Skip to main content
×
×
Home
The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Chism, Christine 2018. Stranger worlds. postmedieval, Vol. 9, Issue. 1, p. 100.

    Evans, Ruth 2018. Gender does not equal genitals. postmedieval, Vol. 9, Issue. 2, p. 120.

    ×
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages
    • Online ISBN: 9781108381710
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108381710
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

In The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages, Geraldine Heng questions the common assumption that the concepts of race and racisms only began in the modern era. Examining Europe's encounters with Jews, Muslims, Africans, Native Americans, Mongols, and the Romani ('Gypsies'), from the 12th through 15th centuries, she shows how racial thinking, racial law, racial practices, and racial phenomena existed in medieval Europe before a recognizable vocabulary of race emerged in the West. Analysing sources in a variety of media, including stories, maps, statuary, illustrations, architectural features, history, saints' lives, religious commentary, laws, political and social institutions, and literature, she argues that religion - so much in play again today - enabled the positing of fundamental differences among humans that created strategic essentialisms to mark off human groups and populations for racialized treatment. Her ground-breaking study also shows how race figured in the emergence of homo europaeus and the identity of Western Europe in this time.

Reviews

'For more than two decades scholars have been hotly debating the appropriateness of the term 'race' and its derivatives in the analysis of medieval European societies. Now, with this book, Geraldine Heng provides the most comprehensive and persuasive validation of race as a way into the medieval cultural 'imaginary'. Race, she acknowledges, was a concept that varied from place to place and changed in multiple ways over time. It was complexly intertwined with religious ideas, and although medieval notions of race shared content with some modern somatic notions (allowing for comparability), its specifically medieval distinctiveness owes much to the various faith communities within which it attained significance. This is not a book about blaming the Middle Ages or the West for racism; it is an erudite plea to pursue the study of racialisms, for truth's sake. No one interested in the vexing and tragic history of racial thought and the practices that it informed can afford to ignore this magisterial intervention into the scholarly conversation.'

William Chester Jordan - Dayton-Stockton Professor of History, Princeton University, New Jersey

'[One cannot overstate the importance of The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages.] Writing with astounding force and clarity, Heng accomplishes what has eluded literary scholars and historians: a breakthrough demonstration of how religion, as both sociocultural and biopolitical technology, produced 'race'. Heng shows that race is a name for an apparatus that structures and deploys human differences across the globe and time. Race would thus be the only adequate name for the process of difference-making. Heng renews the impetus for the global study of the Middle Ages and, in racial terms, shows what we have always known: that modernity is merely the effect of the Middle Ages.'

Zrinka Stahuljak - University of California, Los Angeles

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×
Abou El Fadl, Khaled. And God Knows the Soldiers: The Authoritative and Authoritarian in Islamic Discourses. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2001.
Abrahams, B. L. The Expulsion of the Jews from England in 1290. Oxford: Blackwell, 1895.
Abulafia, Anna Sapir. “Jewish Carnality in Twelfth-Century Renaissance Thought.” Christianity and Judaism. Ed. Wood, Diana. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. 5975.
Abulafia, Anna SapirBodies in the Jewish-Christian Debate.” Framing Medieval Bodies. Ed. Kay, Sarah and Rubin, Miri. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994. 123–37.
Abulafia, Anna SapirTwelfth-Century Renaissance Theology and the Jews.” From Witness to Witchcraft: Jews and Judaism in Medieval Christian Thought. Ed. Cohen, Jeremy. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997. 125–39.
Abulafia, David. Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Abulafia, DavidMonarchs and Minorities in the Christian Western Mediterranean around 1300: Lucera and Its Analogues.” Christendom and Its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000–1500. Ed. Waugh, Scott L. and Diehl, Peter D.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 234–63.
Abu-Lughod, Janet L. Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250–1350. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Achim, Viorel. The Roma in Romanian History. Budapest: Central European University Press, 2004.
Adler, Marcus N. The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela: Critical Text, Translation, and Commentary. London: H. Frowde, 1907.
Adler, Michael. Jews of Medieval England. London: Jewish Historical Society of England, 1939.
Akbari, Suzanne Conklin. Idols in the East: European Representations of Islam and the Orient, 1100–1450. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009.
Akbari, Suzanne Conklin, and Iannucci, Amilcare A., eds. Marco Polo and the Encounter of East and West. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008.
Allsen, Thomas T. Mongol Imperialism: The Policies of the Grand Qan Möngke in China, Russia, and the Islamic Lands, 1251–1259. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.
Allsen, Thomas T. Commodity and Exchange in the Mongol Empire: A Cultural History of Islamic Textiles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Allsen, Thomas T. Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Almqvist, Bo. “‘My Name is Guðriðr’: An Enigmatic Episode in Grænlendinga saga.” Approaches to Vínland. Ed. Wawn, Andrew and Sigurdardóttir, Þórunn. Reykjavik: Sigurður Nordal Institute, 2001. 1530.
Amer, Sahar. Crossing Borders: Love between Women in Medieval French and Arabic Literature. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.
Amitai, Reuven. “Edward of England and Abagha Ilkhan: A Reexamination of a Failed Attempt at Mongol-Frankish Cooperation.” Tolerance and Intolerance: Social Conflict in the Age of the Crusades. Ed. Gervers, Michael and Powell, James M.. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2001. 7582.
Anidjar, Gil. Blood: A Critique of Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony. “Race.” Critical Terms for Literary Study. Ed. Lentricchia, Frank and McLaughlin, Thomas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. 274–87.
Appiah, Kwame AnthonyRacisms.” Anatomy of Racism. Ed. Goldberg, David Theo. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990. 317.
Arnold of Lübeck. Arnoldi Chronica Slavorum. Ed. Pertz, G. H. and Lappenberg, J. M.. Hanover: Hahn, 1868.
Asad, Talal. Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003.
Ashtor, Eliyahu. A Social and Economic History of the Near East in the Middle Ages. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.
Ashtor, EliyahuLevantine Sugar Industry in the Late Middle Ages: A Case of Technological Decline.” The Islamic Middle East: 700–1900. Ed. Udovitch, A. L.. Princeton: Darwin, 1981. 91132.
Ashtor, Eliyahu Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983.
Ashtor, EliyahuThe Economic Decline of the Middle East during the Later Middle Ages: An Outline.” Technology, Industry and Trade: The Levant versus Europe, 1250–1500. Ed. Kedar, B. Z.. Brookfield, VT: Variorium, 1992. 253–86.
Atiya, Aziz Suryal. The Crusade of Nicopolis. London: Methuen, 1934.
Atiya, Aziz Suryal. The Crusade in the Later Middle Ages. London: Methuen, 1938.
Atwood, Christopher Pratt. Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. New York: Facts on File, 2004.
Atwood, Christopher PrattValidation by Holiness or Sovereignty: Religious Toleration as Political Ideology in the Mongol World Empire of the Thirteenth Century.” The International History Review 26(2) (2004): 237–56.
Ayalon, David. “The Muslim City and the Mamluk Military Aristocracy.” Princeton Near East Paper No. 20, Princeton University Program in Near Eastern Studies, 1967.
Ayalon, David “The Impact of Firearms on the Muslim World.” Princeton Near East Paper No. 20, Princeton University Program in Near Eastern Studies, 1975.
Ayalon, David Studies on the Mamluks of Egypt (1250–1517). London: Variorum, 1977.
Ayalon, David The Mamluk Military Society: Collected Studies. London: Variorum, 1979.
Ayalon, David Outsiders in the Lands of Islam: Mamluks, Mongols and Eunuchs. London: Variorum, 1988.
Ayalon, David Eunuchs, Caliphs, and Sultans: A Study in Power Relationships. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew University, 1999.
Babbington, Churchill, and Lumby, Joseph Rawson, eds. Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden Monachi Cestrensis. 9 vols. London: Longman, 1865–86.
Bale, Anthony Paul. The Jew in the Medieval Book: English Antisemitisms 1350–1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Bale, Anthony Paul. Feeling Persecuted: Christians, Jews and Images of Violence in the Middle Ages. London: Reaktion, 2012.
Balibar, Étienne. “Racism and Nationalism.” Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities. Balibar, Étienne and Wallerstein, Immanuel. London: Verso, 1992.
Balibar, Etienne “Election/Selection.” Keynote address at the University of California Humanities Research Institute (UCHRI) conference, “tRaces: Race, Deconstruction, Critical Theory.” Unpublished paper. 2003.
Barber, Malcolm. The Trial of the Templars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.
Barber, Malcolm. The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Bartlett, Robert. Gerald of Wales: 1146–1223. Oxford: Clarendon, 1982.
