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  • European Elites and Ideas of Empire, 1917–1957
  • Online publication date: May 2016
  • pp 317-344
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

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        • Dina Gusejnova, University of Sheffield
        • Book: European Elites and Ideas of Empire, 1917–1957
        • Online publication: 25 May 2016
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        • Dina Gusejnova, University of Sheffield
        • Book: European Elites and Ideas of Empire, 1917–1957
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        • Dina Gusejnova, University of Sheffield
        • Book: European Elites and Ideas of Empire, 1917–1957
        • Online publication: 25 May 2016
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Index

1789–93
French Revolution, xxxii
1791
Saint-Domingue uprising, 14
1815
Congress of Vienna, 80
1833
slavery abolished in the British Empire, xxiii
1848
European revolutions, 12
generation of, 19
Johann Strauß Jr.’s ambivalent attitude to, 35
1857
Indian Rebellion, 9, 27
1867
Austro-Hungarian Compromise, xlvii, 5
execution of Emperor Maximilian in Mexico, xlvii, 16
Great Exhibition in Paris, 18
interpretation of Maximilian’s execution in Dieterle’s Juarez (1938), 33
opening of the Suez Canal, 35
1871
foundation of the German Empire, 51
Franco-Prussian War, 51
proclamation of German Empire at Versailles, xxxii
1905
assassination of Grand Duke Sergius in Moscow, 23
Baltic national movements in, 143
first emigration of German aristocrats from the Baltic region, 185
in Lithuanian historiography, 152
Keyserling’s experience of, 52
revolution in Russia, 30, 146
1914
assassination of Franz Ferdinand, 34
Deutsche Gesellschaft founded, 48
in historiography, 38
1914, 28 June
assassination of Franz Ferdinand, 4
1914, August
outbreak of the First World War, 37
1916
death of Franz Josef I, Emperor of Austria, 5
1917, xlvii
Balfour Declaration, 95
divided archive of Baron Taube, 171
February Revolution in Russia, xx
Freud lectures on Mourning and Melancholia in Vienna, 23
internment of Baltic Barons for treason in Russian Empire, 146
Max Weber’s talk about Personality and the Orders of Life, xxxviii
representation of revolutions in film, 34
Revolutions in Russian Empire, xxii
Start of Peace talks at Brest-Litovsk, xx
1917 Club, The
and Leonard Woolf’s foundation of, 214
1918
acquisition of Manet’s Execution of Maximilian by the National Gallery in London, 21
cities, xxii
disintegration of the Habsburg Empire, 69
Dissolution of the Pale of Settlement, 147
Habsburgergesetz passed in Austria, 71
Jozef Piłsudski released from Magdeburg fortress, 53
Keyserling’s experience of, 134
November revolutions in Germany, xxx, 53, 100, 108, 188
November, foundation of Kurt Hiller’s club Politischer Rat geistiger Arbeiter, 94
Representation of the People Act in Britain, xxiii
revolution in Germany, 100
shooting of Romanoff family and immediate household in Ekaterinburg, xxvi
1919
abolition of aristocratic privilege in Austria, 109
award of Nietzsche prize to Oswald Spengler and Hermann Keyserling, 133
failure of Munich Republic, 187
Max Weber’s Munich lecture on Politics as a Vocation, xxxiii
Spartacus Uprising in Berlin, 102
Versailles, Peace of, xxxii
1922
assassination of Walther Rathenau, 215
T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land published, 219
1932
Volta Congress on Europe, 192
1933
Anrep’s first design of National Gallery mosaics, 208
Entretiens sur l’Avenir de l’Esprit Européen in Paris, 138
Hitler appointed Chancellor, 194
National Socialism and revolution, 194
Nobel Peace Prize, 62
1935
Nuremberg laws and implications for aristocratic families, 197
1937
Great Exposition in Paris, 233
1938
annexation of Austria by the German Empire, 78
Kristallnacht in Germany, 122
1939
Hitler–Stalin pact, xxi, 200
Norbert Elias’s The Civilizing Process published in Switzerland, 25
Volta Congress on Africa in Rome, 203
1941
Alfred Rosenberg appointed Commissioner for the Eastern Territories, 197
German invasion of the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa, 141
London Blitz, 233
1945
Germany’s capitulation and the end of Second World War, 236
occupation and division of Germany, 118
Yalta Conference, xxi
1957, xlv
Treaty of Rome, xxii, xlvii, 237
abdication, xx, 8, 193
abolition
benefits from, 220
of aristocratic estates in the Baltic, 164
of monarchy, xxi
of noble titles and privileges in Austria, 198
of the nobility, 8, 109
of private property, xl
of religion, xl
of samurai privileges, 77
of slavery, xxiii, 220
of status, xxix
of titles in Weimar Germany, 107
redistribution, 107
socialism, 78
Adyar
Theosophical Society, 125
aesthetic reform, 123
affective community, 221
Africa, xli
diaspora, 165, 309
exoticism of, 113
joking relationships, 147
pan-European idea, 71
Volta Congress on, 203
Agrarian Union, and Germany, 105
Ahnenpass, 164
Akhmatova, Anna, 208
palace in Leningrad, 211
Alastair, 116
Alexander I of Russia, 185
Alexander II of Russia
assassination of, 9
Alexanderplatz, 60
Ali, Abdullah Yusuf, 83
alienation, 171, 241, 248, 250
alien rule, xxviii
aristocratic, xxxvii
culture, 249
Alix von Hessen-Darmstadt, Empress of Russia
pearls, 31
Alps, 98
Altdorfer, Albrecht, 26
Altes Schloss Königsberg, 37
Alvensleben, Maximilian Baron von, 16
Alvensleben, Udo von
Veltheim’s circle, 116
Ambras, Castle of, 14
Amery, Leo, 92, 95
anarchists, xxix
ancien régime, xxiv, xxix, xxxviii, 23, 57, , 7071, 110
Angell, Norman, 62
Anif Castle, 188
animals
bison, fear of extinction of, xxvi
deer, 3
horses, 31, 56, 69, 119
hunting of, 25
Leopards, 25, 35
Leopard, Lampedusa’s metaphor, 248, 251
lions, 35
sheep, 41
snakes, 14
tigers, 25
Anrep, Boris von, 208, 243
Anschluss, 69
Anthropology, 45, 62, 142, 146
classification of folk groups, 102
idea of folklore, 8
Anthroposophical Society, 117
anti-Bolshevism, 55, 94, 130, 135
Coudenhove-Kalergi, 94
anticolonial movements, 9, 25
anti-fascism, xliv, 62, 135, 141
Antigone, 154
Antigone, appropriation of plot in the twentieth century, 140
anti-Napoleonic wars, xxiv
anti-Semitism, 196, 231
Aurel Popovici, 74
critique of, 86
National Socialism, 138
Anzilotti, Dionisio, 158
Aoyama, Mitsuko, xli, 77, 84
apocalypse
representations of the First World War, 46
Apponyi, Count, 195
Arabian Sea, 35
Archduchy
invention of, 11
Archduke, 3, 4, 7, 75
architecture, 26
Archiv für Sozialwissenschaften und Sozialpolitik, 59
archives, xlv, 10, 91, 141, 171, 180, 215, 247
empires, xlv
governments, xlv
private collections, xlv
Arcimboldo, 26
Arendt, Hannah, 181, 200
Argentina
Tagore’s and Keyserling’s visits of, 132
aristocracy, xli, xxiii, xxxviii, 53, 67, 104, 110, 119, 121
aristocratic writers, xliii
aristocrats, xxxviii
Armenians, xxix
armies
American Civil War, 125
Austro-Hungarian, 76
auxiliary, 57
Bolshevik decrees on the abolition of ranks, xxix
British Army, 118
cadets, 56, 59
cavalry, 102, 178
cultural code in, 39
foreign regiments in the European imperial armies, 57
