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    Starkweather, Kathrine E. and Munds, Rachel A. 2017. The International Encyclopedia of Primatology. p. 1.

    Russon, Anne E. Smith, Joshua J. and Adams, Laura 2016. Ethnoprimatology. p. 233.

    Banes, Graham L. Galdikas, Biruté M. F. and Vigilant, Linda 2015. Male orang-utan bimaturism and reproductive success at Camp Leakey in Tanjung Puting National Park, Indonesia. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Vol. 69, Issue. 11, p. 1785.

    Talbot, Catherine F. Mayo, Laura Stoinski, Tara and Brosnan, Sarah F. 2015. Face Discriminations by Orangutans (Pongo spp.) Vary as a Function of Familiarity. Evolutionary Psychological Science, Vol. 1, Issue. 3, p. 172.

    Kikuchi, Y. and Kuraoka, A. 2015. Sexual Dimorphism of Endocranial, Facial and Limb Measurements in the Yellow Baboon (Papio cynocephalus). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, Vol. 44, Issue. 4, p. 275.

    Gustafsson, Erik Saint Jalme, Michel Bomsel, Marie-Claude and Krief, Sabrina 2014. Food Neophobia and Social Learning Opportunities in Great Apes. International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 35, Issue. 5, p. 1037.

    van Noordwijk, Maria A. Arora, Natasha Willems, Erik P. Dunkel, Lynda P. Amda, Rahmalia N. Mardianah, Neneng Ackermann, Corinne Krützen, Michael and van Schaik, Carel P. 2012. Female philopatry and its social benefits among Bornean orangutans. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Vol. 66, Issue. 6, p. 823.

    NIETLISBACH, PIRMIN ARORA, NATASHA NATER, ALEXANDER GOOSSENS, BENOIT Van SCHAIK, CAREL P. and KRÜTZEN, MICHAEL 2012. Heavily male-biased long-distance dispersal of orang-utans (genus:Pongo), as revealed by Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic markers. Molecular Ecology, Vol. 21, Issue. 13, p. 3173.

    ARORA, N. Van NOORDWIJK, M. A. ACKERMANN, C. WILLEMS, E. P. NATER, A. GREMINGER, M. NIETLISBACH, P. DUNKEL, L. P. UTAMI ATMOKO, S. S. PAMUNGKAS, JOKO PERWITASARI-FARAJALLAH, DYAH Van SCHAIK, C. P. and KRÜTZEN, M. 2012. Parentage-based pedigree reconstruction reveals female matrilineal clusters and male-biased dispersal in nongregarious Asian great apes, the Bornean orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus). Molecular Ecology, Vol. 21, Issue. 13, p. 3352.

    Tombak, Kaia J. Reid, Andrea J. Chapman, Colin A. Rothman, Jessica M. Johnson, Caley A. and Reyna-Hurtado, Rafael 2012. Patch depletion behavior differs between sympatric folivorous primates. Primates, Vol. 53, Issue. 1, p. 57.

    Yamamoto, Shinya and Takimoto, Ayaka 2012. Empathy and Fairness: Psychological Mechanisms for Eliciting and Maintaining Prosociality and Cooperation in Primates. Social Justice Research, Vol. 25, Issue. 3, p. 233.

    Rosenbaum, S. Silk, J.B. and Stoinski, T.S. 2011. Male-immature relationships in multi-male groups of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). American Journal of Primatology, Vol. 73, Issue. 4, p. 356.

    Reser, Jared Edward 2011. Conceptualizing the Autism Spectrum in Terms of Natural Selection and Behavioral Ecology: The Solitary Forager Hypothesis. Evolutionary Psychology, Vol. 9, Issue. 2, p. 147470491100900.

    Fam, S. D. and Nijman, V. 2011. Spizaetus hawk-eagles as predators of arboreal colobines. Primates, Vol. 52, Issue. 2, p. 105.

    Marty, Jill S. Higham, James P. Gadsby, Elizabeth L. and Ross, Caroline 2009. Dominance, Coloration, and Social and Sexual Behavior in Male Drills Mandrillus leucophaeus. International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 30, Issue. 6, p. 807.

    van Noordwijk, Maria A. and van Schaik, Carel P. 2009. Intersexual food transfer among orangutans: do females test males for coercive tendency?. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Vol. 63, Issue. 6, p. 883.

    Knott, Cheryl Beaudrot, Lydia Snaith, Tamaini White, Sarah Tschauner, Hartmut and Planansky, George 2008. Female-Female Competition in Bornean Orangutans. International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 29, Issue. 4, p. 975.

    Stumpf, R. M. Emery Thompson, M. and Knott, C. D. 2008. A Comparison of Female Mating Strategies in Pan troglodytes and Pongo spp.. International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 29, Issue. 4, p. 865.

    Carnahan, Sarah J. and Jensen-Seaman, Michael I. 2008. Hominoid seminal protein evolution and ancestral mating behavior. American Journal of Primatology, Vol. 70, Issue. 10, p. 939.

    MARTIN, JENNIFER K. HANDASYDE, KATHRINE A. and TAYLOR, ANDREA C. 2007. Linear roadside remnants: Their influence on den-use, home range and mating system in bobucks (Trichosurus cunninghami). Austral Ecology, Vol. 32, Issue. 6, p. 686.

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  • Print publication year: 1996
  • Online publication date: August 2010

1 - Toward an understanding of the orangutan's social system

Summary

INTRODUCTION

The aim of primate socioecology is to clarify how social structure and organization are influenced by the interaction between ecological factors and biological constraints. A coherent theoretical framework is gradually being developed to account for the interspecific and intraspecific variation found among primates (Wrangham, 1980, 1987; Dunbar, 1988; Watts, 1989; van Schaik, 1989; van Schaik & Dunbar, 1990), and specific models are increasingly being subjected to empirical tests. These tests will lead to further refinements in these models, which therefore promise to make important contributions to our understanding of the origins of human social behavior and social systems.

Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) stand out among diurnal primates in several ways. Adults are largely solitary, have low interaction and association rates, show extreme sexual dimorphism in body size and appearance, show pronounced bimaturism among sexually mature males, engage in forced copulations (especially non-resident males), display female mating preferences in favor of some males and in opposition to others, and range in seasonal or irregular movements, which seem to make it impossible to distinguish spatially discrete communities (social units). All of these unique or unusual features have yet to be reconciled with existing socioecological and sociobiological ideas. It is likely that they are interrelated in as yet unknown ways.

In order to develop good theoretical models and to perform valid tests, we must have good descriptive information on all relevant features of a population's social system.

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Great Ape Societies
  • Online ISBN: 9780511752414
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511752414
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