Bartlett, Robert. The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change 950-1350. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Bartlett, RobertMedieval and Modern Concepts of Race and Ethnicity.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31 (2001): 3856.
Bartlett, RobertIllustrating Ethnicity in the Middle Ages.” The Origins of Racism in the West. Ed. Eliav-Feldon, Miriam, Isaac, Benjamin, and Ziegler, Joseph. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 132–56.
Barton, Simon. “Marriage across Frontiers: Sexual Mixing, Power and Identity in Medieval Iberia.” Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies 3(1) (2011): 125.
Barton, Simon Conquerors, Brides, and Concubines: Interfaith Relations and Social Power in Medieval Iberia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.
Beazley, C. Raymond. The Texts and Versions of John de Plano Carpini and William de Rubruquis. London: Hakluyt Society, 1903.
Beck, Sam. “The Origins of Gypsy Slavery in Romania.” Dialectical Anthropology 14(1) (1989): 5361.
Beckingham, Charles F.The Achievements of Prester John.” Prester John, the Mongols, and the Ten Lost Tribes. Ed. Beckingham, Charles F. and Hamilton, Bernard. Aldershot: Variorum, 1996. 197206.
Beckwith, Sarah. Christ’s Body: Identity, Culture, and Society in Late Medieval Writings. New York: Routledge, 1993.
Begg, Ean. The Cult of the Black Virgin. London: Penguin, 1996.
Bennett, Josephine Waters. The Rediscovery of Sir John Mandeville. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1954.
Benson, Larry D., Pratt, Robert, and Robinson, F. N., ed. The Riverside Chaucer. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.
Bernal, Martin. Black Athena: The AfroAsiatic Roots of Classical Civilization. 2 vols. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1987.
Bernal, Martin Black Athena Writes Back. Durham: Duke University Press, 2001.
Berry, Henry F., ed. Statutes and Ordinances, and Acts of the Parliament of Ireland: King John to Henry V. Dublin: Alexander Thom, 1907.
Besamusca, Bart. “The Influence of the Lancelot en prose on the Middle Dutch Moriaen.” Arturus Rex: Volumen II: Acta Conventus Lovaniensis. Ed. Van Hoecke, Willy, Tournoy, Gilbert, and Verbeke, Werner. Vol. II. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1991. 352–60.
Bhabha, Homi. The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 1994.
Biagioli, Mario. “The Scientific Revolution Is Undead.” Configurations 6(2) (1998): 141–48.
Biddick, Kathleen. “The Cut of Genealogy: Pedagogy in the Blood.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 30(3) (2000): 449–62.
Biddick, Kathleen. The Typological Imaginary: Circumcision, Technology, History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003.
Biddick, KathleenDead Neighbor Archives: Jews, Muslims, and the Enemies’ Two Bodies.” Points of Departure: Political Theology on the Scenes of Early Modernity. Ed. Lupton, Julia Reinhart and Hammill, Graham. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011. 124142.
Biller, Peter. “Views of Jews from Paris around 1300: Christian or ‘Scientific’?Christianity and Judaism. Ed. Wood, Diana. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. 187207.
Biller, PeterA ‘Scientific’ View of Jews from Paris around 1300.” Micrologus 9 (2001): 137–68.
Biller, PeterBlack Women in Medieval Scientific Thought.” Micrologus 13 (2005): 477–92.
Biller, PeterProto-Racial Thought in Medieval Science.” The Origins of Racism in the West. Ed. Eliav-Feldon, Miriam, Isaac, Benjamin, and Ziegler, Joseph. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 157–80.
Bindman, David, Gates, Henry Louis Jr., Dalton, Karen C. C., eds. Image of the Black in Western Art: From the “Age of Discovery” to the Age of Abolition. Vol. 3 Pt. 1: Artists of the Renaissance and Baroque (Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries). Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; Houston: Menil Collection, 2010.
Bjørn, Claus, Grant, Alexander, and Stringer, Keith J., eds. Nations, Nationalism, and Patriotism in the European Past. Copenhagen: Academic, 1994.
Bonfil, Robert. “The Devil and the Jews in the Christian Consciousness of the Middle Ages.” Antisemitism through the Ages. Ed. Almog, Shmuel. Trans. Reisner, Nathan H.. Oxford: Pergamon, 1988. 91125.
Boswell, John. Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
Boyarin, Adrienne. Miracles of the Virgin in Medieval England: Law and Jewishness in Marian Legends. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2010.
Boyarin, Jonathan. The Unconverted Self: Jews, Indians, and the Identity of Christian Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.
Boyd, Beverly. The Middle English Miracles of the Virgin. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 1964.
Boyd, Beverly, ed. The Prioress’s Tale. A Variorum Edition of the Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, Vol. 2: The Canterbury Tales, Part 20. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1983.
Boyle, John Andrew, trans. The Successors of Genghis Khan: Translated from the Persian of Rashid al-Din. New York: Columbia University Press, 1971.
Boyle, John Andrew, trans. Genghis Khan: The History of the World Conqueror by Ata-Malik Juvaini. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1977.
Bracton, Henry de. De legibus et consuetudinibus Angliae (On the Laws and Customs of England). Trans. Thorne, Samuel E.. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1968.
Brand, Paul. “The Jewish Community of England in the Records of English Royal Government.” The Jews in Medieval Britain: Historical, Literary, and Archaeological Perspectives. Ed. Skinner, Patricia. Woodbridge: Boydell, 2003.
Braude, Benjamin. “The Sons of Noah and the Construction of Ethnic and Geographical Identities in the Medieval and Early Modern Periods.” William and Mary Quarterly 54 (1997): 103–42.
Brennan, Timothy. “The National Longing for Form.” Nation and Narration, Ed. Bhabha, Homi K.. New York: Routledge, 1990. 4470.
Brewer, J. S., ed. Giraldi Cambrensis Opera. Rolls series. 8 vols. London: Longman, 1861–91.
Brown, Carleton. A Study of the Miracle of Our Lady Told by Chaucer?s Prioress. London: Chaucer Society Publications, 1910.
Brown, Carleton. “The Prioress’s Tale.” Sources and Analogues of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. Ed. Bryan, W. F. and Dempster, Germaine. New York: Humanities Press, 1958. 447485.
Brown, Nancy Marie. The Far Traveler: Voyagers of a Viking Woman. Orlando: Harcourt, 2007.
Budge, E. A. Wallis, trans. The Monks of Kublai Khan Emperor of China. London: The Religious Tract Society, 1928.
Buell, Denise K. Why This New Race: Ethnic Reasoning in Early Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005.
Buell, Denise K.Early Christian Universalism and Modern Racism.” The Origins of Racism in the West. Ed. Eliav-Feldon, Miriam, Isaac, Benjamin, and Ziegler, Joseph. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 109–31.
Bugner, Ladislas. “Foreword.” Mauritius: Der Heilige Mohr. Suckale-Redlefsen, Gude. Zurich: Verlag Schnell & Steiner, 1987. 813.
Bulliet, Richard. Conversion to Islam in the Medieval Period: An Essay in Quantitative History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979.
Burman, Thomas E. Reading the Qu’ran in Latin Christendom, 1140–1560. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.
Burns, Robert I., S.J.Christian-Islamic Confrontation in the West: The Thirteenth-Century Dream of Conversion.” American Historical Review 76 (1971): 13861434.
Bynum, Caroline Walker. The Resurrection of the Body in Western Christianity, 200–1336. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.
Byron, Gay L. Symbolic Blackness and Ethnic Difference in Early Christian Literature. London: Routledge, 2002.
Calabrese, Michael. “Performing the Prioress: ‘Conscience’ and Responsibility in Studies of Chaucer’s Prioress’s Tale.” Texas Studies in Literature and Language 44(1) (2002): 6691.
Carpenter, David. “The Fine of the Month: January 2010” and “The Fine of the Month: February 2010.” In “Henry III Fine Roll Project.” www.finerollshenry3.org.uk/content/month/fm-01-2010.html and www.finerollshenry3.org.uk/content/month/fm-02-2010.html
Cassagnes-Brouquet, Sophie. Vierges Noires. Rodez: Éditions du Rouergue, 2000.
Catlos, Brian A. Muslims of Medieval Latin Christendom c. 1050–1614. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Caviness, Madeline. “From the Self-Invention of the Whiteman in the Thirteenth Century to The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.” Different Visions: A Journal of New Perspectives on Medieval Art 1 (2008): 133.
