Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Dillen, K. Mitchell, P. D. and Tollens, E. 2009. On the competitiveness of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera damage abatement strategies in Hungary: a bio-economic approach. Journal of Applied Entomology, Vol. 134, Issue. 5, p. 395.

  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: September 2010

Chapter 4 - Decision making and economic risk in IPM


Understanding and communicating the value of an IPM program or specific IPM tactics in agriculture, forestry and other venues has historically been difficult for a number of reasons (Grieshop et al., 1988; Wearing, 1988; Kogan, 1998; Swinton & Day, 2003). Some of the more common barriers to adoption include a lack of practical sampling/monitoring tools (Wearing, 1988), challenges to fully integrating biologically based tactics (Kogan, 1998; Ehler & Bottrell, 2000), the need for multiple pest–damage relationships for multiple insect pests per crop (Pedigo et al., 1986), changing economic conditions (with or without government subsidy programs) and the fact that multiple human audiences with diverse backgrounds and motivations are on the receiving end of new IPM programs (e.g. Bechinski, 1994; Cuperus & Berberet, 1994; Bacic et al., 2006; Hammond et al., 2006), including known variability in the adoption of new technologies (e.g. Mumford & Norton, 1984; Grieshop et al., 1988; Rogers, 1995). Equally important barriers, however, could be the perceived complexity of IPM compared to current conventional pest approaches (e.g. Bechinski, 1994; Cuperus & Berberet, 1994; Grieshop et al., 1988), or a lack of up-front consultation with targeted audiences prior to the R&D investment for developing IPM programs (Norton et al., 2005; Bacic et al., 2006). Although many of the concepts discussed in this chapter are relevant to IPM audiences in forestry or residential-urban pest management, our focus will primarily be targeted to decision makers in agricultural systems, and primarily arthropod management in crops.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Integrated Pest Management
  • Online ISBN: 9780511626463
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Babcock, B. A., Choi, E. K. & Feinerman, E. (1993). Risk and probability premiums for CARA utility functions. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 18, 17–24.
Bacic, I. L. Z., Bregt, A. K. & Rositer, D. G. (2006). A participatory approach for integrating risk assessment into rural decision-making: a case study in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Agricultural Systems, 87, 229–244.
Barry, P. (ed.) (1984). Risk Management in Agriculture. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
Bechinski, E. J. (1994). Designing and delivering in-field scouting programs. In Handbook of Sampling Methods for Arthropods in Agriculture, eds. Pedigo, L. P. & Buntin, B. D., pp. 683–706. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Benbrook, C. M., Sexson, , Wyman, J. A, D. L. et al. (2002). Developing a pesticide risk assessment tool to monitor progress in reducing reliance on high-risk pesticides. American Journal of Potato Research, 79, 183– 200.
Boehlje, M. D. & Eidman, V. R. (1984). Farm Management. New York: John Wiley.
Burkness, E. C. & Hutchison, W. D. (2008). Implementing reduced-risk IPM in fresh-market cabbage: Improved net returns via scouting and timing of effective management. Journal of Economic Entomology, 101, 461–471.
Burkness, E. C., Hutchison, W. D., Weinzierl, R. al. (2002). Efficacy and risk efficiency of sweet corn hybrids expressing a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin for lepidopteran pest management in the Midwestern U.S. Crop Protection, 21, 157–169.
Camerer, C. (2003). Behavioral Game Theory: Experiments in Strategic Interaction. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Carlson, G. A., (1970). The decision theoretic approach to crop disease prediction and control. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 52, 216–223.
Chavas, J. P. (2004). Risk Analysis in Theory and Practice. New York: Elsevier.
Crowder, D. W., Onstad, D. W., Gray, M. al. (2005). Economic analysis of dynamic management strategies utilizing transgenic corn for control of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 98, 961–975.
Cuperus, G. W. & Berberet, R. C. (1994). Training specialists in sampling procedures. In Handbook of Sampling Methods for Arthropods in Agriculture, eds. Pedigo, L. P. & Buntin, B. D., pp. 669–681. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Edson, C., Swinton, S., Nugent, al. (2003). Cherry Orchard Floor Management: Opportunities to Improve Profit and Stewardship, MSU Ext. Bull. E-2890. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.
Eeckhoudt, L., Gollier, C. & Schlesinger, H. (2005). Economic and Financial Decisions under Risk. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ehler, L. E. & Bottrell, D. G., (2000). The illusion of integrated pest management. Issues in Science and Technology, 16, 61–64.
Ernst, M. & Paulus, M. P. (2005). Neurobiology of decision making: a selective review from neurocognitive and clinical perspective. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 597–604.
