S. & O'Hanley, J. R. (2010). Procedures for evaluating and prioritising the removal of fish passage barriers: a synthesis. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 17, 297–322.
Klingler, G. L., Adams, J. V. & Heinrich, J. W. (2003). Passage of four teleost species prior to sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) migration in eight tributaries of Lake Superior, 1954 to 1979. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 29, 403–409.
Kuby, M. J., Fagan, W. F., ReVelle, C. S. & Graf, W. L. (2005). A multiobjective optimization model for dam removal: an example trading off salmon passage with hydropower and water storage in the Willamette basin. Advances in Water Resources, 28, 845–855.
Landsman, S. J, Nguyen, V. M., Gutowsky, L. F. G., et al. (2011). Fish movement and migration studies in the Laurentian Great Lakes: research trends and knowledge gaps. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 37, 365–379.
Laurance, W. F. & Balmford, A. (2013). A global map for road building. Nature, 495, 308–309.
Lavis, D. S., Hallett, A., Koon, E. M. & McAuley, T. C. (2003). History of and advances in barriers as an alternative method to suppress sea lampreys in the Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 29, 362–372.
Leggett, W. C. & Carscadden, J. E. (1978). Latitudinal variation in reproductive characteristics of American shad (Alosa sapidissima): evidence for population specific life history strategies in fish. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 35, 1469–1478.
Lehner, B., Liermann, C. R., Revenga, C., et al. (2011). High-resolution mapping of the world's reservoirs and dams for sustainable river-flow management. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, 9, 494–502.
Leveque, C. (1997). Biodiversity Dynamics and Conservation: The Freshwater Fish of Tropical Africa. Cambridge University Press.
Levi, T., Darimont, C. T., MacDuffee, M., et al. (2012). Using grizzly bears to assess harvest-ecosystem tradeoffs in salmon fisheries. PLoS Biology, 10(4) e1001303.
Ligon, F. K., Dietrich, W. E. & Trush, W. J. (1995). Downstream ecological effects of dams: a geomorphic perspective. BioScience, 45, 183–192.
Limburg, K. E. & Waldman, J. R. (2009). Dramatic declines in North Atlantic diadromous fishes. BioScience, 59, 955–965.
Linke, S., Kennard, M. J., Hermoso, V., et al. (2012). Merging connectivity rules and large-scale condition assessment improves conservation adequacy in river systems. Journal of Applied Ecology, 49, 1036–1045.
Lucas, M. C. & Baras, E. (2001). Migration of Freshwater Fishes. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lytle, D. A. & Poff, N. L. (2004). Adaptation to natural flow regimes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19, 94–100.
Mallen-Cooper, M. & Brand, D. A. (2007). Non-salmonids in a salmonid fishway: what do 50 years of data tell us about past and future fish passage?Fisheries Management and Ecology, 14, 319–332.
Marsh, P. C. & Douglas, M. E. (1997). Predation on endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) by introduced fishes in the Little Colorado River, Arizona. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 126, 343–346.
Martin, E. H. & Apse, C. D. (2011). Northeast Aquatic Connectivity: an Assessment of Dams on Northeastern Rivers. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Freshwater Program.
McDowall, R. M. (1988). Diadromy in Fishes: Migrations between Freshwater and Marine Environments. Portland, OR: Timber Press.
McDowall, R. M. (1997). The evolution of diadromy in fishes (revisited) and its place in phylogenetic analysis. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 7, 443–462.
McElroy, B., DeLonay, A. & Jacobson, R. (2012). Optimum swimming pathways of fish spawning migrations in rivers. Ecology, 93, 29–34.
McIntyre, P. B., Jones, L., Flecker, A. S. & Vanni, M. J. (2007). Fish extinctions alter nutrient recycling in tropical freshwaters. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 4461–4466.
McIntyre, P. B., Flecker, A. S., Vanni, M., et al. (2008). Fish distributions and nutrient recycling in a tropical stream: can fish create biogeochemical hotspots?Ecology, 89, 2335–2346.