Habsburg army, multinational character of, 53
Hessian regiments, 118
imperial, xxx, xxxi, 51
dismantling of, 58
Max Weber’s lectures for officers of the Austro-Hungarian army, xxxv
Norfolk Yeomanry, 57
occupation by, 177, 178, 247
paramilitary corps, 60
prisoners of war, 45
Red Army, 137, 182
transnationalism of, 56
war crimes, 157
White Army, 38, 137, 178, 193
Arnold, Matthew, 213
art collections
national, 208
National Gallery, London, 151
royal, 27
art nouveau
Ernst Ludwig’s patronage of, 123
artists, 26, 113, 187
Arts and Crafts movement, 49
Ernst Ludwig’s interest in, 123
Ascona, 190
Asia, xli, 13
assassination
dynasties, 8
fear of, 1
Franz Ferdinand, 4
of revolutionary leaders, xxii
photographic representation of, 1
political, xlvii
Atlantic, xxviii
Aubert, François, 30
photography, 29
Auf gut Deutsch, 191
Aurora, 154
Australia, 4, 13
Austria, 72
as capital of Paneuropa, 71
constitutional assembly of, 198
crown land of the Habsburgs, 11
Republic of, xxviii
sexual tourism in the interwar period, 217
shaming of aristocratic families in, 109
Austria, Emperor of, 12
Austria, Republic of, xxx
Austria-Hungary, xx, xxiv, xxv, xxviii, xxxii, xli, xliii, 3, 53, 58, 64, 73, 74, 77, 96, 187, 202, 203, 221, 222, 223
authority, xliii, 7, 25, 27, 59, 89
autobiography, xxiii, xliv, 48, 61, 228
Veltheim, 118
aviators, 63
Ažbe, Anton, 187
Baden-Powell, Robert, 181
Baeck, Leo
School of Wisdom, 123
Baghdad, 32
Bahia
early photography, 30
Baker, Josephine, 217
Balfour Declaration, 95
balloon flights
Battle of Solferino, 28
Baltic
Germans, 105
land reforms, 118
lands, 142
nobility, 124
ostzeiskie nemtsy, 152
plurality of juristidictions in, 142
Provinces, 44
region, xxix, 122
Baltic Barons, xxv, xxx, 30, 67, 68, 140, 142, 143, 146, 147, 151, 152, 156, 160, 164, 166, 168, 169, 170, 172, 178
caricatures of, 143
transnationalism, xliv
white émigrés, 142
Baltic lands, 30, 69, 142
Baltic Lloyd, 38
Baltic Seas, xxviii
Baltic states, xxx, xxxiii
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, xxix
Baltische Ritterschaften, 105
banking, xxv, 91
Belle Epoque, 48
First World War, xxxvii
in imperial economies, 220
Weimar Republic, 51
banks
Bank of India, 117
funding for Paneuropa, 90
restructuring of, 238
Swiss, 98
Banz, Castle, 180
Barthes, Roland, 31
Bata, Tomas
funding of Paneuropa movement, 90
battle painters, 28
Bauer, Theodor, 214, 276
Bavaria, xx, 185, 188, 189, 191
Bavarian King, abdication of, 188
Bayer corporation
funding of Paneuropa movement, 90
Beales, Carleton
journalism, 33
Beatles, The, 250
Becher, Johannes R., 49
Bedford, Duke of
private zoo in London, xxvi
Beer Hall putsch, 189
Behr, Baron Kurt von
heritage, 180
being known in virtue of being known, 6
Belgium, xxxi, 17
German atrocities in, 49
Bell, Vanessa, 243
Belle Epoque, 1, 48
legal internationalism, 142
Belyi, Andrei, 126
benefits, xxvi, 235
Beneš, Edvard, 86, 89, 90, 92, 93, 289
Bengal, xxxvi, 121
Benjamin, Walter, 29
Berdyaev, Nikolai, 126
Bergson, Henri, xliv, 116, 124
Berkshire Hills, 63, 242
Berlin, xxii, 30, 37, 38, 60, 153, 157, 187
Russian emigration to, 141
Bernhard, Georg, 213, 216, 291, 293, 305
Besant, Annie, 126
Theosophical Society, 110
Bibliothèque Nationale, 48
Bielaiev, General Ivan, 44
Bildung, 82
biography, xxxv, 214
Bismarck, Goedela, 67
Bismarck, Gottfried von
membership in the Nazi party, 200
Bismarck, Otto von, 67, 185
Bissung, Friedrich Wilhelm von, 116
Blavatsky, Helena, 124
Blavatsky, Madame Helena, 124
Blok, Aleksandr, 126
Bloomsbury, 52
Bloomsbury group, 32, 175, 210, 217
transnational relationships in, 211
Blüher, Hans, 289
Bluntschli, Johann Caspar, 74, 159, 160
Bohemia, 72, 84
Bologna, xxxvii
Bolsheviks, xx, xxix, xxxi, xl, 52
idea of class struggle, 133
new diplomacy, 216
party, xxix
perceptions by tourists, 122
Poland, 55
revolution, xxii
Russian Civil War, 38
socialism, 159
VChk, 182
Bolshevism, 127, 138, 205
fear of in Weimar Germany, 108
Keyserling’s descripton of, 134
Bonaparte family, 16
employment of court photographers, 26
borderlands, 43
ethnographic sketches of, 148
borders, xxii, xlv, 37, 71, 83, 97, 186, 205, 234, 237
national, xxxviii
Russian, xxi
transcendence of, xxxviii
transgression of through air, 46
Bormann, Martin, 179
Bosch, Robert, 51, 91
Boston, 20
Bourbon, House of, 32
Bourbons, Catholicism of, 70
Bourdieu, Pierre, 149
Brabourne, Lord, Viceroy of India and Governor of Bengal, 121122
Brahmin, xxxvi, 68, 132
Brandenburg, 70
Protestantism, 70
representation of, 51
Brandenburger Tor, 60
brands
coats of arms, 6
Brazil, 4, 13, 70
Bremen, 38
Bremer Lloyd, 38
Brest-Litovsk, xx, xxiv, xxvi, xxxi, xxxii, xl, 52, 313
treaty of, xxv, 170, 237
Briand, Aristide, xliii, 92, 93, 94, 95, 276, 311
and relationship with Stresemann, 93
Paneuropa, 89
Britain, xxx, xxxi, 1, 118
post-imperial, 240
British Commonwealth, xli
British Empire, 19, 48, 80
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s changing views of, 72
Brod, Max, 86
Broglie, family of, xxxvii
Bruckmann, Elsa, 189
salon of, 194
Bruckmann, Hugo, 193
Brussels, 51
Bucharest, 51
Budapest, xxii
Buenos Aires, 30
buffer zone, interimperial, 142
Bug, xxxiii
Bukowinaer Post, 74
Bulgaria, xx
burghers, 207
Burke, Edmund, xxiv, 70
Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), xxiv
Burma
Veltheim’s travels to, 116
business, personal, 37
Byzantine Empire, xliii, 156
Taube’s admiration for, 167
Taube’s study of, 156
C.L.R. James, The Case for West Indian Self-Government (1937), 232
cabaret, 51
cabinet of Junkers and Barons
Weimar Germany, 107
Calcutta, 9, 121, 131
Cambridge Apostles, 215
Cambridge University, 210
Campanella, Tommaso de, 82
Canada
railway business, 48
Cancrin, family of, 162
Capa, Robert, 33
capital
cultural, xxiv, 49, 110, 220
private, 27
slave trade, 52
capitalism, xxi, 7
Baltic, 183
communication, 230
Nazi critique of, 201
Capuchin Vault, 70, 84
Caribbean, 230, 242
caricatures, 104, 137, 143, 145, 146, 185
carnival, 143
Carnegie Foundation, 84, 158
funding of Paneuropa movement, 90
genealogy of international law, 157
Carpathian mountains, 44, 63
Cars, Dukes de, xxxvii
cartes de visite, 29
Cassirer, Ernst, 244
category crisis, 242
Catherine II, Empress of Russia, xxix, 140, 171
Catholic Church, 163
Catholicism, 70, 84, 205, 206
émigré communities, 153
internationalism, 201
cavalry, 43, 44, 56, 57, 118
British Empire, 57
celebrity, xxiv, xxv, xli, 5, 6, 241
attribution to collectives, 67
mechanism of, 7
mediation of, 7
celebrity of decline, 19, 25
central Asia, 28
Cesanek, Fritz, 79
Ceylon, 215, 226
Chagall, Marc
ethnographyof eastern Europe, 45
chain, aristocratic
and French Revolution, xxxviii
Chamberlain, Houston Stewart, 124, 193
Chapultepec, Castle of, 24
charisma, xxiv, xliv, 6, 207
character, xxxvi
cultural production of, 26
education, xxxvii
groups, 67
Max Weber’s concept of, xxxvii
monuments of assassination, 9
Munich, 190
National Socialism, 179
Paneuropa, 82
personality, xxxvii
revolutionary, xxii
royal, and persistence of, 8
theological origins of, 6
charisma of decline
German intellectuals, xlvii
Charlotte of Belgium, 17