Evans, M., Hastings, N. & Peacock, B. (2000). Statistical Distributions, 3rd edn. New York: John Wiley.
Feather, P. & Cooper, J. (1995). Voluntary Incentives for Reducing Agricultural Nonpoint Source Water Pollution, Agricultural Information Bulletin No. 716. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
Fecteau, S., Pascual-Leone, , Zald, D. H, al. (2007). Activation of prefrontal cortex by transcranial direct current stimulation reduces appetite for risk during ambiguous decision making. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 6212–6218.
Feder, G. (1979). Pesticides, information, and pest management under uncertainty. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 62, 97–103.
Foster, R. E., Tollefson, J. J., Nyrop, J. P. & Hein, G. L. (1986). Value of adult corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) population estimates in pest management decision making. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79, 303–310.
Fox, G., Weersink, A., Sarwar, G., Duff, S. & Deen, B. (1991). Comparative economics of alternative agricultural production systems: a review. Northeastern Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 20, 124–142.
Freund, J. E. (1992). Mathematical Statistics, 5th edn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Gollier, C. (2001). The Economics of Risk and Time. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Grieshop, J. I., Zalom, F. G. & Miyao, G. (1988). Adoption and diffusion of Integrated Pest Management Innovations in Agriculture. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 34, 77–78.
Gutierrez, A. P. & Baumgärtner, J. (2007). Modeling the dynamics of tritrophic population interactions, In Perspectives in Ecological Theory and Integrated Pest Management, eds. Kogan, M. & Jepson, P., pp. 301–360. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hammond, C. M., Luschel, E. C., Boerboom, C. M. & Nowak, P. J. (2006). Adoption of integrated pest management tactics by Wisconsin farmers. Weed Technology, 20, 756–767.
Hammond, R. B. (1996). Limitations to EILs and thresholds, In Economic Thresholds for Integrated Pest Management, eds. Higley, L. G. & Pedigo, L. P., pp. 58–73. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Hardaker, J. B., Huirne, B. R. M., Anderson, J. R. & Lien, G. (2004). Coping with Risk in Agriculture, 2nd edn. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.
Hoverstad, T. R., Gunsolus, J. L., Johnson, G. A. & King, R. P. (2004). Risk-efficiency criteria for evaluating economics of herbicide-based weed management systems in corn. Weed Technology, 18, 687–697.
Hrubovcak, J., Vasavada, U. & Aldy, J. E. (1999). Green Technologies for a More Sustainable Agriculture, Agricultural Information Bulletin No. 752. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
Hurley, T. M., Mitchell, P. D. & Rice, M. E. (2004). Risk and the value of Bt corn. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 86, 345–358.
Hutchins, S. H. (1997). IPM: opportunities and challenges for the private sector. In Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook, eds. Radcliffe, E. B. & Hutchison, W. D.. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota. Available at
Hutchison, W. D., Burkness, E. C., Carrillo, M. A., Galvan, T. L., Mitchell, P. D. & Hurley, T. M. (2006a). IPM: A Risk Management Framework to Improve Decision-making, Public. No. 08229. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota Extension Service.
Hutchison, W. D., Burkness, E. C., Carrillo, M. A., Hurley, T. M. & Pahl, G. (2006b). Fresh-Market Cabbage: Increasing Economic Returns while Reducing Risk, Public. No. 08230. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota Extension Service.
Isard, S. A., Gage, S. H., Comtois, P. & Russo, J. M. (2005). Principles of the atmospheric pathway for invasive species applied to soybean rust. BioScience, 55, 851–861.
Jepson, P. C. (2007). Ecotoxicology: the ecology of interactions between pesticides and non-target organisms. In Perspectives in Ecological Theory and Integrated Pest Management, eds. Kogan, M. & Jepson, P., pp. 522–551. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kogan, M. (1998). Integrated pest management: historical perspectives and contemporary developments. Annual Review of Entomology, 43, 243–270.
Kovach, J., Petzoldt, C., Degni, J. & Tette, J. (1992). A Method to Measure the Environmental Impact of Pesticides, New York Food and Life Science Bulletin No. 139. Geneva, NY: Cornell University, New York Agricultural Experiment Station. Available at 5203.
Manfredo, M. R. & Leuthold, R. M. (1999). Value-at-risk analysis: a review and the potential for agricultural applications. Review of Agricultural Economics, 21, 99–111.
McCarl, B. & Bessler, D. (1989). Estimating an upper bound on the Pratt risk aversion coefficient when the utility function is unknown. Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 33, 56–63.