McKeown, B. A. (1984). Fish Migration. London: Croom Helm.
McLaughlin, R. L., Smyth, E. R. B., Castro-Santos, T., et al. (2012). Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage. Fish and Fisheries, 14, 580–604.
Meck, A. (1916). The Migrations of Fish. London: Edward Arnold.
Moilanen, A., Wilson, K. A. & Possingham, H. P. (2009). Spatial Conservation Prioritization: Quantitative Methods and Computational Tools. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Moore, J. W., Schindler, D. E. & Scheuerell, M. D. (2004). Disturbance of freshwater habitats by anadromous salmon in Alaska. Oecologia, 139, 298–308.
Moser, M. L., Ocker, P. A., Stuehrenberg, L. C. & Bjornn, T. C. (2002). Passage efficiency of adult pacific lampreys at hydropower dams on the lower Columbia River, USA. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 131, 956–965.
Myers, G. S. (1949). Usage of anadromous, catadromous and allied terms for migratory fishes. Copeia, 1949, 89–97.
Naiman, R. J., Bilby, R. E., Schindler, D. E. & Helfield, J. M. (2002). Pacific salmon, nutrients, and the dynamics of freshwater and riparian ecosystems. Ecosystems, 5, 399–417.
Neeson, T. M., Ferris, M. C., Diebel, M. W., et al. (2015). Enhancing ecosystem restoration efficiency through spatial and temporal coordination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112, 6236–6241.
Null, S. E. & Lund, J. R. (2012). Fish habitat optimization to prioritize river restoration decisions. River Research and Applications, 28, 1378–1393.
O'Hanley, J. R. (2011). Open rivers: barrier removal planning and the restoration of free-flowing rivers. Journal of Environmental Management, 92, 3112–3120.
Oldani, N. O. & Baigún, C. R. M. (2002). Performance of a fishway system in a major South American dam on the Parana River (Argentina/Paraguay). River Research and Applications, 18, 171–183.
Parrish, D. L., Behnke, R. J., Gephard, S. R., McCormick, S. D. & Reeves, G. H. (1998). Why aren't there more Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)?Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55, 281–287.
Patronski, T., Charbonneau, C., Dryer, P., et al. (2009). Fish passage and stream barrier management in the Bad River watershed in northern Wisconsin.
Pelicice, F. & Agostinho, A. A. (2008). Fish-passage facilities as ecological traps in large Neotropical rivers. Conservation Biology, 22, 180–188.
Pepino, M., Rodriguez, M. A. & Magnan, P. (2012). Fish dispersal in fragmented landscapes: a modeling framework for quantifying the permeability of structural barriers. Ecological Applications, 22, 1435–1445.
Perkin, J. S. & Gido, K. B. (2012). Fragmentation alters stream fish community structure in dendritic ecological networks. Ecological Applications, 22, 2176–2187.
Pikitch, E. A., Doukakis, P., Lauck, L., Chakrabarty, P. & Ericksen, D. L. (2005). Status, trends and management of sturgeon and paddlefish fisheries. Fish and Fisheries, 6, 233–265.
Poff, N. L., Allan, J. D, Bain, M. B., et al. (1997). The natural flow regime. BioScience, 47, 769–784.
Poff, N. L., Olden, J. D., Merritt, D. M. & Pepin, D. M. (2007). Homogenization of regional river dynamics by dams and global biodiversity implications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 5732–5737.
Pompeu, P. S., Agostinho, A. A. & Pelicice, F. M. (2012). Existing and future challenges: the concept of successful fish passage in South America. River Research and Applications, 28, 504–512.
Powers, S. M., Julian, J., Doyle, M. & Stanley, E. H. (2013). Retention and transport of nutrients in a mature agricultural impoundment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 118, 91–103.
Pracheil, B. M., Pegg, M. A. & Mestl, G. E. (2009). Tributaries influence recruitment of fish in large rivers. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 18, 603–609.
Pracheil, B. M., Pegg, M. A., Powell, L. A. & Mestl, G. E. (2012). Swimways: protecting paddlefish through movement-centered management. Fisheries, 37, 449–457.