Chakrabarty, Dipesh. Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Chaliand, Gérard, and Blin, Arnaud. The History of Terrorism: from Antiquity to Al Qaeda. Trans. Schneider, Edward, Pulver, Kathryn, and Browner, Jesse. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
Chambers, Frank M.The Troubadours and the Assassins.” Modern Language Notes 64(4) (1949): 245–51.
Chan, J. Clara. “Medievalists, Recoiling from White Supremacy, Try to Diversify the Field.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, July 16, 2017. www.chronicle.com/article/Medievalists-Recoiling-From/240666.
Chase, Kenneth Warren. Firearms: A Global History to 1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Chazan, Robert. “Twelfth-Century Perceptions of the Jews: A Case Study of Bernard of Clairvaux and Peter the Venerable.” From Witness to Witchcraft: Jews and Judaism in Medieval Christian Thought. Ed. Cohen, Jeremy. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997. 187201.
Chiesa, Paolo, ed. The Travels of Friar Odoric: A 14th-Century Journal of the Blessed Odoric of Pordenone. Italian Texts and Studies on Religion and Society. Trans. Sir Yule, Henry. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 2002.
Claassens, Geert H. M., and Johnson, David F., eds. King Arthur in the Medieval Low Countries. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2000.
Classen, Albrecht. “Medieval Europe and Its Encounter with the Foreign World: Late-Medieval German Witnesses.” Medieval Cultures in Contact. Ed. Gyug, Richard F.. New York: Fordham University Press, 2003. 85103.
Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome. “Hybrids, Monsters, Borderlands: The Bodies of Gerald of Wales.” The Postcolonial Middle Ages. Ed. Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome. New York: St. Martins, 2000. 85104.
Cohen, Jeffrey JeromeOn Saracen Enjoyment: Some Fantasies of Race in Late Medieval France and England.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31(1) (2001): 113–46.
Cohen, Jeffrey JeromeThe Flow of Blood in Medieval Norwich.” Speculum 79(1) (2004): 2665.
Cohen, Jeremy. The Friars and the Jews: The Evolution of Medieval Anti-Judaism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982.
Cohen, JeremyThe Muslim Connection: On the Changing Role of the Jew in High Medieval Theology.” From Witness to Witchcraft: Jews and Judaism in Medieval Christian Thought. Ed. Cohen, Jeremy. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997. 141–62.
Cohen, Jeremy From Witness to Witchcraft: Jews and Judaism in Medieval Christian Thought. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997.
Cohen, Jeremy Living Letters of the Law: Ideas of the Jew in Medieval Christianity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
Cohen, JeremySynagoga conversa: Honorius Augustodunensis, the Song of Songs, and Christianity’s ‘Eschatological Jew’.” Speculum 79(2) (2004): 309–40.
Colbert, Edward P. The Martyrs of Córdoba (850–859): A Study of the Sources. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1962.
Colvin, Howard M.Royal Gardens in Medieval England.” Medieval Gardens. Ed. McDougall, Elisabeth B.. Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 9. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1986. 922.
Comnena, Anna. The Alexiad of Anna Comnena. Trans. Sewter, E. R. A.. London: Penguin, 1969.
Connell, C. W.Western Views of the Origin of the ‘Tartars’: An Example of the Influence of Myth in the Second Half of the Thirteenth Century.” Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 3(1) (1973): 115–37.
Constable, Olivia Remie. “Muslim Spain and Mediterranean Slavery: The Medieval Slave Trade as an Aspect of Muslim-Christian Relations.” Christendom and Its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000–1500. Ed. Waugh, Scott L. and Diehl, Peter D.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 264–84.
Coope, Jessica A.Religious and Cultural Conversion to Islam in Ninth-Century Umayyad Córdoba.” Journal of World History 4(1) (1994): 4768.
Coope, Jessica A. The Martyrs of Córdoba: Community and Family Conflict in an Age of Mass Conversion. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.
Couch, Julie Nelson. “‘The Child Slain by Jews’ and ‘The Jewish Boy’.” Medieval Literature for Children. Ed. Kline, Daniel T.. New York: Routledge, 2003. 204–26.
Crosby, Alfred W. Jr. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.
Crosby, Alfred W Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Crowe, David M. A History of the Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Cutler, Allan Harris, and Cutler, Helen Elmquist. The Jew as Ally of the Muslim: Medieval Roots of Anti-Semitism. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1986.
Daftary, Farhad. Ismailis in Medieval Muslim Societies. London: I. B. Tauris, 2005.
Daftary, Farhad The Assassin Legends: Myths of the Isma’ilis. London: I. B. Tauris, 2006.
Dahan, Gilbert. Les intellectuels chrétiens and les Juifs au Moyen Age. Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1990.
Dahan, GilbertJuifs et judaîsme dans la littérature quodlibétique.” From Witness to Witchcraft: Jews and Judaism in Medieval Christian Thought. Ed. Cohen, Jeremy. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997. 221–45.
Dahood, Roger. “English Historical Narratives of Jewish Child-Murder, Chaucer’s Prioress’s Tale, and the Date of Chaucer’s Unknown Source.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer 31 (2009): 125–40.
Dahood, RogerAnglo-Norman “Hugo de Lincolnia’: A Critical Edition and Translation from the Unique Text in Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France MS fr. 902.” The Chaucer Review 49(1) (2014): 138.
Daniel, Norman. The Arabs and Mediaeval Europe. London: Longman, 1975.
Daniel, Norman Heroes and Saracens: An Interpretation of the Chansons de Geste. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1984.
Daniel, Norman Islam and the West: The Making of an Image. Oxford: Oneworld, 1993.
Davies, R. R. The First English Empire: Power and Identities in the British Isles 1093–1343. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Davis, Dick, trans. Shahnameh: The Persian Book of Kings. London: Penguin, 2006.
Davis, Kathleen. Periodization and Sovereignty: How Ideas of Feudalism and Secularization Govern the Politics of Time. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.
Dawson, Christopher, ed. Mission to Asia. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980.
DeBoer, Warren R.Colors for a North American Past.” World Archaeology 37(1) (2005): 6691.
de Clari, Robert. La Conquête de Constantinople. Ed. Lauer, Philippe. Paris: Champion, 1956.
Dee, James. “Black Odysseus, White Caesar: When did ‘White People’ Become ‘White’?The Classical Journal 99(2) (2003/4): 157–67.
Delano-Smith, Catherine and Roger, J. P. Kain. English Maps: A History. London: British Library, 1999.
Deluz, Christiane, ed. Le Livre de Merveilles du Monde, de Mandeville, Jean. Paris: CNRS Éditions, 2000.
De Miramon, Charles. “Noble Dogs, Noble Blood: The Invention of the Concept of Race in the Late Middle Ages.” The Origins of Racism in the West. Ed. Eliav-Feldon, Miriam, Isaac, Benjamin, and Ziegler, Joseph. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 200–16.
Demurger, Alain. Vie et Mort de l’Ordre du Temple: 1118–1314. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1985.
Demurger, Alain. Les Templiers: Une Chevalerie Chrétienne au Moyen Age. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 2008.
de Rachewiltz, Igor. Papal Envoys to the Great Khan. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1971.
de Rachewiltz, Igor, Prester John and Europe’s Discovery of East Asia. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1972.
de Rachewiltz, Igor, “Marco Polo Went to China.” Zentraleasiatische Studien 27 (1997): 3492.
de Rachewiltz, Igor, ed. and trans. The Secret History of the Mongols: A Mongolian Epic Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century. 2 vols. Leiden: Brill, 2004.
de Solla Price, Derek J.Automata and the Origins of Mechanism and Mechanistic Philosophy.” Technology and Culture 5(1) (1964): 923.
Despres, Denise L.Cultic Anti-Judaism and Chaucer’s Litel Clergeon.” Modern Philology 91(4) (1994): 413–27.
Despres, Denise L.Mary of the Eucharist: Cultic Anti-Judaism in Some Fourteenth-Century English Devotional Manuscripts.” From Witness to Witchcraft: Jews and Judaism in Medieval Christian Thought. Ed. Cohen, Jeremy. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997. 375401.
Despres, Denise L.Immaculate Flesh and the Social Body: Mary and the Jews.” Jewish History 12(1) (1998): 4769.
Despres, Denise L.The Protean Jew in the Vernon Manuscript.” Chaucer and the Jews: Sources, Contexts, Meanings. Ed. Delany, Sheila. New York: Routledge, 2002. 145–64.
Devisse, Jean. The Image of the Black in Western Art: From the Early Christian Era to the “Age of Discovery.” Trans. Ryan, William G.. Vol. 2 Pt. 1: From the Demonic Threat to the Incarnation of Sainthood. New York: William Morrow, 1979.