Chatham House, 78, 83, 89, 239
Chicago, 28
chivalry, 178, 184, 185
chivalric orders, 105
National Socialism, 179
the Boy Scouts, 181
Chlumetzky, Baron Johann Heinrich von, 73
Christian Empire, idea of, 82
Christianity
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s idea of Europe, 80
Churchill, Winston, 43, 92, 94, 95, 236
circulation
elites, xxxix
images, 10
cities, xxii, xxxvii, 9, 12, 17, 18, 19, 24, 54, 75, 121, 131, 177, 207
as centers of interwar internationalism, xxiii
as centres of international law, 177
former seats of royal or princely power, xxiv, 108, 123
Hanseatic, 184
revolutionary violence in Germany, 60
citizenship, xxi, 84, 105, 109, 162, 164, 177, 222
city states, xxxv
civil servants, 32, 37, 226
civil war, xxx, 15
Russian, 38, 137
US, 15, 125
civilizing process, 25
civilization, 202
Europe, 32
Clary-Aldringen, Alfons, 120
class
and Weber, xxxvi
clubs and associations, 31, 46, 51, 52, 78, 83, 105, 130, 191, 214, 215
coats of arms, xxx, 6, 111, 149, 246, 249
Cold War, 96
Colonial Society, and Germany, 105
colonialism, xxxii, 71, 82, 95, 121, 197, 200, 232, 234
and Volta Congress, 202
sexual freedom, 217
colonies
Paneuropa, 80
colonization
Jews, 43
Colpach Castle
Mayrisch family, 90
Columbia University, 84
Columbus, Christopher, 19
Comenius, Jan
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s genealogy of Europe, 81
Comintern, 213
Committee for a Free Germany, 62
commodification, 5
impossibility of control, 15
memory, xxiii
commodities cannot go to market
Karl Marx’s phrase, 7
communities
intellectual, xxii, xxv
political, xxxix
transnational, xxii
companies, 35, 38, 90, 113
compensation, xxxi, 220
expropriation of German princes, 108
slave-owners of Bloomsbury, 220
Comsomol
ideas of chivalry in, 181
confiscation, xlv
Congress of Vienna, 80
Constantinople, 24, 26, 125
constitutional democrats
Ukraine, xxx
contact zone, 245
contemporaneity, xxv
control
and territory, 16
conversion, xxxii, xxxiii, 62, 119
cavalry, 102
elite identities, 68
narrative, 126
post-imperial, 218
regiments, 46
universities, 119
Cordiglia, Adrien, 19
Corinth, Lovis, 51
Corriere Israelito, 75
Corti, Count Egon Caesar, 19
cosmopolitanism, 39, 55, 64
autobiography, 48
reconciliation with nationalism, 81
Cossacks, 37
Coudenhove-Kalergi, Count Heinrich, 74
Franz Ferdinand’s Grand Tour, 76
Sigmund Freud, 231
Coudenhove-Kalergi, Count Richard, xxv, xli, 48, 71, 72, 81, 200
‘Paneuropa. Ein Vorschlag’ (1922), 71, 261
appeal to the Commonwealth, 78
Paneuropa ABC (1931), 71
relationship with fascism, 8384
vision of Paneuropa, 83
Council of State, Prussian, 38
councils, government by, xxi
counter-culture, 217
Courland, 38, 143
court publishers, 36
Cramer von Laue, Constantin
and Veltheim’s circle, 116
Cranach Press, 49
creditors, 15
cremation, 114, 184
caricature, 103
Rosenberg’s design of a crematorium, 184
Theosophy in the United States and Britain, 114
Creon, 154
Crimea, 177, 178, 179
crimes against humanity, 177
critique
as political intervention, xxvi
critique of anti-Semitism
Heinrich Coudenhove-Kalergi, 77
Croatia, xxxvii
Crusaders, 3
Crusades, 82
Crystal Palace, 24
Cuba, 17
culture
class, 249
industry, 20
post-imperial, 239
vernacular, xxxvii, 143
currency
devaluation of, 166
European, 83
foreign exchange in Nazi Germany, 165
Curzon line, xxii
Curzon, Lord George Nathaniel, 48
Degas sale, 21
historicist style, 9
Czechoslovakia, xxviii, xxx, xxxi, xxxiii, 84, 105, 120
Dalcroze Institute, 186
Dante Alighieri
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s genealogy of Europe, 78
De Monarchia (1318–1321), 80
universal monarchy, 80
Darmstadt, xxiii, 108, 187
Darré, Walther, 198
David, Jacques-Louis, 26, 33
Davies, David, 94
Dawson, Christopher, 203
Dawson, Daniel, 19
death
commodification of, 5
dramatization of, 18
dynasty, 7
symbolic significance of, 7
Debord, Guy, 26, 28
decline
empire, 1
decolonization, xxviii, xxix, 1, 83, 230, 234
Suez Canal, 35
Degas sale (1917), 21
Degas, Edgar, 20
Degenerate Art and music, 180
Dehmel, Richard, 51
Delaisi, Francis, 89
democracy, xxiii, xxv, 9, 94, 109, 127, 214, 226, 240
estrangement, 250
European Union, xlv
Keyserling’s idea of, 135
Robert Michels on, xxxix
totalitarianism, 200
unrepresentability, 241
voters’ abstinence, 240
war, 76
Der Leuchter, 130
Der Weg zur Vollendung, 126, 130, 138
derecognition, xl, 109
nobility, 110, 139
detachment, xliii
as constituted by ethnic and class distance, 7
technologies of, 45
Detinets, 153
Deutsche Adelsgenossenschaft, 197
Germany, 105
Deutsche Gesellschaft 1914, 51
Deutsche Nation, Die, 91, 215
Deutscher Herrenklub
Germany, 105
Deutscher Künstlerbund
founded by Count Kessler in 1903, 212
devises, 6, 251
Teutonic Knights, 184
devolution, 1
imperial, xxxii
diaspora, 160
elites, 165
dictatorships, 9
Dieterle, William, 33
Dietrichstein family, 69
dilettantism, xliv
and nobility, xliv
theory of, xliv
directors, 33
discourse
political, xliii, xliv, xlvi, 67, 72, 75, 81, 82, 128, 137, 195
Dollfuß, Engelbert, 83
murder of, 83
Domela, Harry, false Prince of Prussia, 277, 304, 305
Dominicans
the Baltic littoral, 185
Dönhoff, Marion Countess of, 119
Doorn
exile of Wilhelm II, 32
Dorpat
university of, 151, 156
double consciousness
and W.E.B. DuBois, 160
Dreiländerverlag, 113
Duchies, 11
duel, 52
Duino, Castle of, 220
proximity to Miramare, 221
Duisberg, Carl, 113
Duleep-Singh, Prince, 57
Duncker&Humblot, 18
Durand-Ruel, Paul, 20
Dürer, Albrecht, 26
dynasties, xxvi, xxx
German, xlvii
princely, 6
Dzerzhinsky, Feliks
nickname ‘Knight of the Revolution’, 182
East Anglia, 57
east Prussia, 61, 95, 119
Ebert, Friedrich, xxii, 188, 216
Eckart, Dietrich, 191, 192
economic integration, 82
economy, cultural, xli
Edda, and Nazi book of nobility, 162
Edib, Halidé, 133
Edison, Thomas, 126
education
academies, xxiii
ashram, 131
boarding schools, 71, 73
charisma, xxxvii
fine art academies, 187
free schools, xxiii
military, 56
modern dance, 186
universities, 84, 151, 153, 156, 157, 178, 210, 236
Eerde, Castle of, 126
Egypt, 4, 116
Einstein, Albert, 208
Eisenstein, Mikhail
father of Sergei Eisenstein, 184
Eisenstein, Sergei, 31, 34, 181
October (1928), 34
Eisner, Kurt, xxii, 188
elections, 73
Elias, Norbert, 25, 244
Eliot, T.S., 208, 219, 224
The Waste Land (1922), xlvii, 219
elite mentality, 220
elites, xxx, 1, 52
aesthetic tastes of, 210
Anglo-American, 89, 95
aristocratic, xxxvi
complicity of, xliv
conversion of, xxii, xxxix
cultural, 113
diplomats, 113
dismantling of, xxix, xxxii
dynastic, xxx
education of, 56
entourage, 3, 16
former, xxiii, xxxvii
future of, xxxviii
Germanic, xxiii, 248
German-speaking, xxiv
habitus, xxxvi
Habsburg dynasty, 71
Indian, 122
industrial, 90
intelligentsia, xxvi
lingua franca, 44
military, xxxi, xliii, 1, 3, 16, 39, 57, 63
military officers, 113
mixed, 202
moral bankruptcy of, xx
new, xl, 202
non-European, 57
old, xxi, xxx, xxxix
patrimonialization of, xxxvii
patronage, 212
permeability of, 58
post-imperial, 249
Protestantism of, xxxvi
Prussian officers, 61
recognition, xxxix
traditional, xxii
transnational character of, 57, 203
Elizabeth, Empress of Austria
