Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Niwa, Koichiro 2018. Adult Congenital Heart Disease with Pregnancy. Korean Circulation Journal, Vol. 48, Issue. 4, p. 251.

    Vatutin, N. T. Taradin, G. G. and Chaus, E. A. 2016. Infective endocarditis in pregnant women. Rossiiskii vestnik akushera-ginekologa, Vol. 16, Issue. 6, p. 21.

    Ersbøll, Anne S. Damm, Peter Gustafsson, Finn Vejlstrup, Niels G. and Johansen, Marianne 2016. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: a systematic literature review. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 95, Issue. 11, p. 1205.

  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: March 2016

Chapter 3 - Cardiovascular changes in normal pregnancy

from Section 2 - Antenatal Care: General Considerations
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Heart Disease and Pregnancy
  • Online ISBN: 9781316156063
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
1.Macdonald, A. The Bearings of Chronic Disease of the Heart Upon Pregnancy, Parturition, and Childbed, London: J&A Churchill; 1878.
2.Clapp, JF 3rd, Seaward, BL, Sleamaker, RH, Hiser, J. Maternal physiologic adaptations to early human pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;159(6):1456–60.
3.Capeless, EL, Clapp, JF. Cardiovascular changes in early phase of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161(6 Pt 1):1449–53.
4.Jauniaux, E, Johnson, MR, Jurkovic, D, Ramsay, B, Campbell, S, Meuris, S. The role of relaxin in the development of the uteroplacental circulation in early pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1994;84(3):338–42.
5.McGuane, JT, Debrah, JE, Debrah, DO, et al. Role of relaxin in maternal systemic and renal vascular adaptations during gestation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009;1160:304–12.
6.Paller, MS. Mechanisms of decreased pressor responsiveness to ANG II, NE and vasopressin in pregnant rats. Am J Physiol 1984;247:H100–8.
7.Podjarney, E, Mandelbaum, A, Bernheim, J. Does nitric-oxide play a role in normal pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertension? Nephrol Dial Transplant 1994;9:1527–40.
8.Myatt, L, Brewer, A, Brockman, DE. The action of nitric oxide in the perfused human fetal-placental circulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;164:687–92.
9.Valensise, H, Novelli, GP, Vasapollo, B, Borzi, M, Arduini, D, Galante, A, et al. Maternal cardiac systolic and diastolic function: Relationship with uteroplacental resistances. A Doppler and echocardiographic longitudinal study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2000;15:487–97.
10.Duvekot, JJ, Cheriex, EC, Pieters, FA, et al. Early pregnancy changes in hemodynamics and volume homeostasis are consecutive adjustments triggered by a primary fall in systemic vascular tone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;169:1382–92.
11.Robson, SC, Hunter, S, Boys, RJ, Dunlop, W. Serial study of factors influencing changes in cardiac output during human pregnancy. Am J Physiol 1989;256:H1060–5.
12.Mabie, WC, DiSessa, TG, Crocker, LG, Sibai, BM, Arheart, KL. A longitudinal study of cardiac output in normal human pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;170:849–56.
13.Jensen, E, Wood, C, Keller-Wood, M. The normal increase in adrenal secretion during pregnancy contributes to maternal volume expansion and fetal homeostasis. J Soc Gynecol Investig 2002;9:362–71.
14.Longo, LD. Maternal blood volume and cardiac output during pregnancy: A hypothesis of endocrinologic control. Am J Physiol 1983;245:R720–9.
15.Crane, MG, Harris, JJ. Plasma rennin activity and aldosterone excretion rate in normal subjects. II. Effect of oral contraceptive agents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1969;29:558–62.
16.Lund, CJ, Donovan, JC. Blood volume during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1967;98:393403.
17.Ueland, K. Maternal cardiovascular dynamics. VII. Intrapartum blood volume changes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1976;126:671–7.
