Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 10
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Lohrasbe, Rochelle Sharpe and Ogden, Pat 2017. Somatic Resources: Sensorimotor Psychotherapy Approach to Stabilising Arousal in Child and Family Treatment. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, Vol. 38, Issue. 4, p. 573.

    Parolin, Micol Simonelli, Alessandra Mapelli, Daniela Sacco, Marianna and Cristofalo, Patrizia 2016. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7, Issue. ,

    Shulman, Cory 2016. Research and Practice in Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health. Vol. 13, Issue. , p. 67.

    Fisher, Philip A. Beauchamp, Kate G. Roos, Leslie E. Noll, Laura K. Flannery, Jessica and Delker, Brianna C. 2016. The Neurobiology of Intervention and Prevention in Early Adversity. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 12, Issue. 1, p. 331.

    Young, Gerald 2016. Unifying Causality and Psychology. p. 331.

    Fisher, Philip A. Leve, Leslie D. Delker, Brianna Roos, Leslie E. and Cooper, Bryna 2016. Developmental Psychopathology. p. 1.

    Shulman, Cory 2016. Research and Practice in Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health. Vol. 13, Issue. , p. 159.

    Fisher, Philip A. 2015. Review: Adoption, fostering, and the needs of looked-after and adopted children. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Vol. 20, Issue. 1, p. 5.

    Gartland, Deirdre Woolhouse, Hannah Mensah, Fiona K. Hegarty, Kelsey Hiscock, Harriet and Brown, Stephanie J. 2014. The Case for Early Intervention to Reduce the Impact of Intimate Partner Abuse on Child Outcomes: Results of an Australian Cohort of First-Time Mothers. Birth, Vol. 41, Issue. 4, p. 374.

    Fisher, Philip A. Kim, Hyoun K. Bruce, Jacqueline and Pears, Katherine C. 2012. Cumulative effects of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity on foster children’s HPA-axis reactivity during a psychosocial stressor. International Journal of Behavioral Development, Vol. 36, Issue. 1, p. 29.

  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: May 2011

Chapter 13 - Early life stress as a risk factor for disease in adulthood

from Section 2 - Biological approaches to early life trauma
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease
  • Online ISBN: 9780511777042
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *


1. Manly, J. T., Kim, J. E., Rogosch, F. A. et al. (2001). Dimensions of child maltreatment and children’s adjustment: Contributions of developmental timing and subtype. Developmental Psychopathology, 13, 759–782.
2. Pears, K. C., Kim, H. K. and Fisher, P. A. (2008). Psychosocial and cognitive functioning of children with specific profiles of maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 958–971.
3. Burns, B. J., Phillips, S., Wagner, R. et al. (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youth involved with child welfare: A national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 960–970.
4. Landsverk, J. A., Garland, A. F. and Leslie, L. K. (2001). Mental health services for children reported to child protective services. In J. E. B. Myers, C. T. Hendrix, L. Berliner, et al. (eds.), APSAC handbook on child maltreatment, 2nd edn (pp. 487–507). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
5. Pears, K. C. and Fisher, P. A. (2005). Developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological functioning in preschool-aged foster children: Associations with prior maltreatment and placement history. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 26, 112–122.
6. Pears, K. C. and Fisher, P. A. (2005). Emotion understanding and theory of mind among maltreated children in foster care: Evidence of deficits. Developmental Psychopathology, 17, 47–65.
7. Aarons, G. A., Brown, S. A., Hough, R. L., Garland, A. F. and Wood, P. A. (2001). Prevalence of adolescent substance use disorders across five sectors of care. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 419–426.
8. Simms, M. D., Dubowitz, H. and Szilagyi, M. A. (2000). Health care needs of children in the foster care system. Pediatrics, 106, 909–918.
9. Simms, M. D. and Halfon, N. (1994). The Health Care Needs of Children in Foster Care: A Research Agenda. Child Welfare, 73, 505–524.
10. Kessler, R. C., Pecora, P. J., Williams, J. et al. (2008). Effects of enhanced foster care on the long-term physical and mental health of foster care alumni. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 625–633.
11. Juon, H.-S., Ensminger, M. E. and Feehan, M. (2004). Childhood adversity and later mortality in an urban African American cohort. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 2044–2046.
12. Newton, R. R., Litrownik, A. J. and Landsverk, J. A. (2000). Children and youth in foster care: Disentangling the relationship between problem behaviors and number of placements. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24, 1363–1374.
13. Lewis, E., Dozier, M., Ackerman, J. and Sepulveda-Kozakowski, S. (2007). The effect of placement instability on adopted children’s inhibitory control abilities and oppositional behavior. Developmental Psychobiology, 43, 1415–1427.
14. Harden, B. J. (2004). Safety and stability for foster children: A developmental perspective. The Future of Children, 14, 30–47.
15. Smith, D. K., Stormshak, E., Chamberlain, P. and Bridges Whaley, R. (2001). Placement disruption in treatment foster care. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 9, 200–205.
16. Reddy, L. A. and Pfeiffer, S. I. (1997). Effectiveness of treatment foster care with children and adolescents: A review of outcome studies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 581–588.
17. Nemeroff, C. B. (2008). Fostering foster care outcomes: Quality of intervention matters in overcoming early adversity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 623–624.
18. Chamberlain, P., Price, J., Leve, L. D. et al. (2008). Prevention of behavior problems for children in foster care: Outcomes and mediation effects. Prevention Science, 9, 17–27.
19. Fisher, P. A., Burraston, B. and Pears, K. (2005). The Early Intervention Foster Care Program: Permanent placement outcomes from a randomized trial. Child Maltreatment, 10, 61–71.
20. Fisher, P. A., Gunnar, M. R., Dozier, M., Bruce, J. and Pears, K. C. (2006). Effects of a therapeutic intervention for foster children on behavior problems, caregiver attachment, and stress regulatory neural systems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 215–225.
21. Gunnar, M. R. and Fisher, P. A. (2006). For the Early Experience, Stress, and Prevention Network. Bringing basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology to bear on preventive intervention research on neglected and maltreated children. Developmental Psychopathology, 18, 651–677.
22. Pine, D. S. and Charney, D. S. (2002). Children, stress, and sensitization: An integration of basic and clinical research on emotion? Biological Psychiatry, 52, 773–775.
23. Levine, S. (1994). The ontogeny of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. The influence of maternal factors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 746, 275–288.
24. Sapolsky, R. M. and Meaney, M. J. (1986). Maturation of the adrenocortical stress response: Neuroendocrine control mechanisms and the stress hyporesponsive period. Brain Research Reviews, 11, 65–76.
25. Meaney, M. and Szyf, M. (2005). Environmental programming of stress responses through DNA methylation: Life at the interface between a dynamic environment and a fixed genome. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 7, 103–123.
26. Zhang, L. X., Levine, S., Dent, G. et al. (2002). Maternal deprivation increases cell death in the infant rat brain. Developmental Brain Research, 133, 1–11.
27. Gould, E. and Tanapat, P. (1999). Stress and hippocampal neurogenesis. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 1472–1479.