and assassination of, 32
emblems, 149, 168
Emden, 38
emotional communities
Barbara Rosenwein, 224
empire, 82, 94, 155
decline of, xxviii
embodiment, 1
ideas of, 156, 173, 175, 179
Keyserling’s idea of, 127
memory of, 171, 173
patrimonies, 235
peripheries of, xxxvi
persistence of, xxvi
Quentin Skinner’s discussion of, xxxv
representation of, 1
theory of, xxvi
empires, xxx, xxxviii, xliii, 72, 74, 80, 156, 177, 198, 224
and transimperial influence on reform, 76
Austro-Hungarian, 187
decline of, 167
enlightenment, 161
ideas of, 205, 206
international relations, 154
legal heterogeneity, 143
modern, xxvi
Nazi and Soviet, 141
religion, 70
tempo of decline, 1
Empress Elizabeth
steamer, 3
Endres, Franz Carl, 59
engineering, 183
England, xxxvii, 70
enlightenment, 75, 82, 161, 245
eastern Europe, 43
Nazi opposition to, 180
ennoblement, xliii
enterprises, global, xxvi
entourage, 3, 19, 72, 73, 74, 191, 198, 201, 225
equality
liberalism, 107
Ernst Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesen-Darmstadt
and brother of Alix von Hessen-Darmstadt, last Empress of Russia, 108
Keyserling’s connection with, 122
Toller, Ernst, 102, 187
Troeltsch
Ernst, 123
Esperanza, 75
estates and castles, xxxviii, 14, 20, 24, 32, 37, 46, 48, 90, 111, 119, 126, 179, 180, 186, 188, 220
Esterhazy family, 69
Estland, 143
Estonia, 134, 143, 151
ethics
problem of plural allegiance, 37
ethnographic collections, 7, 25
and Southern Slavs, 36
Austrian Museum für Völkerkunde, 36
Aztec, 13, 31, 36
dilettantism, 7
folk art, 7, 11
Franz Ferdinand of Habsburg, 75
Habsburg court publishers, 36
Maximilian of Habsburg, 17
Maximilian’s Mexikanische Kostbarkeiten, 24
Montezuma, so-called feather crown of, 36
Nazi cultivation of folk culture, 180
ethnographic research
Nazi institute for the study of German folk art, 193
ethnography, 1
First World War, 45
folk psychology, 31
war, 44
Eugen Diederichs, 138
Europäische Revue, 88, 120, 134, 301, 303
Europe, xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxv, xxxi, xxxiii, 12, 53, 67, 89, 95, 102, 141, 242
and civil wars in, 35
and Mazzini’s Young Europe movement, 81
and supranational idea of, 53
common imperial memory, xlvii
continental empires of, xxiii
empires of, 4
federations in, xxix
genealogy of and Nazi ideology, 200
genealogy of idea of, xlv
hegemony of, xxviii
imperial devolution, xxvi
imperial past of, xxiii
integration of, xxv, xlv, xlvii
intellectual communities of, xxv
Nazi idea of, 180, 195
Otto Neurath’s map of, xxxiii
pan-German idea of, 127
post-imperial, xxxi, xxxviii, xli, 232
railway business, 48
supranational idea of, 127
European Union, xlv, 237
Aristide Briand, 93
as successor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, 80
genealogy of, 82, 87
Vienna as capital of, 82
Europeanism, xlvi, 239
neo-Gothic, 24
pan-Europeanism, 69
Europeanness, 7
Europeans, xxxv, xli, xliii, 8
events, xlvii, 4
and pseudo-events, 34
exchange, cultural, 7
ex-hidalgo
Keyserlings description as, 128
exile, xx, xxi, xxii, xxx, xliii, 61, 65, 69, 70, 84, 97, 113, 118, 135, 153, 155, 157, 159, 161, 163, 166, 171, 181, 211, 233
internal, 138
existentialism, xliv
experience, xlvii
expropriation, 104, 118
German debate on (1926), 106
Soviet occupation zone of Germany, 118
Fabians, 126
Fabre-Luce, Alfred, 134, 216
Fackel, Die, 49
Faenza, xxxvii
fame, 4
familiarity, illusion of, 6
family
associations, xxxviii
dynastic, xxi, 8, 12, 21
father–son relationships, 69
features, and dynastic charisma, 102
histories of, xxv
history, xliv
memory, 150
networks of, xxv
pedigree, 173
solidarity, 37
family legends, 48
famous deaths
Monty Python’s Flying Circus (1969–74), 3
Far East
exoticism of, 113
fascism, xliv, 138
Federal German Republic, 38, 51
federalism, 74, , 8082, 189
federation
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s idea of Europe, 80
Popovici, 74
Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, 46
federations
German Confederation, 12
Fénelon, François, Two Essays on the Balance of Europe (1720), 81
Ferdinand Maximilian of Habsburg, 12
fiction, xlvi, 150, 249
autobiography, 60
First World War, 62
historical, 241
philosophy, 133
theme of decline in, 13, 69
utopia, 82
Fideikommiss, 111, 159
film, xlv
filmmakers, 34
financiers, 16
Finland, xxxiii
First World War, xxx, 1, 9, 39
changes of account of Maximilian’s life, 15
eastern front, 43
middle-eastern front, 43
First World War, consequences of, xliv
Fischer, Samuel, 51
Fitzgerald family, xxxvii
Florence, xxxvii
Föhr
Veltheim’s exile, 118
Folk-lore, 8
Foreign Legion
France, 57
former people, xliii, 68
Forster, E.M., 215
fraction, 210, 224, 234, 240
fragmentation, 243
France, xxxi, xxxvii, xliv, 16
Franco, Francisco, xxii
Franco-German cooperation, 64
Franco-Prussian War, 9, 51, 100
Frankfurt University, 133
Franklin, Sindey, 34
Franz Ferdinand of Habsburg, 1, 4, 5, 21
2,047 ancestors of, 11
assassination of, xlvii
celebrity, 7
curator of culture, 7
Galician churches, 45
heritage preservation, 75
ideas of reform, 73
in film by Max Ophüls, 240
Tagebuch meiner Reise um die Erde (1895), 3
Franz Ferdinand von Trotta
protagonist in Joseph Roth’s Capuchin Vault, 84
Franz Josef I, Emperor of Austria, 5, 9, 12, 15, 17, 19, 25, 35, 35, 57, 69, 70, 71, 72, 76, 109, 199
Frazer, James, ‘The Killing of the Khazar Kings’ (1917), 8
freecorps, 60
Veltheim’s experience of, 60
Freemasonry, 82, 85
French Guyane, xli
French Revolution, xxiv, xxxiii, xxxvii, 4, 14, 26, 57, 70, 180
execution of Louis XVI, 107
Freud, Sigmund, 23, 31, 64, 170, 231, 262, 267
Sigmund Freud, ‘Trauer und Melancholie’ (1917), 262
Friedrich II, King of Prussia, 140
friendship
class in wartime, 63
nations, 55
political implications of, 39
war as a strain on, 52
Frigate Novara, 16, 17, 23
Frobenius, Leo, 45
Fry, Roger, 21, 209
Bloomsbury group, 32
funeral processions, 102
future, discussion of, xxxviii
Galicia, 75
Habsburg province of, 45
Kessler’s perception of, 41
Gallipoli, Battle of, 57
Gandhi, Mahatma
meeting with Veltheim, 117
Gdansk, 179
genealogical research, 164
genealogy
affective, 1, 63, 250
as alternative history, 160
dynasty, 8
idea of chivalry, 194
Nazi ideology, 161
of Crusaders, 146
of international law, 160
portraits at Paneuropa congresses, 78
private, 167
public sculptures, 100
state, xxxvi
generation, xxiv, xxxviii, xliii, 1, 4, 13, 35, 39, 46, 71, 72, 75, 77, 117, 121, 133, 139, 151, 156, 178, 179, 181, 183, 192, 196, 201, 203, 205, 215, 220, 223, 233
heritage, 72
in fiction, 69
post-imperial, 201
Geneva, 38, 143
genres, xxxv, 143, 249
geography, affective, 63
George, Stefan, 190
German Confederation, 12
German culture
divided conception of, 237
German Democratic Party, xxxvii, 33
Germany, 113
German Democratic Republic
Ludwig Renn’s career, 62
German imperial army, 53
German National People’s Party (DNVP), 196
German Romantics, 14
German Society of 1914, 48
German–Austrian Union, idea of
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s opposition to, 71
Germany, xxiii, xxiv, xxviii, xxxii, 1, 21, 51
and special path, xxxii
colonies of, xli
division of, xxi