18.Jansen, AJ, van Rhenen, DJ, Steegers, EA, Duvekot, JJ. Postpartum hemorrhage and transfusion of blood and blood components. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2005;60(10):663.
19.Rovinsky, JJ, Jaffin, H. Cardiovascular hemodynamics in pregnancy. I. Blood and plasma volumes in multiple pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1965;93:115.
20.Robson, SC, Hunter, S, Boys, RJ, Dunlop, W. Hemodynamic changes during twin pregnancy. A Doppler and M-mode echocardiographic study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989 Nov;161(5):1273–8.
21.Pieters, LLH, Verkeste, CM, Saxena, PR, et al. Relationship between maternal hemodynamics and hematocrit and hemodynamic effects of isovolemic hemodilution and hemoconcentration in the awake late-pregnant guinea pig. Pediatr Res 21:584, 1987.
22.Sala, C, Campise, M, Ambroso, G, et al. Atrial natriuretic peptide and hemodynamic changes during normal human pregnancy. Hypertension 1995;25:631–6.
23.Chapman, AB, Abraham, WT, Zamudio, S, et al. Temporal relationships between hormonal and hemodynamic changes in early human pregnancy. Kidney Int 1998;54:2056–63.
24.Lowe, SA, Macdonald, GJ, Brown, MA. Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide in pregnancy: Response to posture. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991 165:591–5.
25.Davison, JM. Kidney function in pregnant women. Am J Kidney Dis 1987:9:248–52.
26.Quinn, J, Von Klemperer, K, Brooks, R, Peebles, D, Walker, F, Cohen, H. Use of high intensity adjusted dose low molecular weight heparin in women with mechanical heart valves during pregnancy: A single-center experience. Haematologica 2009;94(11):1608–12.
27.Shotan, A, Ostrzega, E, Mehra, A, et al. Incidence of arrhythmias in normal pregnancy and relation to palpitations, dizziness, and syncope. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:1061–4.
28.Gowda, R M, Khan, I A, Mehta, N J, et al. Cardiac arrhythmias in pregnancy: Clinical and therapeutic considerations. Int J Cardiol 2003;88:129–33.
29.Bamfo, JE, Kametas, NA, Nicolaides, KH, Chambers, JB. Maternal left ventricular diastolic and systolic long-axis function during normal pregnancy. Eur J Echocardiogr 2007;8:360–68.
30.De Paco, C, Kametas, N, Rencoret, G, et al. Maternal cardiac output between 11 and 13 weeks of gestation in the prediction of preeclampsia and small for gestational age. Obstet Gynecol 2008;111:292300.
31.Duvecot, J, Peeters, L. Very early changes in cardiovascular physiology. In: Chamberlain, G, Broughton-Pipkin, F, eds. Clinical physiology in obstetrics, 3rd ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science; 1998. pp. 332.
32.Atkins, AFJ, Watt, JM, Milan, P, Davies, P, Crawford, JS. A longitudinal study of cardiovascular dynamic changes throughout pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Reprod Biol 1981;12:215–24.
33.Katz, R, Karliner, JS, Resnik, R. Effects of a natural volume overload state (pregnancy) on left ventricular performance in normal human subjects. Circulation 1978;5:434–41.
34.Veille, JC, Morton, MJ, Burry, KJ. Maternal cardiovascular adaptations to twin pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985;153:261–3.
35.Bosio, PM, McKenna, PJ, Conroy, R, O’Herlihy, C. Maternal central hemodynamics in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1999;94(6):978–84.
36.Kametas, NA, McAuliffe, F, Cook, B, Nicolaides, KH, Chambers, J. Maternal left ventricular transverse and long-axis systolic function during pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2001;18:467–74.
37.Desai, DK, Moodley, J, Naidoo, DP. Echocardiographic assessment of cardiovascular hemodynamics in normal pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:20–9.
38.van Oppen, AC, Stigter, RH, Bruinse, HW. Cardiac output in normal pregnancy: A critical review. Obstet Gynecol 1996;87:310–18.
39.Bamfo, JE, Kametas, NA, Turan, O, Khaw, A, Nicolaides, KH. Maternal cardiac function in fetal growth restriction. BJOG 2006;113(7):784–91.
40.Estensen, ME, Beitnes, J, Grindheim, G, et al. Altered left ventricular contractility and function during normal pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013;41:659–66.