Quinn, T. P. (2005). The Behavior and Ecology of Pacific Salmon and Trout. Bethesda, MD: American Fisheries Society.
Quinn, T. P. & Adams, D. J. (1996). Environmental changes affecting the migratory timing of American shad and sockeye salmon. Ecology, 77, 1151–1162.
Radtke, R. L. & Kinzie, R. A. (1996). Evidence of a marine larval stage in endemic Hawaiian stream gobies from isolated high-elevation locations. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 125, 613–621.
Rechisky, E. L., Welch, D. W., Porter, A. D., Jacobs-Scott, M. C. & Winchell, P. M. (2013). Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 6883–6888.
Reidy Liermann, C., Nilsson, C., Robertson, J. & Ng, R. (2012). Implications of dam obstruction for global freshwater fish diversity. BioScience, 62, 539–548.
Renaud, C. B. (1997). Conservation status of northern hemisphere lampreys (Petromyzontidae). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 13, 143–148.
Richards, R. A. & Rago, P. J. (1999). A case history of effective fishery management: Chesapeake Bay striped bass. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 19, 356–375.
Rinella, D. J., Wipfli, M. S., Stricker, C. A., Heintz, R. A. & Rinella, M. J. (2012). Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 69, 73–84.
Roscoe, D. W. & Hinch, S. G. (2010). Effectiveness monitoring of fish passage facilities: historical trends, geographic patterns and future directions. Fish and Fisheries, 11, 12–33.
Ruckelshaus, M. H., Levin, P., Johnson, J. B. & Kareiva, P. M. (2002). The Pacific salmon wars: what science brings to the challenge of recovering species. Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics, 33, 665–706.
Schindler, D. E., Hilborn, R., Chasco, B., et al. (2010). Population diversity and the portfolio effect in an exploited species. Nature, 465, 609–612.
Scott, M. L., Friedman, J. M. & Auble, G. T. (1996). Fluvial processes and the establishment of bottomland trees. Geomorphology, 14, 327–339.
Sedell, J. R., Reeves, G. H., Hauer, F. R., Stanford, J. A. & Hawkins, C. P. (1990). Role of refugia in recovery from disturbances: modern fragmented and disconnected river systems. Environmental Management, 14,711–724.
Smith, D. M., Welsh, S. A. & Turk, P. J. (2012). Available benthic habitat type may influence predation risk in larval lampreys. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 21, 160–163.
Stanley, E. H. & Doyle, M. W. (2003). Trading off: the ecological effects of dam removal. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1, 15–22.
Stein, B. A., Staudt, A., Cross, M. S., et al. (2013). Preparing for and managing change: climate adaptation for biodiversity and ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, 11, 502–510.
Stone, R. (2007). The last of the leviathans. Science, 316, 1684–1688.
Stuart, I. G. & Mallen-Cooper, M. (1999). An assessment of the effectiveness of a vertical slot fishway for non-salmonid fish at a tidal barrier on a large tropical/subtropical river. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management, 15, 575–590.
Taylor, B. W., Flecker, A. S. & Hall, R. O. (2006). Loss of a harvested fish species disrupts carbon flow in a diverse tropical river. Science, 31, 833–836.
Theriault, V., Dunlop, E. S., Dieckmann, U., Bernatchez, L. & Dodson, J. J. (2008). The impact of fishing-induced mortality on the evolution of alternative life-history tactics in brook charr. Evolutionary Applications, 1, 409–423.
Thiem, J. D., Binder, T. R., Dumont, P., et al. (2013). Multispecies fish passage behaviour in a vertical slot fishway on the Richelieu River, Quebec, Canada. River Research and Applications, 29, 582–592.
Thorstad, E. B., Fleming, I. A., McGinnity, P., et al. (2008). Incidence and impacts of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in nature. NINA Special Report 36. World Wildlife Fund, Inc.
Tiegs, S. D., Levi, P. S., Ruegg, J., et al. (2011). Ecological effects of live salmon exceed those of carcasses during an annual spawning migration. Ecosystems, 14, 598–614.