28. McEwen, B. S., Coirini, H., Westlind-Danielson, M. et al. (1991). Steroid hormones as mediators of neural plasticity. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 39, 223–232.
29. Gunnar, M. R. (1998). Quality of early care and buffering of neuroendocrine stress reactions: Potential effects on the developing human brain. Preventive Medicine, 27, 208–211.
30. Gunnar, M. and Donzella, B. (2002). Social regulation of the cortisol levels in early human development. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27, 199–220.
31. Carlson, M. and Earls, F. (1997). Psychological and neuroendocrinological sequelae of early social deprivation in institutionalized children in Romania. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 807, 419–428.
32. Miller, G. E., Chen, E. and Zhou, E. S. (2007). If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis in humans. Psychology Bulletin, 133, 25–45.
33. Bruce, J., Fisher, P. A., Pears, K. C. and Levine, S. (2009). Morning cortisol levels in preschool-aged foster children: Differential effects of maltreatment type. Developmental Psychobiology, 51, 14–23.
34. Dozier, M., Manni, M., Peloso, E. et al. (2007). Foster children’s diurnal production of cortisol: An exploratory study. Child Maltreatment, 11, 189–197.
35. Bruce, J., Fisher, P. A., Pears, K. C. and Levine, S. (2009). Morning cortisol levels in preschool-aged foster children: Differential effects of maltreatment type. Developmental Psychobiology, 51, 14–23.
36. Gunnar, M. R. and Vazquez, D. M. (2001). Low cortisol and a flattening of expected diurnal rhythm: Potential indices of risk in human development. Developmental Psychopathology, 13, 515–538.
37. Parker, K. J., Buckmaster, C. L., Sundlass, K., Schatzberg, A. F. and Lyons, D. M. (2006). Maternal mediation, stress inoculation, and the development of neuroendocrine stress resistance in primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 3000–3005.
38. Gunnar, M. R., Frenn, K., Wewerka, S. and Van Ryzin, M. J. (2009). Moderate versus severe early life stress: Associations with stress reactivity and regulation in 10- to 12-year old children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 62–74.
39. Pollak, S. D., Nelson, C. A., Schlaak, M. et al. (2010). Neurodevelopmental effects of early deprivation in post-institutionalized children. Child Development, 81, 224–236.
40. Lyons, D. M. and Parker, K. J. (2007). Stress inoculation-induced indications of resilience in monkeys. Journal of Trauma and Stress, 20, 423–433.
41. Boyce, W. T. and Ellis, B. J. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary–developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Developmental Psychopathology, 17, 271–301.
42. Masten, A. S. and Reed, M.-G. (2002). Resilience in development. In: C. R. Snyder and S. J. Lopez (eds.), The handbook of positive psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
43. Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E. et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851–854.
44. Heim, C. and Nemeroff, C. B. (2001). The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: Preclinical and clinical studies. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 1023–1039.
45. Elzinga, B. M., Roelofs, K., Tollenaar, M. S. et al. (2008). Diminished cortisol responses to psychosocial stress associated with lifetime adverse events. A study among healthy young subjects. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33, 227–237.
46. Heim, C., Plotsky, P. and Nemeroff, C. B. (2004). The importance of studying the contributions of early adverse experiences to the neurobiological findings in depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 641–648.
47. Binder, E. B., Bradley, R. G., Wei, L. et al. (2008). Association of FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood abuse with risk of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 299, 1291–1305.
48. Oulette-Morin, I., Boivin, M., Dionne, G. et al. (2008). Variations in heritability of cortisol reactivity to stress as a function of early familial adversity among 19-month-old twins. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 211–218.
49. Fisher, P. A., Stoolmiller, M., Gunnar, M. R. and Burraston, B. (2007). Effects of a therapeutic intervention for foster preschoolers on diurnal cortisol activity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 892–905.
50. Fisher, P. A. and Stoolmiller, M. (2008). Intervention effects on foster parent stress: Associations with child cortisol levels. Developmental Psychopathology, 20, 1003–1021.
51. Fisher, P. A. and Kim, H. K. (2007). Intervention effects on foster preschoolers’ attachment-related behaviors from a randomized trial. Prevention Science, 8, 161–170.
52. Dozier, M., Peloso, E., Lewis, E., Laurenceau, J.-P. and Levine, S. (2008). Effects of an attachment-based intervention on the cortisol production of infants and toddlers in foster care. Developmental Psychopathology, 20, 845–859.
53. Brotman, L. M., Gouley, K. K., Huang, K.-Y. et al. (2007). Effects of a psychosocial family-based preventive intervention on cortisol response to a social challenge in preschoolers at high risk for antisocial behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 1172–1179.
54. Greenough, W. T., Black, J. E. and Wallace, C. S. (1987). Experience and brain development. Child Development, 58, 539–559.
55. Bruce, J., Martin McDermott, J. N., Fisher, P. A. and Fox, N. A. (2009). Using behavioral and electrophysiological measures to assess the effects of a preventive intervention: a preliminary study with preschool-aged foster children. Prevention Science, 10, 129–140.