dynasties, xxxii
German Empire, xxviii, xxix
German Republic, xxxvii
intellectuals, xxiv
isolation of, xxiii
nation, xxxi
Orientalism, xxv
principalities and kingdoms, xxi
Republic of, xxxii
revolutions, xxii
Romantics, 19
Weimar Republic, 51, 60, 197
Germany’s new prophets
Henry de Man, 67
ghetto, xxix, 161
Gide, André, 218
Gilbert, Felix, 216
Gill, Eric, 224
Giuseppe Mazzini, ‘Europe: Its Conditions and Prospects’ (1852), 81
Gleichen, Heinrich von, 105
global travel, xxv
globetrotting, 35
Goebbels, Joseph, 135, 179, 186, 194, 195, 200
Goertz, Max, 224
Goetheanum, 114
Goncharova, Natalia, 45
Gordon Craig, Edward, 49
Gotha Almanach, 162, 199
government in exile, 61
governments
imperial, xxviii
in exile, 153
republican, xxi
Goya, Francisco, 33
and ‘Tres de Mayo (1814)’, 20
Grafton Galleries, 209
Gramsci, Antonio, xxxix
Granada, 24
Grand Duchies, 11
Grand Duke Sergius
assassination of, 23, 30
daguerrotype of empty carriage of, 30
Grand Expositions, 25
Grand Tours, xxv, 1, 3, 31
globalization of, 31
Veltheim, 116
Grant, Duncan, 215
Graves, Robert, 64
Great Exhibition, 18
Greece, xxxiii
Greek myths, 65
Greek revival
architectural styles, 151
Groener, Wilhelm
Veltheim’s circle, 113
Grosz, George, 49, 226
Grotius, Hugo
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s genealogy of Europe, 81
group charisma
Norbert Elias’s concept of, 67
groups, 249
revolutions, xxi
thinking in, xlvi
See also fractions
guilt and debt
defeat, xxxvii
Günther, Hans, 186
Gurdjieff, 125
Schroeter, Gustav
Veltheim’s ex libris, 113
Haam, 75
Habazaleth, 75
Habsburg, xx, xxx, xli, xlvii, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 53, 57, 58, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 80, 98, 104, 105, 109, 119, 134, 152, 173, 182, 188, 199, 201, 204, 205, 207, 219, 221, 231, 245, 271, 276, 279, 282, 283, 286, 287, 294, 297, 301, 309
House of, 16, 31
Habsburg Empire
multi-ethnic character of, 71
Habsburg, Otto von, 84
hagiography, 29
film, 34
Franz Ferdinand, 25
Hague Academy of International Law, xxiii, 156, 157, 266, 268
Hague agreements on maritime law, 156
Hahn, Kurt, 290, 314
Halle, 118
Halm, Friedrich von, 111
hammer and sickle, 167
Hanseatic League, 142, 184
Harden, Maximilian, 217, 302
Harper’s. A Journal of Civilization, 20
Hasaron, 75
Haskalah, 75
Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv, 19
Haushofer, Karl, 86
Haxthausen, Baron August von, 193
Heartfield, John, 49
Hedin, Sven, 45
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 155
hegemony, xxviii, xxxix, 10, 182, 221, 250
Heidegger, Martin, 169
Heil Hitler, 166
Heine, Heinrich, 13
‘Vitzliputzli’ (1851), 14
Heller, Hugo, 85
Hellingrath, Norbert von, 193
Henckel von Donnersmarck, Guido, 51
Henry de Man, ‘Germany’s New Prophets’ (1924), 67
Herder, Johann Gottfried, 14
heritage, 45
activities of the Habsburgs, 11
cultural, 48
Habsburg management of, 72
post-socialist culture, 248
Hermann Keyserling with Rabindranath Tagore and Goedela Keyserling (b. Bismarck)., 68
hero, absence of, xlvi
Herrenhaus, Prussian, 152
Herriot, Edouard, 89
Herzfelde, Helmut (aka John Heartfield), 49, 263
Herzfelde, Wieland, 49
Herzl, Theodor, 166
Hessel, Franz, 190
Hessen Darmstadt, Duchy of, 106
Hessen-Darmstadt, House of, xxix
Het Centrum, 55
Heuss, Theodor
membership in German Society of 1914, 51
Hibbert Journal, The, 52
Hibbert Trust, 52
Hibbert, Robert, 52
Hiller, Kurt, 94, 315
Himmler, Heinrich
and Nazi ideas of new chivalry, 179
Hindu mythology
popularity of in Germany, 113
hinterland, 234
historicism
architectural style, 9
Hitchcock, Alfred, The Lady Vanishes (1938), 240
Hitler, Adolf, xxii, 135, 189, 191, 193, 195, 196, 199
British opinion of in 1936, 122
Hitler–Stalin Pact (1939), xxi, 141, 158, 200
Hoare, Sir Samuel, 46
Hobbes, Thomas, 24, 140
semiotics, 149
Hobsbawm, Eric, 86
Hobson, John, xxvi, xli
Hoetzsch, Otto, 33
Hofburg, Vienna
seat of Paneuropean Movement, 78
Hofmannsthal, Hugo von, 212
Hofmuseum, 3
Hogarth Press, 119, 213, 224, 232
Hohenzollern, House of, xxx, 4, 10, 24, 25, 35, 59, 98, 152, 201, 219, 255, 298
Protestantism of, 10
Holland, xxxvii
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s ancestors, 83
Hollywood, 33, 34, 239, 241
Holocaust, 181, 238, 242
Holstein-Gottorf, House of, 146
Holy Alliance, 156
Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, xxx, xxxviii, xliii, 11, 53
Holy Trinity
Taube’s membership of, 153
home rule, xxviii
homelessness, 110111, 119
homosexuality, 217
honour, xxxvi, 14, 39, 54, 77
honours, xxvi
Hoover Institution, xlv
horizons of experience, 245
Horthy, Miklós, 76
Hotel Adlon, 222
Hotel Vierjahreszeiten, 191
households, royal, 37
Hugo, Victor, 81, 82
‘Discours d’ouverture aux Congrès de la Paix à Paris’ (1849), 81
Hull, incident, 154
human rights
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s idea of Europe, 80
Nuremberg Court of, 177
Humanitas lodge, 85
humanity
future of, 133
idea of, 63
shaming of German aristocrats in Austria, 109
Humboldt, Alexander von, 13, 86
Hungary, xxviii, 5, 83
hunting, 3, 25, 151
Huxley, Aldous, 126, 135
Hyderabad, 25
iconography, 29
identity
cultural, xxxvii, xxxix
erosion of, in post-imperial societies, 121
Jewish, 86
migration, 280
identity politics, 11
ideologies, xxii, xxiii, xxxvi, xliv, xlvi, 173
IG Farben, 113
Ikonnikov, Nikolai, 162, 169
genealogical services, 163
Ilf, Ilya and Petrov, Evgeny
parody of aristocrats, 240
Illustrated London News, xxvi
image
control of, 17
national and global circulation of, 29
imperialism, xxi, xxvi, 15, 21, 28, 72, 142, 146
imperium, xxxv
incognito, 185
India, 4, 9, 25, 32, 121, 125
as travel destination, 122, 125
colonial representation of Indian figures, 25
E.M. Forster’s vision of, 242
Indian Congress, 80
Veltheim’s travels to, 116
Indian Ocean, xxviii, 35
Indian princely states
perceptions of Germany by, 122
Indian Rebellion, 27
Vasili Vereshchagin’s depiction of, 28
Indologists, 116
inequality, 235
infantry, 62
information, transmission of, xlvi
inheritance, 220
Insel, 49, 51, 117, 222
Institut international de cooperation intellectuelle, 134
insurgents, xxxix, 16
intellectuals, Anglo-American, xlvii
intelligentsia, xxiii, xxvi, 138, 235, 239
interests, xxviii
French and British, xxxii
French industrial, 92
national, xxxv
national and imperial, 38
internal colonization, xxix, 76
Catherine II, 161
international
from above, xxiii
International Affairs, 80, 89, 261, 309
International Court of Justice, 159
international organizations, xxv
International Red Cross, 44
international relations, xxxix
empires, 235
study of, 89
internationalism, xxiii, xxv, xli, 27, 38, 48, 55, 75, 89, 139, 140, 142, 159, 172, 187, 195, 201, 204, 206, 207, 213, 218, 221, 225, 226, 236
Ireland, xxv, xxxvi
Irish Sea, xxviii
Iron Curtain, 200
iron law of oligarchy
Robert Michels, xxxix
Isherwood, Christopher, 126, 217
Iskra, 186
Islam, 82
islands, 32, 65, 118
isolation, political and economic, xxxviii
Italy, xxxvii, xxxviii, 83
Itúrbide family, 15
Jacobinism, xxxiii, xliii, 26
Schmitt’s critique of, 197
Jacobins, 26
James, C.L.R., 226
Jannott, K.