Todd, B. D., Bergeron, C. M., Hepner, M. J. & Hopkins, W. A. (2011). Aquatic and terrestrial stressors in amphibians: a test of the double jeopardy hypothesis based on maternally and trophically derived contaminants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30, 2277–2284.
Tsunagawa, T. & Arai, T. (2009). Migration diversity of the freshwater goby Rhinogobius sp. BI, as revealed by otolith Sr:Ca ratios. Aquatic Biology, 5, 187–194.
Velez-Espino, L. A., McLaughlin, R. L., Jones, M. L. & Pratt, T. C. (2011). Demographic analysis of trade-offs with deliberate fragmentation of streams: control of invasive species versus protection of native species. Biological Conservation, 144, 1068–1080.
Visser, M. E. & Both, C. (2005). Shifts in phenology due to global climate change: the need for a yardstick. Proceedings of The Royal Society B – Biological Sciences, 272, 2561–2569.
Vörösmarty, C. J., Maybeck, M., Fekete, B., et al. (2003). Anthropogenic sediment retention: major global impact from registered river impoundments. Global and Planetary Change, 39, 169–190.
Vörösmarty, C. J., McIntyre, P. B., Gessner, M. O., et al. (2010). Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature, 467, 555–561.
Walter, R. P., Hogan, J. D., Blum, M. J., et al. (2012). Climate change and conservation of amphidromous fishes endemic to Hawaiian streams. Endangered Species Research, 16, 261–272.
Walters, A. W., Barnes, R. T. & Post, D. M. (2009). Anadromous alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) contribute marine-derived nutrients to coastal stream food webs. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 66, 439–448.
Wang, C. Y., Wei, Q. W., Kynard, B., Du, H. & Zhang, H. (2012). Migrations and movements of adult Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis in the Yangtze River, China. Journal of Fish Biology, 81, 696–713.
Ward, J. V. & Stanford, J. A. (1983). The serial discontinuity concept of lotic ecosystems. In Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science, pp. 29–42.
Welcomme, R. L. (1985). River fisheries [Pesca fluvial]. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper.
Welcomme, R. L., Cowx, I. G., Coates, D., et al. (2010). Inland capture fisheries. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Biological Sciences, 365, 2881–2896.
Welsh, A. (2004). Factors influencing the effectiveness of local versus national protection of migratory species: a case study of lake sturgeon in the Great Lakes. Environmental Science and Policy, 7, 315–328.
Wilbur, H. M. (1980). Complex life cycles. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 11, 67–93.
Wilcove, D. S. & Wikelski, M. (2008). Going, going, gone: is animal migration disappearing? PLoS Biology, 6, e188.
Williams, J. G. (2008). Mitigating the effects of high-head dams on the Columbia River, USA: experience from the trenches. Hydrobiologia, 609, 241–251.
Williams, J. G., Armstrong, G., Katopodis, C., Lariniere, M. & Travade, F. (2012). Thinking like a fish: a key ingredient for development of effective fish passage facilities at river obstructions. River Research and Applications, 28, 407–417.
Willson, M. F. & Halupka, K. C. (1995). Anadromous fish as keystone species in vertebrate communities. Conservation Biology, 9, 489–497.
Winemiller, K. O. & Jepsen, D. B. (2004). Migratory Neotropical fish subsidize food webs of oligotrophic blackwater rivers. In Food Webs at the Landscape Level. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 115–132.
Wipfli, M. S., Hudson, J. & Caouette, J. (1998). Influence of salmon carcasses on stream productivity: response of biofilm and benthic macroinvertebrates in southeastern Alaska, USA. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55, 1503–1511.
Wollebæk, J., Heggenes, J. & Roed, K. H. (2011). Population connectivity: dam migration mitigations and contemporary site fidelity in arctic char. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11, 207.
Ziv, G., Baran, E., Nam, S., Rodríguez-Iturbe, I. & Levin, S. A. (2012). Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 5609–5614.