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  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: January 2019

Chapter 20 - Physiology and Culture of the Early Human Embryo

from Section 4 - Oocyte and Embryo Culture
1.Fortier, AL, McGraw, S, Lopes, FL et al. Modulation of imprinted gene expression following superovulation. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2014;388: 51–7.
2.Huffman, SR, Pak, Y, Rivera, RM. Superovulation induces alterations in the epigenome of zygotes, and results in differences in gene expression at the blastocyst stage in mice. Mol Reprod Dev 2015;82: 207–17.
3.Simon, C, Garcia Velasco, JJ, Valbuena, D et al. Increasing uterine receptivity by decreasing estradiol levels during the preimplantation period in high responders with the use of a follicle-stimulating hormone step-down regimen. Fertil Steril 1998;70: 234–39.
4.Wale, PL, Gardner, DK. The effects of chemical and physical factors on mammalian embryo culture and their importance for the practice of assisted human reproduction. Hum Reprod Update 2016;22:222.
5.Gardner, DK. Dissection of culture media for embryos: the most important and less important components and characteristics. Reprod Fertil Dev 2008;20:918.
6.Lane, M, Gardner, DK. Understanding cellular disruptions during early embryo development that perturb viability and fetal development. Reprod Fertil Dev 2005;17: 371–78.
7.Leese, HJ, Biggers, JD, Mroz, EA, Lechene, C. Nucleotides in a single mammalian ovum or preimplantation embryo. Anal Biochem 1984;140: 443–48.
8.Gardner, DK, Wale, PL. Analysis of metabolism to select viable human embryos for transfer. Fertility and Sterility 2013;99: 1062–72.
9.Lees, JG, Gardner, DK, Harvey, AJ. Pluripotent stem cell metabolism and mitochondria: beyond ATP. Stem Cells Int 2017;2017:2874283.
10.Watson, AJ, Kidder, GM, Schultz, GA. How to make a blastocyst. Biochem Cell Biol 1992;70: 849–55.
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12.Gardner, DK, Harvey, AJ. Blastocyst metabolism. Reprod Fertil Dev 2015.
13.Gardner, DK. Lactate production by the mammalian blastocyst: manipulating the microenvironment for uterine implantation and invasion? Bioessays 2015;37: 364–71.
14.Bowman, P, McLaren, A. Cleavage rate of mouse embryos in vivo and in vitro. J Embryol Exp Morphol 1970;24: 203–07.
15.Quinn, P, Wales, RG. The relationships between the ATP content of preimplantation mouse embryos and their development in vitro during culture. J Reprod Fertil 1973;35: 301–09.
16.Gardner, DK, Leese, HJ. Concentrations of nutrients in mouse oviduct fluid and their effects on embryo development and metabolism in vitro. J Reprod Fertil 1990;88: 361–68.
17.Gardner, DK, Sakkas, D. Mouse embryo cleavage, metabolism and viability: role of medium composition. Hum Reprod 1993;8: 288–95.
18.Lane, M, Gardner, DK. Amino acids and vitamins prevent culture-induced metabolic perturbations and associated loss of viability of mouse blastocysts. Hum Reprod 1998;13: 991–7.
19.Gardner, DK, Lane, M. Embryo culture systems. In: Gardner, DK, Simon, C, eds. Handbook of In Vitro Fertilization, 4th edition: CRC Press, 2017: 205–44.
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22.Gardner, DK, Lane, M, Calderon, I, Leeton, J. Environment of the preimplantation human embryo in vivo: metabolite analysis of oviduct and uterine fluids and metabolism of cumulus cells. Fertil Steril 1996;65: 349–53.
23.Gardner, DK, Kelley, RL. Impact of the IVF laboratory environment on human preimplantation embryo phenotype. J Dev Orig Health Dis 2017;8: 418–435.
24.Leonard, PH, Charlesworth, MC, Benson, L et al. Variability in protein quality used for embryo culture: embryotoxicity of the stabilizer octanoic acid. Fertil Steril 2013;100: 544–49.
25.Gardner, DK, Rodriegez-Martinez, H, Lane, M. Fetal development after transfer is increased by replacing protein with the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan for mouse embryo culture and transfer. Hum Reprod 1999;14: 2575–80.
26.Lawitts, JA, Biggers, JD. Optimization of mouse embryo culture media using simplex methods. J Reprod Fertil 1991;91: 543–56.
27.Lawitts, JA, Biggers, JD. Culture of preimplantation embryos. Methods Enzymol 1993;225: 153–64.