Goather life insurance, 107
Japan, 76
Iwakura mission, 77
Meiji reforms, 77
Jean Renoir, La Grande Illusion (1937), 62
Jerusalem, 12, 166, 179
British conquest of, 57
Jerusalem, King of, 35
Jesuits, 158
Jews
denationalization of, 109
deportation of, 197
diaspora, 165, 230
expropriation of, 180
identity, 227
intellectuals, 206
Keyserling’s comparison of Baltic diaspora with, 137
nobility, 199
Nuremberg laws, 162
Pale of Settlement, xxix, 43, 147, 161
perceptions of, 43, 45
representation of, 137, 173
Yiddish language, 137
Jockey Club
Mexico City, 31
joking relationships, 142, 147
Joseph II, Emperor of Austria, 75
Journal de Genève, 206
journalists, xxxvi, xliii
Juárez, Benito, 16, 20, 33
in Franz Werfel’s play, 33
Jung, Carl Gustav, 129
School of Wisdom, 123
jungle, 13, 226, 234
jurisdictional jockeying
Lauren Benton, 143
Kakania, 71
Kali, Hindu goddess of destruction, 113
Kant, Immanuel, 81, 82
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s genealogy of Europe, 78
Kantorowicz, Ernst, 237
The King’s Two Bodies: A Study in Medieval Political Theology (1957), 294
Kapp, Wolfgang, 189
Karl I of Habsburg, 5, 70
Karl Stefan of Habsburg, 5
Karl V, Holy Roman Emperor, 32
Kasack, Hermann, 116
Kazan, 9
Kellogg-Briand pact, 93
Kelmscott Press, 213
Kelsen, Hans, xxxix
Kerenski, Alexander, xxix
Kessler, Count Harry, xxv, 31, 32, 33, 39, 41, 43, 45, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 63, 64, 65, 122, 123, 135, 138, 165, , 211217, 219227, 233, 245, 254, 263, 264, 273, 276, 279, 284, 289, 294, 301, 308, 311, 314
‘Nationality’ (1906, 1919, 1921), 213
and St. George’s school, 32
and visit to Querétaro, 31
Anglo-Irish background of, xxv, 48
Germany and Europe (1923), 213
Guidelines for a True League of Nations (1919–21), 213, 226
Notes on Mexico (1898), 31
photographic portrait with a periscope on the Eastern front (1916), 40
Rilke translation for Hogarth Press, 222225
Robert Graves in Mallorca, 65
trip to Mexico, 3133
war trauma and cosmopolitan conversion of, 51
Keynes, John Maynard, 48, 210
Degas sale, 21
influence after the Second World War, 238
Keyserling, Count Hermann, xxv, 122, 152
‘A philosopher’s view of the war’ (1915), 52
‘La Révolte des forces telluriques et la responsabilité de l´Esprit’ (1933), 138
Bolshevism or the Aristocracy of the Future (1918), 52
celebrity of, 68
correspondence with Prince Rohan, 133
Das Reisetagebch eines Philosophen, 2 Vols (1919–1920), 53
Das Spektrum Europas (1928), 52
letter of 20 September 1933 to the Reichsminister für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda, 135
meeting with Annie Besant, 125
participation in anti-fascist congress, 138
perceived anti-German sentiments of, 52
South American Meditations (1932), 129
Veltheim’s circle, 116
Keyserling/Keyserlingk family, 39, 51
Keyserling, Count Alfred, 37
Keyserlingk, Count Robert, Prussian governor of Königsberg, 38
Keyserlingk-Cammerau, Count Robert, Prussian governor of Königsberg, 37
Khanate, 137
Kharkov, university of, 156
Khristos voskrese, 166
Kiel, xxii
King’s touch, 8
charisma, 6
King’s two bodies, 237
Kinsky, Count Feri, 134
Kippenberg, Anton, 117, 222, 224
Kjellén, Johan Rudolf, 86
Klee, Paul, 187
Kleist, Heinrich von, 14
Prince von Homburg, 61
Klingelhöfer, Gustav
anarchism, 102
Knights of St. George
medieval chivalric orders, 184
Knights of the Round Table, 105
Koch-Weser, Erich
Veltheim’s circle, 113
Kojève, Alexandre, xl, 155
Kolb, Annette, 116
Kolomea, 75
Königsberg, 37
Königsberg Castle, 61
Konopischt, 3, 200
Korda, Alexander, Tragödie im Hause Habsburg (1924), 34
Korngold, Erich Wolfgang, 34
Kotzebue, August von, 14
Koudelka, Alfred von, 73
Kraus, Karl, xliii
Krenek, Ernst, 32
Krishnamurthi, Jiddu, 78, 110, 125
Veltheim, 116
Kronstadt, 146
Kultur versus Zivilisation, xlvi
Kulturbund, 124
Karl Anton Rohan, 91
Kun, Béla, xxii
Kunitake, Kume, 77
Kustodiev, Boris, 27
L’Ouverture, Toussaint, 231
La Paloma, 17
Laban, Rudolf von, 186
land reforms, 118
Landau, Rom, 131
landscapes, 44, 63, 242
German artists, 51
national sentiments, 63
languages, xxiii, 18, 75, 87, 137, 148, 162
hierarchy of, 151
Larisa Reisner
as theorist of revolution, xxii
Larson, Frans, 138
Lasker-Schüler, Else, 213
Latin America
exoticism of, 113
Latvian, 151
Lauenstein, Castle of, xxxviii
law, xxiii, xxv
as instrument of equality, 198
Austrian constitution, xxxix
autocracy, 161
civil, 157
compensation, 106
constitution of the United States, 74
constitutional change, 67, 106, 245
constitutional court in Weimar Germany, 107
criminalization of homosexuality, 217
derecognition, 109
emigration, 153, 157
equality, 107
international, 156, 158
lawyers, 153, 154, 158
municipal, 158
National Socialism, 162
Paneuropean constitution, 83
plurality of, 142
precedent, 107
revolution, 71, 107, 118
Roman, 156, 158
leadership, xxxviii, 126
League of Nations, xxiii, xxiv, xxix, xliii, 80, 89, 93, 139, 153, 158, 159, 195, 201, 203, 206, 212, 216, 218, 225, 226, 232, 236, 253, 281, 296
Ledebur, Senator Eugen, 134
Left and Right, xxiii
legal documents, xxxix, 118
legitimacy, xxxv
Lehman, John, 217
Leicester, Dukes of, xxxvii
Lemberg, 75
Lenin, xxi, xxvi, xxx, 54, 186
Leningrad, 122
letters, 49
Leuthner, Karl, 109
Leviathan, 24
Libau, 38
liberalism, xxii, xxiii, xxxiii, xxxvii, xxxviii, 86
and internationalism, 82
Austrian, 94
Bolsheviks, xl
British, and revolutions, xxiv
Carl Schmitt’s defence of, 107
German, xlvii, 45, 51, 54
internationalism, 72, 94, 156
Italian, xxxviii
Jewish, 74
Mexican, 16
nationalism, xxxv
reforms, xxi
Russian, and monarchism, 142
study of Roman law, 157
Walther Rathenau, 51
Lichterfelde, 56
Liddell, Robert
war reporting, 44
Liebenfels, Josef Lanz von, 194
Liebknecht, Karl, xxii, 102
Life, 33
Lippman, Walter, Phantom Public (1927), 240
Lithuania, 162, 181, 183
Lithuanian, 151
Livland, 143
Livonia, 177
Lloyd George, David
reliquishment of German names and titles by the royal family, xxx
Lloyd Wright, Frank, 125
Löbe, Paul, 33
Veltheim’s circle, 113
Lobkowicz, Prince, 3
Lodge, John Davis, 239
Lodz, 55
London, xxi, 28
Losev, Alexei, 168
Lotman, Yuri, 149, 168
Loucheur, Louis, 90, 92, 93, 95, 283
Louis XVI, King of France
discussion in the Weimar Republic of, 106
Löwenstein, Prinz Hubertus zu, 305, 306
Lucca, 19, 24
liberty on the wall, 19
Lucknow, 9, 27
Ludwig Salvator, Archduke of Austria
death at Castle Brandeis, 32
Lukács, György, xxii
Lutkowski, Lothar Stengel von, 186
Luttich
German atrocities in, 51
Luxemburg, Rosa, xxii, 102
luxury, 3
Lynar, family of, xxxvii
Lyon-Caen, Charles, 158
Mad Baron, 137
Madeira, 32
Magdeburg fortress, 53
Magyarization, 74
Maharajah, former, 57
Maillol, Aristide, 48
majority, xxvi, xxviii, xxxviii, xliii, 240
Malik, 49, 213
Malinowski, Bronislaw, 142, 203
Habsburg imperial honours for, 109
Mallorca
exile in, 65
Mama Carlota, 17
Man, Hendrik (Henri) de, 133
Manchester Guardian, xliii
Manet, Edouard
constancy of appreciation of, 245
Manet, Édouard
Bloomsbury circle, 221
changing value of paintings by, 2023
Execution of Maximilian, 20
representation of resistance, 33
