Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Print publication year: 2005
  • Online publication date: September 2009

Part III - Formal structures


The papers in the preceding section of this volume look, in broad terms, at the role of race and ethnicity in the production of social mobility, through a focus on families and neighborhoods. The present section focuses more closely on how these forces translate into social mobility outcomes, with additional attention to the critical area of education and ancestry (which we will call “pre-market forces”), and a new emphasis on the way that race and ethnicity are woven into the labor market. The fundamental points of these papers taken as a whole are: (a) important social forces not usually considered in any detail by economists are at work in both arenas; (b) race and ethnicity channel and magnify these forces; and (c) the comparative study of the two countries places these forces in sharper relief.

From the perspective taken here, social mobility is the joint product of the human capital of individuals, combined with the social capital embedded in ethno-racially specific networks. This human and social capital is refracted through the social organization of work, within labor market and political systems that are structured in part by the social meaning of race. Only when all of these considerations are taken together can we have a truly rounded understanding of how groups are stratified and how individuals attain economic and social status.

The standard way of thinking about the influence of racial or ethnic categories in the labor market is the model originally introduced by Gary Becker.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Ethnicity, Social Mobility, and Public Policy
  • Online ISBN: 9780511489228
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

D. Card and A. Krueger , 1992, “School Quality and the Relative Earnings of Blacks and Whites,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 107: 151–200

O. D. Duncan 1979, “How Destination Depends on Origin in Social Mobility,” American Journal of Sociology 84: 793–804

R. M. Hauser and D. L. Featherman , 1976, “Equality of Schooling: Trends and Prospects,” Sociology of Education 49: 99–120

D. Karen , 1991, “The Politics of Race, Class, and Gender: Access to Higher Education in the United States, 1960–1986,” American Journal of Education 99: 208–37

S. R. Lucas , 1996, “Selective Attrition in a Newly Hostile Regime: The Case of 1980 Sophomores,” Social Forces 75: 999–1019

A. E. Raftery and M. Hout , 1993, “Maximally Maintained Inequality: Expansion, Reform, and Opportunity in Irish Education, 1921–1975,” Sociology of Education 66: 41–62

R. Berthoud 2000, “Ethnic Employment Penalties in Britain,” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 26: 389–416

T. Modood , 1993, “The Number of Ethnic Minority Students in British Higher Education,” Oxford Review of Education 19: 167–82

T. Modood 2004, “Capitals, Ethnic Identity and Educational Qualifications,” Cultural Trends 13(2): 87–105

A. Pilkington , 1999, “Racism in Schools and Ethnic Differentials in Educational Achievement: A Brief Comment on a Recent Debate,” British Journal of Sociology of Education 20: 411–17

M. Shiner and T. Modood , 2002, “Help or Hindrance? Higher Education and the route to Ethnic Equality,” British Journal of Sociology of Education 23: 209–30

W. T. Dickens and J. R. Flynn , 2001, “Heritability Estimates Versus Large Environmental Effects: The IQ Paradox Resolved,” Psychological Review 108, 2: 346–69

R. Dreeben and A. Gamoran , 1986, “Race, Instructions, and Learning,” American Sociological Review 51: 660–9

W. N. Evans , S. Murray , and R. Schwab , 1997, “Schoolhouses, Courthouses, and Statehouses after Serrano,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 16, 1: 10–31

M. K. Finley , 1984, “Teachers and Tracking in a Comprehensive High School,” Sociology of Education 57: 233–43

A. Gamoran and M. Berends , 1987, “The Effects of Stratification in Secondary Schools: Synthesis of Survey and Ethnographic Research,” Review of Educational Research 57, 4 (Winter): 415–35

A. Gamoran and R. G. Mare , 1989, “Secondary School Tracking and Educational Inequality: Compensation, Reinforcement, or Neutrality?” American Journal of Sociology 94: 1146–83

M. S. Garet and B. Delaney , 1988, “Students, Courses and Stratification,” Sociology of Education 61: 61–77

T. L. Good , 1987, “Two Decades of Research on Teacher Expectations: Findings and Future Directions,” Journal of Teacher Education 38, 4: 32–47

R. Greenwald , L. V. Hedges , and R. D. Laine , 1996, “The Effect of School Resources on Student Achievement,” Review of Educational Research 66: 361–96

E. J. Haller , 1985, “Pupil Race and Elementary School Ability Grouping: Are Teachers Biased Against Black Children?” American Educational Research Journal 22, 4: 465–83

V. E. Lee and A. S. Bryk , 1988, “Curriculum Tracking as Mediating the Social Distribution of High School Achievement,” Sociology of Education 61: 78–94

A. M. Pallas , D. R. Entwisle , K. L. Alexander , and M. F. Stluka , 1994, “Ability-Group Effects: Instructional, Social, or Institutional?” Sociology of Education 67: 27–46

J. E. Ryan , 1999, “Schools, Race and Money,” Yale Law Journal 109: 249–316

F. Schwartz , 1981, “Supporting or Subverting Learning: Peer Group Patterns in Four Tracked Schools,” Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 12: 99–121

T. Bailey and R. Waldinger , 1991, “Primary, Secondary and Enclave Labor Markets: A Training Systems Approach,” American Sociological Review 56: 432–45

G. Borjas , 1994, “Long-run Convergence of Ethnic Skill Differentials: The Children and Grandchildren of the Great Migration,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 47: 553–73

N. Fainstein and S. Fainstein , 1994, “Urban Regimes and Black Citizens: The Economic and Social Impacts of Black Political Incorporation in US Cities,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 20, 1: 22–37