Devisse, Jean and Mollat, Michel. The Image of the Black in Western Art: From the Early Christian Era to the “Age of Discovery.” Trans. Ryan, William G.. Vol. 2 Pt. 2: Africans in the Christian Ordinance of the World (Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century). New York: William Morrow, 1979.
de Weever, Jacqueline. Sheba’s Daughters: Whitening and Demonizing the Saracen Woman in Medieval French Epic. New York: Garland, 1998.
Dimock, Wai Chee. Through Other Continents: American Literature across Deep Time. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.
Dinshaw, Carolyn. Getting Medieval: Sexualities and Communities, Pre- and Postmodern. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999.
Dobson, R. B. The Jews of Medieval York and the Massacre of March 1190. York: St Anthony’s, 1974.
Dobson, R. B.The Role of Jewish Women in Medieval England.” Christianity and Judaism. Ed. Wood, Diana. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. 145–68.
Dols, Michael. “The General Mortality of the Black Death in the Mamluk Empire.” The Islamic Middle East: 700-1900. Ed. Udovitch, A. L.. Princeton: Darwin, 1981. 397428.
Doyle, Laura. “Inter-imperiality and Literary Studies in the Longer Durée. PMLA 130(2) (2015): 336–47.
Du Bois, W. E. B. Black Folk Then and Now: An Essay in the History and Sociology of the Negro Race. New York: Octagon, 1970.
Duparc-Quioc, Suzanne, ed. Chanson d’Antioche. La Chanson d’Antioche. 2 vols. Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1976–82.
Durst, Judith. “‘What Makes Us Gypsies, Who Knows…?!’: Ethnicity and Reproduction.” Multi-Disciplinary Approaches to Romany Studies. Ed. Stewart, Michael and Rövid, Márton. Budapest: Central European University Press, 2011. 1334.
Dutschke, Consuelo W. “Francesco Pipino and the Manuscripts of Marco Polo’s Travels.” 3 vols. PhD dissertation, UCLA, 1993.
Ebenesersdóttir, Sigríður Sunna, Sigurðsson, Ásgeir, Sánchez-Quinto, Frederico, Lalueza-Fox, Carles, Stefánsson, Kári, and Helgason, Agnar. “A New Subclade of mtDNA Haplogroup C1 Found in Icelanders: Evidence of Pre-Columbian Contact?American Journal of Physical Anthropology 144 (2011): 92–9.
Edson, Evelyn. Mapping Time and Space: How Medieval Mapmakers Viewed Their World. London: British Library, 1997.
Edwards, Cyril, trans. Wolfram von Eschenbach: Parzival. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Edwards, John. “The Church and the Jews in Medieval England.” The Jews in Medieval Britain: Historical, Literary and Archaeological Perspectives. Ed. Skinner, Patricia. Woodbridge: Boydell, 2003. 8595.
Edwards, Paul. “The Early African Presence in the British Isles.” Essays on the History of Blacks in Britain: From Roman Times to the Mid-Twentieth Century. Ed. Gundara, Jagdish S. and Duffield, Ian. Aldershot: Avebury, 1992. 929.
Ehrenkreutz, Andrew. “Strategic Implications of the Slave Trade between Genoa and Mamluk Egypt in the Second Half of the Thirteenth Century.” The Islamic Middle East: 700-1900. Ed. Udovitch, A. L.. Princeton: Darwin, 1981. 335–45.
Eidelberg, Shlomo, ed. and trans. The Jews and the Crusaders: The Hebrew Chronicles of the First and Second Crusades. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977.
El-Hajji, Abdurrahman. “Intermarriage between Andalusia and Nothern Spain in the Umayyad Period.” Islamic Quarterly 11(1/2) (1967): 37.
Miriam, Eliav-Feldon, Isaac, Benjamin, and Ziegler, Joseph, eds. The Origins of Racism in the West. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Elukin, Jonathan M.From Jew to Christian? Conversion and Immutability in Medieval Europe.” Varieties of Religious Conversion in the Middle Ages. Ed. James, Muldoon. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1997. 171–89.
Elukin, Jonathan M.The Discovery of the Self: Jews and Conversion in the Twelfth Century.” Jews and Christians in Twelfth Century Europe. Ed. Signer, Michael A. and Van Engen, John. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001. 6376.
Encyclopaedia Judaica. 17 vols. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1972(?)–1982.
Epstein, Steven A. Genoa and the Genoese, 958–1528. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Epstein, Steven A. Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001.
Epstein, Steven A. Purity Lost: Transgressing Boundaries in the Eastern Mediterranean, 1000–1400. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.
“Eurocentrism, Sinocentrism and World History: A Symposium.” Science and Society 67(2) (2003): 173–217.
Fernández-Armesto, Felipe. Before Columbus: Exploration and Colonisation from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic 1229–1492. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1987.
Fleischman, R. A.Human Piebald Trait Resulting from a Dominant Negative Mutant Allele of the C-Kit Membrane Receptor Gene.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation 89(6) (1992): 17131717.
Fogle, Lauren. “Between Christianity and Judaism: The Identity of Converted Jews in Medieval London.” Essays in Medieval Studies 22 (2005): 107–16.
Fogle, LaurenThe Domus Conversorum: The Personal Interest of Henry III.” Jewish Historical Studies 41 (2007): 17.
Forde, Simon, Johnson, Lesley, and Murray, Alan V., eds. Concepts of National Identity in the Middle Ages. Leeds: University of Leeds Press, 1995.
Foucault, Michel. “Society Must Be Defended”: Lectures at the Collège De France 1975–1976. Ed. Bertani, Mauro and Fontana, Alessandro. Trans. Macey, David. New York: Picador, 2003.
Foucault, Michel. The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège De France 1978–1979. Ed. Senellart, Michel. Trans. Burchell, Graham. New York: Picador, 2010.
Fowden, Gareth. Empire to Commonwealth: Consequences of Monotheism in Late Antiquity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Fradenburg, Louise Olga. “Criticism, Anti-Semitism, and the Prioress’s Tale.” Exemplaria 1(1) (1989): 69115.
Fradenburg, Louise Olga City, Marriage, Tournament: Arts of Rule in Late Medieval Scotland. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991.
Frakes, Jerold C. Vernacular and Latin Literary Discourses of the Muslim Other in Medieval Germany. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
Frank, Robert W. Jr.Miracles of the Virgin, Medieval Anti-Semitism, and ‘The Prioress’s Tale’.” The Wisdom of Poetry: Essays in Early English Literature in Honor of Morton W. Bloomfield. Ed. Benson, Larry D. and Wenzel, Siegfried. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute, 1983. 176–88.
Franke, Herbert. “Ahmad (?–1282).” In the Service of the Khan: Eminent Personalities of the Early Mongol-Yüan Period. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1993. 539–57.
Fraser, Angus. The Gypsies. Oxford: Blackwell, 1995.
Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Frey, Winfried. “Gottesmörder und Menschenfeinde: Zum Judenbild in der deutschen Literatur des Mittelalters.” Die Juden in ihrer mittelalterlichen Umwelt. Ed. Ebenbauer, Alfred and Zatloukal, Klaus. Vienna: Böhlau, 1991. 3551.
Fulcher of Chartres. Historia Hierosolymitana (1095–1127). Ed. Hagenmeyer, Heinrich. Heidelberg: Carl Winters, 1913.
Fulcher of Chartres A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem, 1095–1127. Ed. Fink, Harold S.. Trans. Ryan, Frances Rita. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1969.
Gabrieli, Francisco, trans. Arab Historians of the Crusades. London: Routledge, 1957.
Galison, Peter, and Stump, David J., eds. The Disunity of Science: Boundaries, Contexts, and Power. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996.
Gaunt, Simon. Marco Polo’s Le Devisement du Monde. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2013.
Gerald of Wales. Giraldi Cambrensis Opera. Ed. Brewer, J. S.. Rolls series. 8 vols. London: Longman, 1861–91.
Gerald of Wales The History and Topography of Ireland. Trans. O’Meara, John J.. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1982.
Gheorghe, Nicolae. “Origins of Roma’s Slavery in the Rumanian Principalities.” Roma 7 (1983): 1227.
Ghosh, Amitav, and Chakrabarty, Dipesh. “A Correspondence on Provincializing Europe.” Radical History Review 83 (2002): 146–72.
Gibb, H. A. R., trans. The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades: Extracted and Translated from the Chronicle of Ibn Al-Qalanisi. London: Luzac, 1932.
Gibbs, Marion E.Ideals of Flesh and Blood: Women Characters in Parzival.” A Companion to Wolfram’s Parzival. Ed. Hasty, Will. Columbia, SC: Camden, 1999. 1236.