41.Savu, O, Jurcut, R, Giusca, S, et al. Morphological and functional adaptation of the maternal heart during pregnancy. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2012;5:289–97.
42.Mesa, A, Jessurun, C, Hernandez, A, et al. Left ventricular diastolic function in normal human pregnancy. Circulation 1999;99:511–17.
43.Geva, T, Mauer, MB, Striker, L, Kirshon, B, Pivarnik, JM. Effects of physiologic load of pregnancy on left ventricular contractility and remodeling. Am Heart J 1997;133:53–9.
44.Gilson, GJ, Samaan, S, Crawford, MH, et al. Changes in hemodynamics, ventricular remodeling, and ventricular contractility during normal pregnancy: A longitudinal study. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:957–62.
45.Capeless, EL, Clapp, JF. When do cardiovascular parameters return to their preconceptional values? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;165:683–6.
46.Rossi, A, Cornette, J, Johnson, MR, et al. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pregnant women: Cross-sectional analysis of physiological parameters throughout pregnancy and the impact of the supine position. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2011;13:31.
47.Duvekot, JJ1, Peeters, LL. Maternal cardiovascular hemodynamic adaptation to pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1994;49(12 Suppl):S114.
48.Lang, RM, Bierig, M, Devereux, RB, et al. Recommendations for chamber quantification: A report from the American Society of Echocardiography’s Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2005;18:1440–63.
49.Simmons, LA, Gillin, AG, Jeremy, RW. Structural and functional changes in left ventricle during normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2002;283:H1627–33.
50.Ducas, RA, Elliott, JE, Melnyk, SF, et al. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pregnancy: Insights from the cardiac hemodynamic imaging and remodeling in pregnancy (CHIRP) study. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2014;16(1):1.
51.Clark, SL, Cotton, DB, Lee, W, et al. Central hemodynamic assessment of normal term pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:1439–42.
52.Adduljabbar, HS, Marzouki, KM, Zawawi, TH, Kahn, AS. Pericardial effusion in normal pregnant women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1991;70:291–4.
53.Campos, O. Doppler echocardiography during pregnancy: physiological and abnormal findings. Echocardiography 1996;13:135–46.
54.Zentner, D, du Plessis, M, Brennecke, S, et al. Deterioration in cardiac systolic and diastolic function late in normal human pregnancy. Clin Sci (Lond) 2009;116:599606.
55.Robson, SC, Dunlop, W, Boys, RJ, et al. Cardiac output during labour. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987;295:1169–72.
56.Lee, W, Rokey, R, Miller J, Cotton, DB Maternal hemodynamics effects of uterine contractions by M-mode and pulsed-Doppler echocardiography. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:974–7.
57.Ueland, K, Hansen, JM. Maternal cardiovascular dynamics. 3. Labour and delivery under local and caudal analgesia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1969;103:818.
58.Bonica, JJ, McDonald, JS. Principles and Practice of Obstetric Analgesia and Anesthesia, 2nd edn. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1994.
59.Adams, JG, Alexander, AM. Alterations in cardiovascular physiology during labor. Obstet Gynecol 1958;12:542–9.
60.Söhnchen, N1, Melzer, K, Tejada, BM, et al. Maternal heart rate changes during labour. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2011;158(2):173–8.
61.Pouta, AM, Raasanen, JP, Airaksinen, KEJ, et al. Changes in maternal heart dimensions and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels in the early puerperium of normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. BJOG 1996;103(10):988–92.
62.Robson, SC, Hunter, S, Moore, M, Dunlop, W. Haemodynamic changes during the puerperium: A Doppler and M-mode echocardiographic study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1987;94:1028–39.
63.Clapp, JF III, Capeless, E. Cardiovascular function before, during and after the first and subsequent pregnancies. Am J Cardiol 1997;80:1469–73.