G. Gilbertson , 1995, “Women's Labor and Enclave Employment: The Case of Dominican and Colombian Women in New York City,” International Migration Review 29: 657–70

D. Kaplan , 1998, “The Spatial Structure of Urban Ethnic Economies,” Urban Geography 19: 489–501

J. R. Logan , R. Alba , and T. L. McNulty , 1994, “Ethnic Economies in Metropolitan Regions: Miami and Beyond,” Social Forces 72: 691–724

G. C. Loury , 1998, “Discrimination in the Post-Civil Rights Era: Beyond Market Interactions,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 12: 117–26

A. Portes , 1997, “Immigration Theory for a New Century: Some Problems and Opportunities,” International Migration Review 1997 31: 799–825

A. Portes and J. Sensenbrenner , 1993, “Embeddedness and Immigration: Notes on the Social Determination of Economic Action,” American Journal of Sociology 98: 1320–50

A. Portes and M. Zhou , 1992, “Gaining the Upper Hand: Old and New Perspectives in the Study of Ethnic Minorities,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 15: 491–522

J. Sanders and V. Nee , 1987, “Limits of Ethnic Solidarity in the Enclave Economy,” American Sociological Review 52: 745–67

R. Waldinger , 1993, “The Ethnic Enclave Debate Revisited,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 17, 3: 428–36

R. Waldinger 1994, “The Making of an Immigrant Niche,” International Migration Review 28: 3–30

M. Zhou and J. Logan , 1989, “Returns on Human Capital in Ethnic Enclaves: New York City's Chinatown,” American Sociological Review 54: 809–20

P. D. Allison , 1999, “Comparing Logit and Probit Coefficients Across Groups,” Sociological Methods and Research 28: 186–208

Y. Cheng and A. Heath , 1993, “Ethnic Origins and Class Destinations,” Oxford Review of Education 19, 2: 151–65

Frank Dobbin , J. Sutton , J. Mayer , and W. R. Scott , 1993, “Equal Opportunity Law and the Construction of Internal Labor Markets,” American Journal of Sociology 99: 396–427

M. Durr and J. R. Logan , 1997, “Racial Submarkets in Government Employment: African American Managers in New York State,” Sociological Forum 12: 353–70

E. A. Fieldhouse , 1996, “Putting Unemployment in Its Place: Using the Sample of Anonymised Records to Explore the Risk of Unemployment in Great Britain in 1991,” Regional Studies 30: 119–33

N. Foner , 1979, “West Indians in New York City and London: A Comparative Perspective,” International Migration Review 13: 284–97

W. P. Frisbie and L. Neidert , 1977, “Inequality and the Relative Size of Minority Populations,” American Journal of Sociology 82: 1007–30

R. W. Hodge , 1973, “Toward a Theory of Racial Differences in Employment,” Social Forces 52: 16–31

C. Holdsworth and A. Dale , 1997, “Ethnic Differences in Women's Employment,” Work, Employment and Society 11: 435–57

A. J. Jowett , A. M. Findlay , F. L. N. Li , and R. Skeldon , 1995, “The British Who Are Not British and the Immigration Policies That Are Not: The Case of Hong Kong,” Applied Geography 15: 245–65

Everett S. Lee , 1966, “A Theory of Migration,” Demography 3: 47–57

I. Light , 1984, “Immigrant and Ethnic Enterprise in North America,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 7: 195–216

I. Light , G. Sabagh , M. Bozorgmehr , and C. Der-Martirosian , 1994, “Beyond the Ethnic Enclave Economy,” Social Problems 41: 65–80

S. Model , 1997, “An Occupational Tale of Two Cities: Minorities in London and New York,” Demography 34: 539–50

S. Model , G. Fisher , and R. Silberman , 1999, “Black Caribbeans in Comparative Perspective,” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 25: 187–212

S. Model and D. Ladipo , 1996, “Context and Opportunity: Minorities in London and New York,” Social Forces 75: 485–510

A. Phizacklea and M. Ram , 1996, “Being Your Own Boss: Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurs in Comparative Perspective,” Work, Employment and Society 10: 319–39

C. Winship and L. Radbill , 1994, “Sampling Weights and Regression Analysis,” Sociological Methods and Research 23: 230–57

John F. Zipp , 1994, “Government Employment and Black–White Earnings Inequality, 1980–1990,” Social Problems 41: 363–82

A. J. Fielding , 1995, “Migration and Social Change: A Longitudinal Study of the Social Mobility of Immigrants in England and Wales,” European Journal of Population 11: 107–21

A. F. Heath and J. M. Ridge , 1983, “Social mobility of ethnic minorities,” Journal of Biosocial Science, supplement no. 8: 169–84

P. Iganski and G. Payne , 1996, “Declining Racial Disadvantage in the British Labour Market,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 19: 113–34

D. Leslie , S. Drinkwater , and N. O'Leary , 1998, “Unemployment and Earnings among Britain's Ethnic Minorities: Some Signs for Optimism,” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 24: 489–506

Suzanne Model , 1999, “Ethnic Inequality in England: An Analysis Based on the 1991 Census,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 22: 966–90

Vaughan Robinson , 1990, “Roots to Mobility: The Social Mobility of Britain's Black Population, 1971–1987,” Ethnic and Recial Studies 13: 274–86

A. Green and D. Owen , 1985, “The changing spatial distribution of socio-economic groups employed in manufacturing in Great Britain 1971–81,” Geoforum 16: 387–402

D. Ley , 1977, “Social Geography and the Taken-For-Granted World,” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 2: 468–512