Goitein, S. D., and Friedman, Mordechai Akiva, eds. and trans. India Traders of the Middle Ages: Documents from the Cairo Geniza (‘India Book’). Leiden: Brill, 2008.
Golb, Norman. The Jews in Medieval Normandy: A Social and Economic History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Goldberg, David Theo. Racist Culture: Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.
Goldberg, David Theo The Racial State. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.
Goldenberg, David M. The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.
Goldenberg, David M.Racism, Color Symbolism, and Color Prejudice.” The Origins of Racism in the West. Ed. Eliav-Feldon, Miriam, Isaac, Benjamin, and Ziegler, Joseph. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 88108.
Goldstein, R. James. The Matter of Scotland: Historical Narrative in Medieval Scotland. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.
Goldstone, Jack A.Efflorescences and Economic Growth in World History: Rethinking the ‘Rise of the West’ and the Industrial Revolution.” Journal of World History 13(2) (2002): 323–89.
Goodich, Michael. “Foreigner, Foe, and Neighbor: The Religious Cult as a Forum for Political Reconciliation.” Meeting the Foreign in the Middle Ages. Ed. Classen, Albrecht. New York: Routledge, 2002. 1126.
Goodrich, L. Carrington. “Westerners and Central Asians in Yuan China.” Oriente Poliano. Rome: Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1957. 121.
Gottheil, Richard, and Joseph, Jacobs. “Archa.” Jewish Encyclopedia.com.
Gow, Andrew Colin. The Red Jews: Antisemitism in an Apocalyptic Age 1200–1600. Leiden: Brill, 1995.
Grady, Frank. Representing Righteous Heathens in Late Medieval England. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Grayzel, Solomon. The Church and the Jews in the XIIIth Century. New York: Hermon, 1966.
Gresham, David, Morar, Bharti, Underhill, Peter A., Passarino, Giuseppe, Lin, Alice A., Wise, Cheryl, Angelicheva, Dora, Calafell, Francesc, Oefner, Peter J., Shen, Peidong, Tournev, Ivailo, de Pablo, Rosario, Kucinskas, Vaidutis, Perez-Lezaun, Anna, Marushiakova, Elena, Popov, Vesselin, and Kalaydjieva, Luba. “Origins and Divergence of the Roma (Gypsies).” American Journal of Human Genetics 69(6) (2001): 13141331. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1235543/
Groebner, Valentin. “The Carnal Knowing of a Colored Body: Sleeping with Arabs and Blacks in the European Imagination, 1300–1550.” The Origins of Racism in the West. Ed. Eliav-Feldon, Miriam, Isaac, Benjamin, and Ziegler, Joseph. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 217–31.
Gross, Charles. The Exchequer of the Jews of England in the Middle Ages. London: Office of the Jewish Chronicle, 1887.
Guzman, Gregory. “Reports of Mongol Cannibalism in the Thirteenth Century.” Discovering New Worlds: Essays on Medieval Exploration and Imagination. Ed. Westrem, Scott D.. New York: Garland, 1991. 3168.
Hagenmeyer, Heinrich, ed. Die Kreuzzugsbriefe aus den Jahren 1088–1100. Innsbruck: Verlag der Wagnerschen Universitäts-Buchhandlung, 1901.
Hahn, Thomas, ed. Special Issue on Race and Ethnicity in the Middle Ages. Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31(1) (2001).
Hahn, ThomasThe Difference the Middle Ages Makes: Color and Race before the Modern World.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31(1) (2001): 137.
Hall, Jonathan M. Hellenicity: Between Ethnicity and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.
Hall, Kim F. Things of Darkness: Economies of Race and Gender in Early Modern England. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Halperin, Charles. Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.
Hambis, Louis. “Le Voyage de Marco Polo en Haute Asie.” Oriente Poliano. Rome: Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1957. 173–91.
Hamelius, P., ed. Mandeville’s Travels…Edited from MS. Cotton Titus c. XVI, in the British Museum. 2 vols. EETS Original Series Vol. 153. London: Kegan Paul, 1919.
Hamilton, Bernard. “Continental Drift: Prester John’s Progress through the Indies.” Prester John, the Mongols, and the Ten Lost Tribes. Ed. Beckingham, Charles F. and Hamilton, Bernard. Aldershot: Variorium, 1996. 237–69.
Hammond, James. “The Darkness of Memory: ‘Post-Race’ in Premodernity.” Honors thesis, University of Texas, 2010.
Hancock, Ian. The Pariah Syndrome: An Account of Gypsy Slavery and Persecution. Ann Arbor: Karoma, 1987.
Hancock, IanGypsy History in Germany and Neighboring Lands: A Chronology Leading to the Holocaust and Beyond.” The Gypsies of Eastern Europe. Ed. Crowe, David and Kolsti, John. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1991. 1130.
Hancock, Ian We Are the Romani People. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, 2002.
Hancock, IanThe ‘Gypsy’ Stereotype and the Sexualization of Romani Women.” Gypsies in European Literature and Culture. Ed. Glajar, Valentina and Radulescu, Domnica. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. 181–91.
Hardy, Thomas Duffus, ed. Rotuli chartarum in Turri Londinensis asservati. London: G. Eyre and A. Spottiswoode, 1837.
Harris, Stephen J. Race and Ethnicity in Anglo-Saxon Literature. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Hart, Roger. “The Great Explanandum.” The American Historical Review 105(2) (2000): 486–93.
Hart, Roger. The Chinese Roots of Linear Algebra. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.
Hart, Roger. Imagining Civilizations: China, the West, and Their First Encounter. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011.
Hartwell, Robert. “A Revolution in the Chinese Iron and Coal Industries during the Northern Sung, 960-1126 A.D.” Journal of Asian Studies 21(2) (1962): 153–62.
Hartwell, RobertA Cycle of Economic Change in Imperial China: Coal and Iron in Northeast China, 750–1350.” Journal of the Social and Economic History of the Orient 10 (1967): 102–59.
Harvey, John Hooper. Mediaeval Gardens. London: B. T. Batsford, 1981.
Harvey, Paul D. A. Mappa Mundi: The Hereford World Map. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1996.
Haskins, Charles Homer. The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1927.
Haw, Stephen G. Marco Polo’s China: A Venetian in the Realm of Khubilai Khan. London: Routledge, 2006.
Hawkins, Daniel. “‘Chimeras that Degrade Humanity’: The Cagots and Discrimination.” September 2014. www.academia.edu/15057536/Chimeras_that_degrade_humanity_the_cagots_and_discrimination
Heck, Gene W. Charlemagne, Muhammad, and the Arab Roots of Capitalism. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2006.
Heng, Geraldine. Empire of Magic: Medieval Romance and the Politics of Cultural Fantasy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Heng, GeraldineJews, Saracens, ‘Black men,’ Tartars: England in a World of Racial Difference.” A Companion to Medieval English Literature, c.1350–c.1500. Ed. Brown, Peter. Oxford: Blackwell, 2007. 247–69.
Heng, GeraldineHoly War Redux: The Crusades, Futures of the Past, and Strategic Logic in the ‘Clash’ of Religions.” PMLA 126(2) (2011): 422–31.
Heng, GeraldineThe Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages 1: Race Studies, Modernity, and the Middle Ages.” Literature Compass 8(5) (2011): 258–74.
Heng, GeraldineThe Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages 2: Locations of Medieval Race.” Literature Compass 8(5) (2011): 275–93.
Heng, GeraldineSex, Lies, and Paradise: The Assassins, Prester John, and the Fabulation of Civilizational Identities.” differences 15(1) (2012): 131.
Heng, GeraldineAn African Saint in Medieval Europe: The Black Saint Maurice and the Enigma of Racial Sanctity.” Sainthood and Race: Marked Flesh, Holy Flesh. Ed. Bassett, Molly H. and Lloyd, Vincent W.. London: Routledge, 2014. 1844.
Heng, GeraldineEarly Globalities and Its Questions, Objectives, and Methods: An Inquiry into the State of Theory and Critique.” Exemplaria 26(2–3) (2014): 234–53.
Heng, GeraldineReinventing Race, Colonization, and Globalisms across Deep Time: Lessons from the Longue Durée.” PMLA 130(2) (2015): 358–66.
Henze, Paul B. Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000.
Hermannsson, Halldór, ed. The Vinland Sagas. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1944.
Higgins, Iain Macleod. Writing East: The “Travels” of Sir John Mandeville. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.
Higgins, Iain Macleod, ed. and trans. The Book of John Mandeville with Related Texts. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2011.