Mann, Thomas, 124, 135, 307
mantenere lo stato, xxxv
maps, xxxiii, xlii, 80, 100, 173, 242
as speech acts, 243
colonial, 148
Marat, Jean-Paul, 27
Marconi, Guglielmo, 201
Margerie, Roland de, 33
Maria Theresia of Habsburg, 12
Marie Antoinette, last Queen of France, xxii, 4, 70, 71
and Stefan Zweig’s novel on, 70
execution of, 27
Marienburg Castle, 179
Marinetti, Tomasi, 203
market, 7
art, 28, 187
memory, 34, 170
reproducibility, 29
success, 28
value, 21
Marshall Plan, 237
Martens, Fedor, 154
Marx, Karl, 7, 15, 135, 155
Masaryk, Tomáš G., 82, 84, 86, 92
masculinity, 241
Mass Observation group, 249
Massachusetts, 63
Mathildenhöhe
artists’ colony, 123
Matteotti, Giacomo, xxii
Maximilian of Habsburg, xlvii, 4, 9
as topic of discussion, 33
poem on deposed indigenous prince, 24
Maximilian ruling the New World
allegorical fresco by Cesare dell’Aqua at Miramare, 24
‘Der entthronte Fürst’ (1863), 13
‘Eisenbahn im Urwald’ (1860), 70
Mayo, County, 48, 96
Mayr, Michael, 109
Mayrisch, Emile, 90, 92, 93, 95
Mazzini, Giuseppe, 81
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s genealogy of Europe, 78
mechanical reproducibility
news of death, 29
medals of dishonour, 27
media, xxiii, xlv, 17
mediators, xliii
Mediterranean, 4, 35
Meier-Graefe, Julius, 20, 223
Meiji Reforms/Restoration, 77
melancholy
post-imperial, 225
Melchior, Carl, 90, 93
Memel, 148
Memoir Club, 215, 227
memoirs, xxiii, xl, xliv, 33, 215
memories
institutional purchase of, xlv
memory, xlv
ancestral, 8
commodification of, xxiii
culture, 4, 14, 26
empire, xlvi
event, xxi, xlvii, 28
genres, xxiii, 214, 220
institutional control of, xlv
monuments, 17
multidirectional, and Michael Rothberg, xlv
nostalgia, 204
of war, xliii
post-imperial, xlv, 248
public, 64, 78
genealogy, 78
reproducibility of, 34
selective, 251
trans-imperial, 208
Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Albrecht, 204
Mendez, Concepcion (Conchita), 17
mentality, xlvii
mercenaries, 57
Messenia, 151
Mexican Intervention, 16
Mexican republicans, xlvii
Mexico, 14, 15, 16, 20
court of Maximilian, 30
emigration to, 62
Mexico City, 17, 20, 33
early photography, 30
Michelet, Jules
black rebellion, 14
Michelin’s Guides to Postwar Europe (1919–1922), 64
Michels, Robert, xxxix
middle classes, 39
Middle East, 12
Milandri, Giuseppe, 206
Milhaud, Darius, 32
Maximilien: opéra historique en trois actes et neuf tableaux (1931), 33
milieu, 195, 241
Milosz, Czeslaw, 142
minority, 105, 110, 218, 241
ethnicity, 105, 150
intellectuals, 241
national and transnational, xxvi
opinion, 77
representation in archives, 241
rights, 83
sexuality, 218
minority culture
F.R. Leavis, 241
Miramare, Castle of, 19, 20, 24, 32
images of, 32
mirrors for princes, xxxv
Mirzapur, 25
modernism, 49, 225, 229
art, 32
artists, 243
composers, 32, 116, 126
cremation, 114
dance, 117, 125, 186, 217
designers, 49
National Socialism, 184
Orientalism, 138
poetry, xxviii
poets, 116
the myth of the Teutonic Knights, 184
modernity, 6, 183
commodification of celebrity, 7
National Socialism, 192
post-impressionism, 20, 48, 209
visual arts, 20
modernization, 29
Modotti, Tina, 33
moment
post-imperial, xlvii
moments, xlvii
historical, xxxvii
monuments, 48
monarch
image of deposition, 8
monarchists, Russian, 38
monarchy, xxi
enlightenment, 16
Mondrian, Piet
Theosophical Society, 126
Mongolia, 137
Montezuma, 14
Montherlant, Henri de, 134
monument
Querétaro, 20
monuments, 9, 70, 100, 150
Morris, William, 213
Moscow, xlv, 177
early photography, 30
Moses, 231
mourning, 23
Sigmund Freud, 23
multiculturalism, 175
empire, 227
empires, xlvi
ideas, xxvi
multilingualism, 167, 171
Munich, xxii, xxxiii, 28, 186
council Republic of, 102, 188
revolution, 192
Munich, Republic of, xxxiii
Münster, 141
Muraviev family, 163
musée imaginaire
André Malraux, xlvi
museum, 7, 10
Museum für Völkerkunde, Vienna, 14
music, 17, 32
folk songs, 150
Musil, Robert, 25
Mussolini, 83
Mussolini, Benito, xxii, 83, 201, 202, 203, 206, 232, 289
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s connections to, 83
mystery plays, xxxviii
Nadar, Félix, 28
Nansen passport
Count Hermann Keyserling, 162
statelessness, 141
Napoleon Bonaparte
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s genealogy of Europe, 78
Napoleon III of France, 15, 20
representation of character of, 33
Napoleon, age of, xxxviii
Narva, 148
National Democratic Party
Czechoslovakia, 104
National Gallery, London, 21
National Socialism, xliv, 83, 138, 173
archives, xlv
collaborationism, 133
continuity with Weimar Republic, 51
empire, 100
eugenics, 185
expropriation of large landowners, 122
idea of nobility, 109
ideology, 142, 173
importance of Nuremberg for, 204
industry, 91
legislation, 118, 162, 164, 200
Munich, 192
Nazi party, 83, 194
propaganda, 134, 137, 173
seizure of power, 194
nationalism, 5, 82
Baltic region, 143
critique of, 52, 94, 236
Czech, 44, 82, 92
Estonian, 246
German, 134
Hungarian, 9
Italian, 221
Mexican, 20
Polish, 53
nationalization, xxxi
Nationalsozialistische Monatshefte, 194, 195
nation state, and Poland, 53
nation states, xxv, xxx, xxxi
Nazi Germany
imperialism, 172
refugees from, 65, 141, 231
Nĕmec, Bohumil, 104
neo-classical, 9
neo-Gothic, 9
neo-Mughal, 9
Netherlands, xxv
Neue Freie Presse, 74
Neue Rundschau, Die, 54, 212
Neurath, Otto, xxxiii, 188
new diplomacy, 214, 215, 216
new order, xxxix
Antonio Gramsci, xxxix
New York
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s emigration to, 84
early photography, 30
New York Daily Tribune, 15
New York University, 84
news, international, xxvi, 1
newspapers and periodicals, xxvi, xliii, xliv, xlv, 15, 44, 45, 54, 74, 75, 85, 87, 91, 104, 108, 120, 173, 182, 186, 193, 194, 195, 196, 212, 217, 231
Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia, 27, 30, 37, 108, 146
Nieman, 148
Nietzsche society
Weimar, 133
Nietzsche, Friedrich, xxxvi, 48, 81, 128, 133, 202, 212, 213, 214, 223, 264, 275, 288, 295, 302, 314
archive of, 91
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s genealogy of Europe, 78
prize named after, 133
nineteenth century, xxxviii
Nobel Peace Prize, 62
Nobel, Alfred, 37
nobility, xxxvi, 16, 75, 83, 98, 102, 105
constitutions, 106
duelling, 77
Hitler, 200
Max Weber’s discussion of, xxxv
Nazi idea of, 165
sociology of, xxxvii
noble continent
Winston Churchill’s concept of, 236
noble titles, 71
noblesse oblige, xxxvi, 107
Nolde, Baron, 156
non-Europeans
deployment in the European armies, 57
perception of, 7, 11
representation of, 26
Norfolk, 57
North America, 4
North German Lloyd, 24
Noske, Gustav, xxxii, 102
Nostitz, Count Erwein, 134
Nostitz, Helene von, 212
Notre Dame
fear of bombing of, 48
November Club, 214, 216
Novgorod, 153
Nueva Galicia, 15
Nuremberg, 177
obedience to authority, 59
Ober-Ost, 177
Ocampo, Victoria, 130, 132
occult
Keyserling’s interest in, 124
Ocean Lloyd, 69
October Revolution, 100, 141
Odessa, 186
officers, xxii, xxv, xxx, xxxi, xliii, 39, 62
cultural codes of, 39
Olcott, Henry Steel, 124
Presbyterian origins of, 125
Olgivanna, name used by Olga Ivanovna Hinzenburg, 125
Oncken, Hermann