Mitchell, P. D. (2005). The Expected Net Benefit and Break-Even Probability for Bt Corn in Wisconsin, UWEX Information Bulletin with companion spreadsheet, October. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Extension. Available at
Mitchell, P. D. (2008). Risk, Farmer Returns and Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Agricultural and Applied Economics Staff Paper No. 526. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Mitchell, P. D. & Onstad, D. W. (2005). Effect of extended diapause on the evolution of resistance to transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn by northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 98, 2220–2234.
Mitchell, P. D. & Onstad, D. W. (2008). Valuing insect resistance in an uncertain future. In Insect Resistance Management: Biology, Economics, and Prediction, ed. Onstad, D. W., pp. 17–38. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Mitchell, P. D., Gray, M. E. & Steffey, K. L. (2004). A composed error model for estimating pest-damage functions and the impact of the western corn rootworm soybean variant in Illinois. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 86, 332–344.
Moffitt, L. J., Tanagosh, L. K. & Baritelle, J. L. (1983). Incorporating risk in comparisons of alternative pest management methods. Environmental Entomology, 12, 1003–1111.
Mullen, J. D., Norton, G. W. & Reaves, D. W. (1997). Economic analysis of environmental benefits of integrated pest management. Journal of Agriculture and Applied Economics, 29, 243–253.
Mumford, J. D. & Norton, G. A. (1984). Economics of decision making in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology, 29, 157–174.
Musser, W. N., Tew, B. V. & Epperson, J. E. (1981). An economic examination of an integrated pest management production system with a contrast between E-V and stochastic dominance analysis. Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics, 13, 119–124.
Norton, G. A. (1976). Analysis of decision making in crop protection. Agroecosystems, 3, 27–44.
Norton, G. A. (1982). A decision analysis approach to integrated pest control. Crop Protection, 1, 147– 164.
Norton, G. A., Heinrichs, E. A., Luther, G. C. & Irwin, M. E. (eds.) (2005). Globalizing Integrated Pest Management: A Participatory Research Approach, Ames, IA: Blackwell.
Nowak, P. (1992). Why farmers adopt production technology. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 47, 14–16.
Olson, K. D., (2004). Farm Management: Principles and Strategies. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
Onstad, D. W. (1987). Calculation of economic injury levels and economic thresholds for pest management. Journal of Economic Entomology, 80, 297–303.
Onstad, D. W. & Rabbinge, R. (1985). Dynamic programming and the computation of economic injury levels for crop disease control. Agricultural Systems, 18, 207–226.
Onstad, D. W., Crowder, D. W., Mitchell, P. D. et al. (2003). Economics versus alleles: balancing IPM and IRM for rotation-resistant western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 96, 1872–1885.
Pedigo, L. P. & Rice, M. E. (2006). Entomology and Pest Management, 5th edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Pedigo, L. P., Hutchins, S. H. & Higley, L. G. (1986). Economic injury levels in theory and practice. Annual Review of Entomology, 31, 341–368.
Peterson, R. K. D. & Hunt, T. E. (2003). The probabilistic economic injury level: incorporating uncertainty into pest management decision-making. Journal of Economic Entomology, 96, 536–542.
Plant, R. E. (1986). Uncertainty and the economic threshold. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79, 1–6.
Plant, R. E. & Stone, N. D. (1991). Knowledge-Based Systems in Agriculture. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ragsdale, D. W., McCornack, , Venette, R. C, B. P. et al. (2007). Economic threshold for soybean aphid. Journal of Economic Entomology, 100, 1258–1267.
Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations, 4th edition. New York: The Free Press.
Sharpe, W. F. (1994). The Sharpe ratio. Journal of Portfolio Management, 21, 49–58.
Shiferaw, B., Freeman, H. A. & Swinton, S. M. (eds.) (2004). Natural Resource Management in Agriculture: Methods for Assessing Economic and Environmental Impacts. Wallingford: UK: CABI Publishing.
Shoemaker, C. (1982). Optimal integrated control of univoltine pest populations with age structure. Operations Research, 30, 40–61.
Stone, N. D., Gutierrez, A. P., Getz, W. M. & Norgaard, R. (1986). III. Strategies for pink bollworm control in southwestern desert cotton: an economic simulation study. Hilgardia, 54, 42–56.
Swinton, S. M. & Day, E. (2003). Economics in the design, assessment, adoption, and policy analysis of IPM. In Integrated Pest Management: Current and Future Strategies, R-140, ed. Barker, K. R.. Ames, IA: Council for Agricultural Science and Technology.
Venette, R. C. & Ragsdale, D. W. (2004). Assessing the invasion by soybean aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae): where will it end? Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 97, 219–226.
Wearing, C. H. (1988). Evaluating the IPM implementation process. Annual Review of Entomology, 33, 17–38.