Hill, John Hugh, and Hill, Laurita L., eds. Le “Liber” de Raymond d’Aguiliers. Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem. Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1969.
Hill, Rosalind, ed. and trans. The Deeds of the Franks and the Other Pilgrims to Jerusalem. [Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolymitana] Oxford: Clarendon, 1962.
Hillaby, Joe. “The Ritual-Child-Murder Accusation: Its Dissemination and Harold of Gloucester.” Jewish Historical Studies 34 (1994–6): 69199.
Hillaby, JoeTestimony from the Margin: the Gloucester Jewry and Its Neighbors, c. 1159–1290.” Jewish Historical Studies 37 (2002): 41112.
Hodgson, Marshall G. S. The Secret Order of the Assassins: The Struggle of the Early Nizâri Ismâ’ilis against the Islamic World. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955.
Hoffmann, Richard C.Outsiders by Birth and Blood: Racist Ideologies and Realities around the Periphery of Medieval European Culture.” Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History New Series 6 (1983): 124, 28–36.
Holsinger, Bruce W. Neomedievalism, Neoconservatism, and the War on Terror. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm, 2007.
Holt, P. M. The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. London: Longman, 1986.
Holt, Thomas C. The Problem of Race in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.
Hornstein, Lillian H.The Historical Background of the King of Tars.” Speculum 16(4) (1941): 404–14.
Howard, Donald. “The World of Mandeville’s Travels.” The Yearbook of English Studies 1 (1997): 117.
Hughes, Malcolm K.Was There a ‘Medieval Warm Period,’ and If So, Where and When?Climatic Change 26 (1994): 109–42.
Husain, Ali Akbar. Scent in the Islamic Garden. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Ibn, Khaldun. The Muqaddimah. Trans. Rosenthal, Franz. Bollingen series. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.
Ibn Shaddad, Beha ed-Din. Saladin or, What Befell Sultan Yusuf (Salah ed-Din 1137–1193 A.D.). Trans. Wilson, C. W.. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 1897. Rpt. Lahore: Islamic Book Service, 1976.
Ingham, Patricia Clare. Sovereign Fantasies: Arthurian Romance and the Making of Britain. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.
Isaac, Benjamin. The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.
Isaac, BenjaminRacism: A Rationalization of Prejudice in Greece and Rome.” The Origins of Racism in the West. Ed. Eliav-Feldon, Miriam, Isaac, Benjamin, and Ziegler, Joseph. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 3256.
Jackson, Peter. “Medieval Christendom’s Encounter with the Alien.” Historical Research 74(186) (2001): 347–69.
Jackson, Peter The Mongols and the West, 1221–1410. Harlow: Pearson Longman, 2005.
Jackson, Peter Studies on the Mongol Empire and Early Muslim India. Farnham: Ashgate, 2009.
Jackson, Peter, and Morgan, David, eds. The Mission of Friar William of Rubruck: His Journey to the Court of the Great Khan Möngke 1253–1255. Trans. Peter Jackson. Hakluyt Society publications, 1990. Repr. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2009.
Jacobs, Joseph. Jewish Ideals and Other Essays. New York: Macmillan, 1896.
Jakobsson, Sverrir. “‘Black Men and Malignant-Looking’: The Place of the Indigenous Peoples of North America in the Icelandic World View.” Approaches to Vínland. Ed. Wawn, Andrew and Sigurdardóttir, Þórunn. Reykjavik: Sigurður Nordal Institute, 2001. 88104.
Jansson, Sven B. F., ed. Sagorna om Vinland: Handscrifterna till Erik den rödes saga. Vol. 1. Lund: Hakan Ohlssons Boktryckeri, 1944.
Jauss, Hans Robert. “The Alterity and Modernity of Medieval Literature.” New Literary History 10 (1979). 409–16.
Jenkinson, Hilary. “The Records of the Exchequer Receipts from the English Jewry.” Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England 8, 1915–1917. 1954.
Jessop, Augustus and Montague, Rhodes James, eds. The Life and Miracles of St. William of Norwich by Thomas of Monmouth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1896.
Johnson, Willis. “The Myth of Jewish Male Menses.” Journal of Medieval History 24(3) (1998): 273–95.
Jones, Gwyn, trans. Eirik the Red, and Other Icelandic Sagas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961.
Jones, Gwyn The Norse Atlantic Saga. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Jordan, Mark D. The Invention of Sodomy in Christian Theology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Jordan, William C. The French Monarchy and the Jews: From Philip Augustus to the Last Capetians. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.
Jordan, William C.Why Race?Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31(1) (2001): 165–73.
Juvaini, Ata Malik. Genghis Khan: The History of the World-Conqueror. Ed. and trans. Boyle, J. A.. Introduction by Morgan, David O.. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997.
Kagay, Donald J.The Essential Enemy: The Image of the Muslim as Adversary and Vassal in the Law and Literature of the Medieval Crown of Aragon.” Western Views of Islam in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Perception of Other. Ed. Blanks, David R. and Frassetto, Michael. New York: St. Martins, 1999. 119–36.
Kalaydjieva, Luba, Gresham, David, and Calafell, Francesc. “Genetic Studies of the Roma (Gypsies): A Review.” BMC Medical Genetics 2.5 (2001): no pagination. www.biomedcentral.com/1471–2350/2/5
Kantorowicz, Ernst. Frederick the Second 1194–1250. Trans. Lorimer, E. O.. New York: Frederick Ungar, [1931] 1957.
Kao, Wan-Chuan. “Hotel Tartary: Marco Polo, Yams, and the Biopolitics of Population.” Mediaevalia 32 (2011): 4368.
Kaplan, Paul H. D. The Rise of the Black Magus in Western Art. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1985.
Kaplan, Paul H. D.Black Africans in Hohenstaufen Iconography.” Gesta 26(1) (1987): 2936.
Kaplan, Paul H. D.Introduction.” The Image of the Black in Western Art: From the Early Christian Era to the “Age of Discovery.” Trans. Ryan, William G.. Ed. Bindman, David and Gates, Henry Louis Jr. Vol. 2 Pt. 1: From the Demonic Threat to the Incarnation of Sainthood. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; Houston: Menil Collection, 2010. 130.
Karkov, Catherine E.Tales of the Ancients: Colonial Werewolves and the Mapping of Postcolonial Ireland.” Postcolonial Moves: Medieval Through Modern. Ed. Ingham, Patricia Clare and Warren, Michelle R.. New York: Palgrave, 2003. 93109.
Kaufmann, Virginia Roehrig. “The Magdeburg Rider: An Aspect of the Reception of Frederick II’s Roman Revival North of the Alps.” Intellectual Life at the Court of Frederick II Hohenstaufen. Ed. Tronzo, William. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1994. 6288.
Kedar, Benjamin Z. Merchants in Crisis: Genoese and Venetian Men of Affairs in the Fourteenth-Century Depression. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976.
Kelly, Kathleen Ann. “‘Blue’ Indians, Ethiopians, and Saracens in Middle English Narrative Texts.” Parergon n.s. 11(1) (1963): 3552.
Khanmohamadi, Shirin A. In Light of Another’s Word: European Ethnography in the Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014.
Kinoshita, Sharon. “The Politics of Courtly Love: La Prise d’Orange and the Conversion of the Saracen Queen.” Romanic Review 86(2) (1995): 265–87.
Kinoshita, Sharon “‘Pagans are wrong and Christians are right’: Alterity, Gender, and Nation in the Chanson de Roland.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31(1) (2001): 78112.
Kinoshita, Sharon Medieval Boundaries: Rethinking Difference in Old French Literature. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.
Kinoshita, SharonMarco Polo’s Le Devisement dou monde and the Tributary East.” Marco Polo and the Encounter of East and West. Ed. Conklin Akbari, Suzanne and Iannucci, Amilcare. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008. 6086.
Kinoshita, Sharon trans. Marco Polo: The Description of the World (trans). Indianapolis: Hackett, 2016.
Knight, Rhonda. “Procreative Sodomy: Textuality and the Construction of Ethnicities in Gerald of Wales’s Descriptio Kambriae.” Exemplaria 14 (2002): 4777.
Krey, A. C., ed. and trans. The First Crusade: The Accounts of Eye-Witnesses and Participants. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1921.
Kritzeck, James. Peter the Venerable and Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964.
Kruger, Steven F.The Bodies of Jews in the Late Middle Ages.” The Idea of Medieval Literature: New Essays on Chaucer and Medieval Culture in Honor of Donald R. Howard. Ed. Dean, James M. and Zacher, Christian K.. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1992. 301–23.