28.Ho, Y, Wigglesworth, K, Eppig, JJ, Schultz, RM. Preimplantation development of mouse embryos in KSOM: augmentation by amino acids and analysis of gene expression. Mol Reprod Dev 1995;41: 232–38.
29.Gardner, DK, Lane, M. Amino acids and ammonium regulate mouse embryo development in culture. Biol Reprod 1993;48: 377–85.
30.Biggers, JD, Racowsky, C. The development of fertilized human ova to the blastocyst stage in KSOM(AA) medium: is a two-step protocol necessary? Reprod Biomed Online 2002;5: 133–40.
31.Morbeck, DE, Baumann, NA, Oglesbee, D. Composition of single-step media used for human embryo culture. Fertil Steril 2017;107:1055–60 e1.
32.Gardner, DK. Mammalian embryo culture in the absence of serum or somatic cell support. Cell Biol Int 1994;18: 1163–79.
33.Swain, JE, Lai, D, Takayama, S, Smith, GD. Thinking big by thinking small: application of microfluidic technology to improve ART. Lab Chip 2013;13: 1213–24.
34.Christianson, MS, Zhao, Y, Shoham, G et al. Embryo catheter loading and embryo culture techniques: results of a worldwide Web-based survey. J Assist Reprod Genet 2014;31: 1029–36.
35.Kirkegaard, K, Hindkjaer, JJ, Ingerslev, HJ. Effect of oxygen concentration on human embryo development evaluated by time-lapse monitoring. Fertil Steril 2013;99:738–44 e4.
36.Catt, JW, Henman, M. Toxic effects of oxygen on human embryo development. Hum Reprod 2000;15 Suppl 2:199206.
37.Meintjes, M, Chantilis, SJ, Douglas, JD et al. A controlled randomized trial evaluating the effect of lowered incubator oxygen tension on live births in a predominantly blastocyst transfer program. Hum Reprod 2009;24: 300–07.
38.Gomes Sobrinho, DB, Oliveira, JB, Petersen, CG et al. IVF/ICSI outcomes after culture of human embryos at low oxygen tension: a meta-analysis. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2011;9:143.
39.Gardner, DK, Hamilton, R, McCallie, B, Schoolcraft, WB, Katz-Jaffe, MG. Human and mouse embryonic development, metabolism and gene expression are altered by an ammonium gradient in vitro. Reproduction 2013;146:4961.
40.Spyropoulou, I, Karamalegos, C, Bolton, VN. A prospective randomized study comparing the outcome of in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer following culture of human embryos individually or in groups before embryo transfer on day 2. Hum Reprod 1999;14:7679.
41.Rijnders, PM, Jansen, CA. Influence of group culture and culture volume on the formation of human blastocysts: a prospective randomized study. Hum Reprod 1999;14: 2333–37.
42.Almagor, M, Bejar, C, Kafka, I, Yaffe, H. Pregnancy rates after communal growth of preimplantation human embryos in vitro. Fertil Steril 1996;66: 394–97.
43.Moessner, J, Dodson, WC. The quality of human embryo growth is improved when embryos are cultured in groups rather than separately. Fertil Steril 1995;64: 1034–35.
44.Ebner, T, Shebl, O, Moser, M et al. Group culture of human zygotes is superior to individual culture in terms of blastulation, implantation and life birth. Reprod Biomed Online 2010;21: 762–68.
45.Rebollar-Lazaro, I, Matson, P. The culture of human cleavage stage embryos alone or in groups: effect upon blastocyst utilization rates and implantation. Reproductive Biology 2010;10: 227–34.
46.Kelley, R.L., Gardner, DK. In vitro culture of individual mouse preimplantation embryos: the role of embryo density, microwells, oxygen, timing and conditioned media. Reprod Biomed Online 2017;34: 441–454.
47.Mortimer, ST, Mortimer, M, Quality and Risk Management in the IVF Laboratory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
48.Maas, K, Galkina, E, Thornton, K, Penzias, AS, Sakkas, D. No change in live birthweight of IVF singleton deliveries over an 18-year period despite significant clinical and laboratory changes. Hum Reprod 2016;31: 1987–96.
49.Hannan, NJ, Paiva, P, Meehan, KL et al. Analysis of fertility-related soluble mediators in human uterine fluid identifies VEGF as a key regulator of embryo implantation. Endocrinology 2011;152: 4948–56.
50.Truong, TT, Soh, YM, Gardner, DK. Antioxidants improve mouse preimplantation embryo development and viability. Hum Reprod 2016;31: 1445–54.