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    Boivin, Myriam Marivaux, Laurent Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo Vieytes, Emma C. and Antoine, Pierre-Olivier 2018. Incisor Enamel Microstructure of Paleogene Caviomorph Rodents from Contamana and Shapaja (Peruvian Amazonia). Journal of Mammalian Evolution,

    Verzi, Diego H. Olivares, A. Itatí and Morgan, Cecilia C. 2018. Morphology of the lower deciduous premolars of South American hystricomorph rodents and age of the Octodontoidea. Historical Biology, p. 1.

    Busker, Felipe and Dozo, María Teresa 2018. Rediscovering a forgotten rodent of Patagonia and its phylogenetic implications. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, p. 1.

    Boivin, Myriam Marivaux, Laurent Candela, Adriana M. Orliac, Maëva J. Pujos, François Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo Tejada-Lara, Julia V. Antoine, Pierre-Olivier and O'Regan, Hannah 2017. Late Oligocene caviomorph rodents from Contamana, Peruvian Amazonia. Papers in Palaeontology, Vol. 3, Issue. 1, p. 69.

    Marivaux, Laurent Adnet, Sylvain Benammi, Mohamed Tabuce, Rodolphe Yans, Johan and Benammi, Mouloud 2017. Earliest Oligocene hystricognathous rodents from the Atlantic margin of northwestern Saharan Africa (Dakhla, Morocco): systematic, paleobiogeographical, and paleoenvironmental implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 37, Issue. 5, p. e1357567.

    Marivaux, Laurent Adnet, Sylvain Benammi, Mohamed Tabuce, Rodolphe and Benammi, Mouloud 2017. Anomaluroid rodents from the earliest Oligocene of Dakhla, Morocco, reveal the long-lived and morphologically conservative pattern of the Anomaluridae and Nonanomaluridae during the Tertiary in Africa. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, Vol. 15, Issue. 7, p. 539.

    Marivaux, Laurent Essid, El Mabrouk Marzougui, Wissem Khayati Ammar, Hayet Adnet, Sylvain Marandat, Bernard Merzeraud, Gilles Tabuce, Rodolphe and Vianey-Liaud, Monique 2014. A new and primitive species of Protophiomys (Rodentia, Hystricognathi) from the late middle Eocene of Djebel el Kébar, Central Tunisia. Palaeovertebrata, Vol. 38, Issue. 1,

  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: August 2015

4 - Phylogeny and evolutionary history of hystricognathous rodents from the Old World during the Tertiary: new insights into the emergence of modern “phiomorph” families



The modern Afro-Asian porcupines, the African cane-, mole- and dassie-rats, as well as the South American guinea pigs, chinchillas, capybaras, pacas, agoutis, etc., make up the natural group of the hystricognathous rodents (infra-order Hystricognathi Tullberg, 1899). The phylogenetic relationships between the hystricognaths from South America (caviomorphs (Caviomorpha Wood, 1955)) and Africa (phiomorphs (Phiomorpha sensu Lavocat, 1967; Thryonomyoidea sensu Wood, 1955)) are today well-supported by a body of anatomical (e.g. Wood, 1974; Lavocat, 1976; Bugge, 1985; George, 1985; Meng, 1990; Luckett and Hartenberger, 1993; Martin, 1994) and molecular (e.g. Nedbal et al., 1996; Huchon and Douzery, 2001; Huchon et al., 2002, 2007; Poux et al., 2006; Montgelard et al., 2008; Blanga-Kanfi et al., 2009; Churakov et al., 2010) evidence, and also by endoparasite studies (e.g. Hugot, 1999). In contrast, the phylogenetic and geographic origins of hystricognaths have been the subject of considerable controversy over the past several decades (e.g. Wood and Patterson, 1959; Hoffstetter, 1972; Wood, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1985; Lavocat, 1973, 1974, 1976; Hussain et al., 1978; Flynn et al., 1986; Jaeger, 19; Huchon and Douzery, 2001, 2002; Marivaux et al., 2002, 2004; Jaeger et al., 2010a), and critical issues about their historical biogeography, notably their arrival in South America, are still a matter of on-going debate (e.g. Poux et al., 2006; Bandoni de Oliveira et al., 2009; Sallam et al., 2009, 2011; Coster et al., 2010; Antoine et al., 2012). Although hystricognaths are absent from the earliest Tertiary fossil record at a global scale, their earliest known fossil occurrences date back to the late middle Eocene from both Africa and South America. This either suggests that hystricognaths have rapidly achieved a widespread distribution throughout the Old and New Worlds just after their emergence, or points out the existence of a significant Eocene gap in their fossil record. During the late Eocene and early Oligocene, the group exhibited a high diversity and morphological disparity on both landmasses, thereby suggesting a considerable amount of undocumented diversity in their early evolutionary history.

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Evolution of the Rodents
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