Kruger, Steven F.Conversion and Medieval Sexual, Religious, and Racial Categories.” Constructing Medieval Sexuality. Ed. Lochrie, Karma, McCracken, Peggy, and Schultz, James A.. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. 158–79.
Kruger, Steven F. The Spectral Jew: Conversion and Embodiment in Medieval Europe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006.
Krummel, Miriamne Ara. Crafting Jewishness in Medieval England: Legally Absent, Virtually Present. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
Kunz, Keneva, trans. “The Vinland Sagas.” The Sagas of Icelanders: A Selection. New York: Penguin, 2001. 626–74.
Lach, Donald F. Asia in the Making of Europe. Vol. 1 Book 1: The Century of Discovery. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.
Lachmann, Karl, ed. Wolfram von Eschenbach: Parzival. 2 vols. Rev. Nellmann, Eberhard. Trans. Kühn, Dieter. Frankfurt am Main: Deutscher Klassiker, 1994.
Lacy, Norris J.Narration and Textual Grammar in the Moriaen.” King Arthur in the Medieval Low Countries. Ed. Claassens, Geert H. M. and Johnson, David F.. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2000. 125–34.
Lampert, Lisa. Gender and Jewish Difference from Paul to Shakespeare. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.
Lampert, LisaRace, Periodicity, and the (Neo-) Middle Ages.” Modern Language Quarterly 65 (2004): 392421.
Lane, George. Early Mongol Rule in Thirteenth-Century Iran: A Persian Renaissance. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Langmuir, Gavin I.The Knight’s Tale of Young Hugh of Lincoln.” Speculum 47(3) (1972): 459–82.
Langmuir, Gavin I.Thomas of Monmouth: Detector of Ritual Murder.” Speculum 59(4) (1984): 820–46.
Langmuir, Gavin I. Toward a Definition of Antisemitism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
Larner, John. Marco Polo and the Discovery of the World. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.
Larner, JohnPlucking Hairs from the Great Cham’s Beard: Marco Polo, Jan de Langhe, and Sir John Mandeville.” Marco Polo and the Encounter of East and West. Ed. Akbari, Suzanne Conklin and Iannucci, Amilcare. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008. 133–55.
Lasater, Alice. Spain to England: A Comparative Study of Arabic, European, and English Literature of the Middle Ages. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1974.
Lavezzo, Kathy, ed. Imagining a Medieval English Nation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004.
Lavezzo, KathyThe Minster and the Privy: Rereading the Prioress’s Tale.” PMLA 126(2) (2011): 363–82.
Lavezzo, Kathy The Accommodated Jew: English Antisemitism from Bede to Milton. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2016.
Lefkowitz, Mary, and Rogers, Guy Maclean, eds. Black Athena Revisited. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Letts, Malcolm, ed. Mandeville’s Travels: Texts and Translations. London: Hakluyt Society, 1953.
Levtzion, Nehemia, ed. Conversion to Islam. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1979.
Lewis, Bernard. The Assassins: A Radical Sect in Islam. New York: Basic Books, 1967.
Lewis, Bernard Race and Color in Islam. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.
Lewis, BernardThe Other and the Enemy: Perceptions of Identity and Difference in Islam.” Religionsgespräche im Mittelalter. Ed. Lewis, Bernard and Niewöhner, Friedrich. Wolfenbütteler Mittelalter Studien Vol. 4. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1992. 371–82.
Lewis, Bernard Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Lilley, Keith D.Imagined Geographies of the ‘Celtic Fringe’ and the Cultural Construction of the ‘Other’ in Medieval Wales and Ireland.” Celtic Geographies: Old Culture, New Times. Ed. Jones, Rhys, McInroy, Neil, and Mulligan, Christine. London: Routledge, 2002. 2136.
Lipman, V. D. The Jews of Medieval Norwich. London: Jewish Historical Society of England, 1967.
Little, Lester K. Religious Poverty and the Profit Economy in Medieval Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978.
Lloyd, Vincent, and Bassett, Molly, eds. Sainthood and Race: Marked Flesh, Holy Flesh. New York: Routledge, 2015.
Lomperis, Linda. “Medieval Travel Writing and the Question of Race.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31(1) (2001): 147–64.
Lotter, Friedrich. “The Position of the Jews in Early Cistercian Exegesis and Preaching.” From Witness to Witchcraft: Jews and Judaism in Medieval Christian Thought. Ed. Cohen, Jeremy. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997. 163–85.
Lowe, Kate. “‘Representing’ Africa: Ambassadors and Princes from Christian Africa to Renaissance Italy and Portugal, 1402–1608.” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 17 (2007): 101–28.
Luard, Henry Richards, ed. Annales monastici. 5 vols. Rolls series. London: Longman, 1864–1869.
Luard, Henry Richards Mathaei Parisiensis, monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica majora. 7 vols. Rolls series. London: Longman, 1872–1883.
Lupack, Alan, ed. “Introduction: The Sultan of Babylon.” Three Middle English Charlemagne Romances: The Sultan of Babylon, the Siege of Milan, and The Tale of Ralph the Collier. Kalamazoo: TEAMS, Medieval Institute, 1990. 16.
Lydon, James F. The Lordship of Ireland in the Middle Ages. Dublin: Gill, 1972.
Lydon, James F.Nation and Race in Medieval Ireland.” Concepts of National Identity in the Middle Ages. Ed. Forde, Simon, Johnson, Lesley, and Murray, Alan V.. Leeds: University of Leeds Press, 1995. 103–24.
Lyons, M. C. The Arabian Epic. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Macfie, R. A. Scott. “The Gypsy Visit to Rome in 1422.” Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society Third Series. 11 (1932): 111–15.
Macfie, R. A. Scott. “Gypsy Persecutions: A Survey of a Black Chapter in European History.” Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society Third Series. 22(3–4) (1943): 6578.
Magnusson, Magnus and Pálsson, Hermann, trans. The Vinland Sagas: the Norse Discovery of America. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965.
Maitland, Frederic William. Roman Canon Law in the Church of England: Six Essays. New York: Burt Franklin, 1968.
Mann, Charles C. “1491.” The Atlantic. March 2002. www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2002/03/1491/302445/
Marcus, Ivan G.Jews and Christians Imagining the Other in Medieval Europe.” Prooftexts 15 (1995): 209–26.
Marcus, Ivan GImages of the Jews in the Exempla of Caesarius of Heisterbach.” From Witness to Witchcraft: Jews and Judaism in Medieval Christian Thought. Ed. Cohen, Jeremy. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997. 247–56.
Mariscal, George. “The Role of Spain in Contemporary Race Theory.” Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies 2 (1998): 722.
Mark, Peter. Africans in European Eyes: The Portrayal of Black Africans in Fourteenth and Fifteenth Century Europe. Syracuse: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, 1974.
Marushiakova, Elena and Popov, Vesselin. “Historical and Ethnographic Background: Gypsies, Roma, Sinti.” Between Past and Future: The Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Ed. Guy, Will. Hertfordshire: University of Hertfordshire Press, 2001. 3353.
Marushiakova, Elena and Popov, Vesselin. “Gypsy Slavery in Wallachia and Moldavia.” Nationalisms Today (2009): 89–124.
Mastnak, Tomaz. Crusading Peace: Christendom, the Muslim World, and Western Political Order. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
Mastnak, TomazEurope and the Muslims: The Permanent Crusade?The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy. Ed. Qureshi, Emran and Sells, Michael A.. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003. 205–48.
Mastnak, Tomaz “Holy War and the Question of Humanity: The Crusades as Political Theology.” Unpublished typescript, presented to the seminar “In the Name of Humanity: Humanitarianism and its Antecedents,” Center for International History, Columbia University, November 30, 2007.
Mastnak, TomazThe Muslims as Enemy of Faith: The Crusades as Political Theology.” Quaderni Fiorentini 38 (2009): 143200.
Mayor, Adrienne. The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women across the Ancient World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.
McAleese, Kevin. “Skrælingar Abroad – Skrælingar at Home?Vinland Revisited: The Norse World at the Turn of the First Millennium. Ed. Lewis-Simpson, Shannon. St. Johns: Historic Sites Association of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2000. 353–64.
McCulloh, John M.Jewish Ritual Murder: William of Norwich, Thomas of Monmouth, and the Early Dissemination of the Myth.” Speculum 72 (1997): 698740.
McGhee, Robert. “Contact between Native North Americans and the Medieval Norse: A Review of the Evidence.” American Antiquity 49(1) (1984): 426.
McGhee, RobertThe Skraellings of Vinland.” Viking Voyages to North America. Roskilde: The Viking Ship Museum, 1993. 4353.