and Prince Rohan, 134
Opel, Adam
funding of Paneuropa movement, 90
Order of St. John, 105
Order of the Garter, 105
Order of the Golden Fleece, 105
Orient, 35
abstract idea of, 68
Orientalism, 67
Germany, 114
Victorian culture, 114
Orientalists
Germany, 139
d’Ormesson, Wladimir, 134
Ortega y Gasset, José, 305
Orthodox Church, 126, 151, 155, 156, 163, 166, 173, 184
Ostelbia, xxxvi
Österreichische Illistrierte Zeitung, 79
Ostia, 203
Ostrau, 111, 114
Ostrovsky, Nikolai, 119
Otto Reichl, 52
Otto von Habsburg, 12
Ottoman Empire, xx, xxviii
Ottomans, xxxii
Pabst, Waldemar, 102
pacification, 143, 203
pacifism, 51, 52, 61, 83, 94, 116, 216
paganism, 14
painters, 26
Pale of Settlement, xxix, 43, 147, 161
Palestine
Veltheim’s travels to, 116
Pallandt, Baron Philip van, 126
Pallavicini family, 69
Pan-America, xli, 72
Paneuropa, xxv, 48, 72, 78, 80, 81, 82, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 94, 243, 261
colonies, xli
congresses, 78
congresses, and genealogy, 78
Coudenhove-Kalergi’s map of, xlii
forms of government, 72
movement, 7172, 78
Paneuropean Union, xli
Winston Churchill, 95
pan-German League, xxxv
pan-Slavism, 221
Papen, Karl von, 107
Parallelaktion, 25
paramilitary corps, 51
Pareto, Vilfredo, xxxviii, xxxix
pariah, xxxvi
Paris, 18, 20, 21, 28, 48, 70, 140, 161
art salons, 28
early photography, 30
émigrés in, 142
Russian emigration to, 141
parliament, xxiii
Partrey House, 48
Parvus, Alexander, 186
pathos of distance, xxxvi
Nietzsche, xxxvi
patrimonialization, xxxvii, 110
patrimony
gender, 170
patriotism, 39, 48, 51, 75, 80, 142
patronage, 7, 26, 198, 221, 226
churches, 114
Pavlovsk, 141
pedigree, 82, 142, 164, 170, 223, 241
masculinity, 170
Père Lachaise, cemetery of, 48
peripheries, internal, xxix
permeability, xxxix
party, xxxix
Pernambuco, 30
person, 5
personality, xxv
Personality and the Orders of Life (1917)
and Max Weber, xxxviii
perspective
first person, 1
transnationalism, xliv
persuasion, xxxix
Perugia, xxxvii
Peter and Paul fortress, 38
Peter I of Russia, 185
Peterhof, 46
Petrarca, Francesco
forgery of Habsburg titles, 12
Petrograd, xx, 38
Petropolis, 13
Maximilian of Habsburg, 13
railway, 13
suicide of Stefan Zweig, 70
phantom empires, 242
phantom pain, xli, 173
Philippines, 28
philo-Semitism, 75
philo-Slavism, 75
philosophy, xxv
photographers, 19, 20, 25, 26, 29, 32, 33, 45, 76
Phrygian hat, xxxiii
Piedmont, xxxvii
Pietzner, Carl, 76
court photographer, 25
Pilar von Pilchau, Baroness Jenny, 163, 164
Piłsudski, Józef, 53
Pinthus, Kurt (ed.) Menschheitsdämmerung (1919), xlvi
Piscator, Erwin, 159
poets, xxiv, 13, 111, 113, 126, 187, 208, 213, 219, 242
Poland, xxviii, xxxvi, xxxvii, 5, 11, 54
Polish corridor
problem of, 94
tunnel, 95
Polish legion, 61
Habsburg army, 53
revolution, 53
Polish state
future of, 53
political parties, 104
Politis, Nicholas, 158
Polytechnic High School, 119
Polytechnic School, 178
Pomerania
representation of, 51
Pompeii, 203
Poniatowski, family of, xxxvii
Pontigny, Abbey of, 90
Popocatepetl
ownership of, 32
Popovici, Aurel, 74, 84
Die Vereinigten Staaten von Groß-Österreich. Politische Studien zur Lösung der nationalen Fragen und staatrechtlichen Krisen in Österreich-Ungarn (1906), 74
Popper, Karl, 86
Port Said, 4
Portland, Dukes of, xxxvii
portraiture, xxxix, 11, , 2728, 39, 51, 185
Bloomsbury, 227
Coudenhove-Kalergi, 78
Duleep-Singh, 57
Kessler, 39
music and Maximilian of Habsburg, 33
Veltheim, 111
Potocky, Count of
private zoo of, xxvi
Potsdam, xxii
power, xxii
absence of, xxxv
and balance of, 72
balance of powers, 82
charisma, 26
continuity of, 235
conversion of, xxii
dance, 120
hard and soft, 69, 96
Hobbes, 149
magic, 8
memory, 250
narrative, 249
Nietzsche’s concept of ‘will to power’, 81
of granting recognition, xxiii
party, xxx
persistence of, 32
succession, 9
territory, xxxvi
Theosophical Society, 125
transgression, 36
war, xxxii
power, military, 35
power, symbolic, 7, 10, 12, 24, 149
press, 10, 30, 35, 55, 72
Jews in the Habsburg Empire, 74
prestige, xx, xxii, xxiii, xxvi, xxvii, xxxii, xxxvii, xliii, 11, 52, 67, 68, 71, 135, 156, 235, 239, 250
primogeniture, 107, 111
twentieth-century practice of, 111
See also Fideikommiss
Prince Albert’s Hussars, 24
Prince Georg Palais, 187
princes, German
and Napoleonic wars, xxxviii
Princip, Gabriel, 4
prisoners of war, 45
privileges
loss of, 119
Privilegium Maius, 11
Progreso, El, 75
progress, xxiv, xxxix, 142, 158
propaganda, 45
critique of during the First World War, 53
propaganda, German, xxxviii
property, private, xl
Protestantism, xxxvi, 10, 70, 150, 163, 205, 206
internationalism, 201
Lutheranism, 151
Presbyterianism, 80, 125
Reformation, 205
Proust, Marcel, 224
Provisional Government
Russia, xx
Prussia, xx, xxxii, 16, 37, 51, 58, 69, 70, 75, 77, 94, 100, 141, 143, 148, 161, 171, 198, 199, 237, 276, 280
Albrecht of, 100
publishers, xlv, 18, 33, 49, 51, 113, 117, 119, 138, 213, 217, 224, 232
puppet kingdoms, 5
Qu’ran, 83
queer identities, 217
Querétaro, 4, 20, 31
Rabindranath Tagore, xxiv
race
Aryan, idea of, 137, 162
Latin, idea of, 205
Latin, idea of, and Keyserling’s concept of delicadeza, 138
Latin, idea of, and Kojève, 155
Nazi idea of, 109, 161, 162, 173, 199
Nordic, idea of, 205
Slavic, idea of, 205
Radek, Karl, xxii
Radetzky March
transimperial uses of, 57
Raffé, Rudolf, Das Schicksal derer von Habsburg – die Tragödie eines Kaiserreiches (1928), 34
railway
capital from, 220
railways, 13, 53, 77, 95, 220
Ranke family
relatives of Robert Graves, 64
Rathenau, Walther, xxii, 60, 90, 214, 274
assassination of, 51
Kessler’s biography of, 214
Ratzel, Friedrich, 86
recognition, xxiii, xxxix
aristocracy, 106
between old and new elites, xl
between states, xl
derecognition, 110
familiarity, 3
Kojève, 155
relationships between diplomats, xxxix
Simmel’s idea of nobility, 6
reconstruction, 237
Red Sea, 35
redistribution, xxxii
Reed, John, xxi, 216
Reformation, 205
regimes, xxiv
collaboration, 200
emotional, xxxvii
legal, 143
military, 56, 212
old, xxix, xxxviii
political, 18, 177, 183, 206
regions, xxvi, xxix, xxxvi, 12, 15, 25, 31, 38, 43, 48, 51, 53, 57, 69, 95, 118, 177, 242
centres and peripheries, xxxvi
kingdoms associated with, xxxvii
Reichsbank, 33
Reichserbhofgesetz (1933), xxxix
Reichstag, 60, 106
regulation of membership in, 109
Reichswart, 196
Reinhardt, Max, 33, 51, 212
religion, 52, 80, 82, 85, 110, 114, 117, 156
abolition of, xl
Remarque, Erich Maria, 62
Remy de la Fosse, Charles, 111
Renan, Ernest, 52
Renn, Ludwig
aristocratic author, 62
Renner, Karl, 92
Renoir, Jean, 62
representation
pictorial, 243
representatives
self-appointed, xxiii
states, xxxix
republicanism
imperialism, 15
Mexican, 33
new world, 19
non-European, xlvii
Russian, 153
Spanish Civil War, xliv
republicans, Mexican, xlvii
republics, 16, 17, 60, 63, 85, 100, 107, 110, 172, 181, 186, 197, 200, 225
founded after the First World War, xxviii
opposition to, 113
republics, national, xxxiii
Research Centre for European Reconstruction, 84
resignation
Ferdinand Maximilian, 12
resistance
choice of symbolic location of, 10
Mexico, 16
Spanish,