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    Nemet, Gregory F. Braden, Peter Cubero, Ed and Rimal, Bickey 2014. Four decades of multiyear targets in energy policy: aspirations or credible commitments?. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, Vol. 3, Issue. 5, p. 522.

    Nemet, Gregory F. 2015. Modeling long term energy futures after Nordhaus (1973). Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, Vol. 7, Issue. 2-3, p. 141.

  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: December 2013

19 - The U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation: Policy Consistency, Flexibility, and the Long-Term Consequences of Perceived Failures

from Part V - Actors and Institutions in the Energy Technology System
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Further Reading

There are two excellent book chapters on the U.S. synthetic fuels program in books by Cohen and Noll (1991) and Deutch and Lester (2004).


Ahrari, M. E., 1987. Public Opinion and Synfuels Policy. Political Science Quarterly, 102(4): 589–606.
Andrews, A., 2006. Oil Shale: History, Incentives, and Policy, Congressional Research Service Report.
Bartis, J. T., LaTourrette, T., Dixon, L., Peterson, D. J., & Cecchine, G., 2005. Oil Shale Development in the United States: Prospects and Policy Issues. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
Bayrer, R. L., 1991. Appraisal of Current Projects in Synthetic Fuels Technology. Fuel, 70(November): 1328.
Blazek, C. F., Baker, N. R., & Tison, R. R., 1979. High-Btu Coal Gasification Processes. Chicago, IL: Institute of Gas Technology.
Bohn, E. M., Cowles, J. O., Iyer, R. I., Dadiani, J., & Oyster, J. M., 1980. Utilization of Synthetic Fuels: An Environmental Perspective. McLean, VA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Cohen, L. R. & Noll, R. G., 1991. The Technology Pork Barrel. Washington, DC: Brookings.
Craig, P. P., Gadgil, A., & Koomey, J. G., 2002. What Can History Teach Us: A Retrospective Examination of Long-Term Energy Forecasts for the United States. Annual Review of Energy and Environment, 27: 83–118.
Deutch, J. M., 2005. What Should the Government Do to Encourage Technical Change in the Energy Sector?Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Deutch, J. M. & Lester, R. K., 2004. Making Technology Work: Applications in Energy and the Environment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Dravo Corp., 1976. Engineering Support Services Clean Boiler Fuel Demonstration Plant, Energy Research and Development Administration, Technical Information Center, Chemical Plants Division.
Edgar, T. F., 1983a. Chapter 7 – Coal Gasification. Coal Processing and Pollution. Houston, TX: Gulf Publications Company.
Edgar, T. F., 1983b. Chapter 8 – Coal Liquefaction. Coal Processing and Pollution. Houston, TX: Gulf Publications Company.
EIA, 2008. Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review. Table 4. World Oil Prices, Projected vs. Actual, Energy Information Administration. U.S. Department of Energy.
EIA, 2010a. January-last update, Annual Oil Market Chronology [Online]. Energy Information Administration. U.S. Department of Energy. Available: October 12.
EIA, 2010b. October-last update, Petroleum Navigator [Online]. Energy Information Administration. U.S. Department of Energy. Available: October 16.
Exxon, 1982. Exxon’s Abrupt Exit from Shale. Fortune, (May): 105–106.
Friends of the Earth, 2010. Our History [Online]. Friends of the Earth. Available: October 10.
Hederman, W. F., 1978. Prospects for the Commercialization of High-Btu Coal Gasification. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
Herrick, J. A., 2002. Federal Financing of Green Energy: Developing Green Industry in a Changing Energy Marketplace. Public Contract Law Journal, 21(2): 259–60.
Holt, N., 2005. Gasification and IGCC – Status, Challenges, Design Issues & Opportunities, Powerpoint Presentation at the GCEP Advanced Coal Workshop, March 15–16, Provo, Utah.
League of Conservation Voters, 1987. How the 99th Congress Voted on Energy and the Environment [Online]. League of Conservation Voters Report. Available:–1986_Scorecard.pdf. October 16.
McCloskey, M., 1981. The Environmental Impacts of Synthetic Fuels. Journal of Energy Law and Policy, 2: 1–12.
NETL, 2002. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), Report DOE/NETL-2002/1164, January.
O&G Journal, 1991. Unocal to Close Sole U.S. Commercial Oil Shale Plant. Oil & Gas Journal, 8(April): 38.
PCAST, 1997. Federal Energy Research and Development for the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century, President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President.
Priddy, H., 2008. History of the United States Synthetic Fuels Corporation, 28th Oil Shale Symposium, Colorado School of Mines, October 13–15.
Raloff, J., 1982. Synfuels Corp. Finally Comes to Life. Science News, 121(8).
Raloff, J., 1985. Washington Deals Synfuels a Big Blow. Science News, 128(6).
Raloff, J., 1986. Congress Kills the U.S. Synfuels Corp. Science News, 129(2).
Rothberg, P., 1983. Synthetic Fuels Corporation and National Synfuels Policy. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Science Policy Research Division.
Schock, R. N., Fulkerson, W., Brown, M. L., San Martin, D., Greene, R. L., & Edmonds, J., 1999. How Much is Energy Research & Development Worth as Insurance?Annual Review of Energy and Environment, 24: 487–512.
Synfuels Interagency Task Force, 1975. Synthetic Fuels Commercialization Program, Synfuels Interagency Task Force for the President’s Energy Resources Council.
Tennant, J. B., 2010. Overview of DOE’s Gasification Program. National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy.
The PACE Company Consultants & Engineers, 1985. Pace Synthetic Fuels Report, The PACE Company Consultants & Engineers.
Time, 1980. Synfuels Success. Time Magazine, June 2.
United States v. Great Plains Gasification Associates, 1987. 8th Circuit Court of Appeals, 813 F.2d 193, No. 86–5256, United States Court of Appeals.
U.S. DOE, 2002. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment, U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory report DOE/NETL-2002/1164.
U.S. DOE, 2009. Pioneering Gasification Plants [Online]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). Available: 1 April 2009.
U.S. DOE, 2010a. Early Days of Coal Research [Online]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). Available: November 2.
U.S. DOE, 2010b. Energy Timeline: from 1971–1980 [Online]. Washington, DC: US Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). Available:–1980.htm. October 16.
Williams, R. H., 2007. Written Testimony of Robert H. Williams. Hearing on the Future of Coal under Carbon Cap and Trade, U.S. House of Representatives.