McGhee, RobertDisease and the Development of Inuit Culture [and Comments and Reply].” Current Anthropology 35(5) (1994): 565–94.
Meale, Carol M.The Miracles of Our Lady: Context and Interpretation.” Studies in the Vernon Manuscript. Ed. Pearsall, Derek. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1990. 115–36.
Mehta, Uday. “Liberal Strategies of Exclusion.” Politics and Society 18 (1990): 427–54.
Mellinkoff, Ruth. Outcasts: Signs of Otherness in Northern European Art of the Late Middle Ages. 2 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Menache, Sophia. “Faith, Myth, and Politics: The Stereotype of the Jews and their Expulsion from England and France.” The Jewish Quarterly Review 75 (1985): 351–74.
Menache, SophiaTartars, Jews, Saracens and the “Jewish-Mongol ‘Plot’ of 1241.” History 81 (1996): 334–8.
Ménard, Philippe, ed. Le Devisement du Monde. 6 vols. Geneva: Droz, 2001.
Menocal, María Rosa. “The Myth of Westernness in Medieval Literary Historiography.” The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy. Ed. Qureshi, Emran and Sells, Michael A.. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003. 249–87.
Metcalfe, Alex. The Muslims of Medieval Italy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009.
Metlitzki, Dorothee. The Matter of Araby in Medieval England. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.
Michel, Francisque, ed. Hugues de Lincoln. Paris: Silvestre, 1834.
Migne, J.-P., ed. Patrologiae Latinae Cursus Completus. 221 vols. Paris: Garnier, 1844–64.
Moll, Richard J.‘Off quhat nacioun art thow?’ National Identity in Blind Hary’s Wallace.” History, Literature, and Music in Scotland, 700-1560. Ed. McDonald, R. Andrew. Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2002. 120–43.
Montgomery, James A. The History of Yaballaha III Nestorian Patriarch and of his Vicar Bar Sauma Mongol Ambassador to the Frankish Courts at the End of the Thirteenth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 1927.
Moore, R. I. The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power and Deviance in Western Europe, 950–1250. Oxford: Blackwell, 1987.
Moore, R. I.Anti-Semitism and the Birth of Europe.” Christianity and Judaism. Ed. Wood, Diana. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. 3357.
Moorehead, Warren K.The Red-Paint People of Maine.” American Anthropologist New Series 15(1) (1913): 3347.
Morgan, David. Medieval Persia, 1040–1797. London: Longman, 1988.
Morgan, David The Mongols. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007.
Morris, Richard, ed. Cursor Mundi. London: R. Trübner, 1879–93.
Morrison, Karl F. Understanding Conversion. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1992.
Moseley, C. W. R. D., trans. The Travels of Sir John Mandeville. London: Penguin, 2005.
Moule, A. C. Christians in China before the Year 1550. New York: Macmillan, 1930.
Moule, A. C., and Pelliot, Paul, ed. and trans. Marco Polo: The Description of the World. 2 vols. London: Routledge, 1938.
Muldoon, James. Popes, Lawyers, and Infidels: The Church and the Non-Christian World 1250–1550. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1979.
Muldoon, James Identity on the Medieval Irish Frontier: Degenerate Englishmen, Wild Irishmen, Middle Nations. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2003.
Mundill, Robin R. England’s Jewish Solution: Experiment and Expulsion, 1262–1290. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Murray, Gordon. Slavery in the Arab World. New York: New Amsterdam, 1989.
Nederman, Cary J. Worlds of Difference: European Discourses of Toleration, c. 1100–c. 1550. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000.
Nirenberg, David. “Conversion, Sex, and Segregation: Jews and Christians in Medieval Spain.” The American Historical Review 107 (2002): 1065–93.
Nirenberg, DavidMass Conversion and Genealogical Mentalities: Jews and Christians in Fifteenth-Century Spain.” Past and Present 174 (2002): 341.
Nirenberg, DavidRace and the Middle Ages: The Case of Spain and Its Jews.” Rereading the Black Legend: The Discourses of Religious and Racial Difference in the Renaissance Empires. Ed. Greer, Margaret R., Mignolo, Walter D., and Quilligan, Maureen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. 7187.
Nirenberg, DavidWas There Race Before Modernity? The Example of ‘Jewish’ Blood in Late Medieval Spain.” The Origins of Racism in the West. Ed. Eliav-Feldon, Miriam, Isaac, Benjamin, and Ziegler, Joseph. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 232–64.
Nirenberg, David Anti-Judaism: The Western Tradition. New York: Norton, 2013.
Norris, H. T. The Adventures of Antar. Approaches to Arabic Literature Vol. 3. Warminster: Aris and Phillips, 1980.
Nowell, Charles E.The Old Man of the Mountain.” Speculum 22 (1947): 497519.
Nowell, Charles E.Historical Prester John.” Speculum 28 (1953): 435–45.
Odess, Daniel, Loring, Stephen, and Fitzhugh, William W.. “Skraeling: First Peoples of Helluland, Markland, and Vinland.” Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga. Ed. Fitzhugh, William W. and Ward, Elisabeth I.. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000. 189207.
Ogilvie, A. E. J., Barlow, L. K., and Jennings, A. E.. “North Atlantic Climate c. A.D. 1000: Millennial Reflections on the Viking Discoveries of Iceland, Greenland, and North America.” Approaches to Vínland. Ed. Wawn, Andrew and Sigurdardóttir, Þórunn. Reykjavik: Sigurður Nordal Institute, 2001. 173–88.
Ogilvie, A. E. J., and Jónsson, T.. “‘Little Ice Age’ Research: A Perspective from Iceland.” Climatic Change 48 (2001): 952.
Ogilvie, Astrid E. J., and McGovern, Thomas H.. “Sagas and Science: Climate and Human Impacts in the North Atlantic.” Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga. Ed. Fitzhugh, William W. and Ward, Elisabeth I.. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000. 385–93.
Oleszkiewicz-Perabala, Malgorzata. The Black Madonna in Latin America and Europe. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007.
Olschki, Leonardo. Marco Polo’s Asia. Trans. Scott, John A.. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1960.
O’Meara, John J., trans. Gerald of Wales: The History and Topography of Ireland. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1982.
Omi, Michael, and Winant, Howard. Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s. New York: Routledge, 1986.
Panaitescu, P. N.The Gypsies in Walachia and Moldavia: A Chapter of Economic History.” Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society Third Series. 20 (1941): 5872.
Pape, Robert. Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. New York: Random House, 2005.
Paris, Matthew. Chronica Majora. Ed. Luard, Henry Richards. 7 vols. London: Longman, 1872–1883.
Patterson, Lee. “‘The Living Witnesses of Our Redemption’: Martyrdom and Imitation in Chaucer’s Prioress’s Tale.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31(3) (2001): 507–60.
Pearsall, Derek, ed. Studies in the Vernon Manuscript. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1990.
Perryman, Judith, ed. The King of Tars. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1980.
Peters, Edward, ed. Christian Society and the Crusades 1198–1229. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971.
Peters, Edward The First Crusade: The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and Other Source Materials. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971.
Phillips, William D. Jr. Slavery from Roman Times to the Early Transatlantic Trade. Minneapolis: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985.
Phillips, William D.Sugar Production and Trade in the Mediterranean at the Time of the Crusades.” The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange between East and West during the Period of the Crusades. Ed. Goss, Vladimir P. and Bornstein, Christine Verzár. Studies in Medieval Culture vol. 21. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute, 1986. 393406.
Phillips, William D. Slavery in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014.
Piponnier, Françoise and Mane, Perrine. Dress in the Middle Ages. Trans. Beamish, Caroline. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.
Pohl, Walter and Gantner, Clemens, eds. Visions of Community in the Post-Roman World: The West, Byzantium, and the Islamic World, 300–1100. New York: Routledge, 2016.
Sir Pollock, Frederick, and Maitland, Frederic William. The History of English Law Before the Time of Edward I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, [1895] 1911.
Powicke, F. M. Medieval England, 1066–1485. London: Oxford University Press, 1958.
Prawer, Joshua. The Crusaders’ Kingdom: European Colonialism in the Middle Ages. New York: Praeger, 1972.
Pringle, Heather. “Evidence of Viking Outpost Found in Canada.” National Geographic. October 19, 2012. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/10/121019-viking-outpost-second-new-canada-science-sutherland/
Purcell, Maureen. “Women Crusaders: A Temporary Canonical Aberration?Principalities, Powers, and Estates: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Government and Society. Ed. Frappell, L. O.. Adelaide: Adelaide University Union Press, 1979. 5765.
Radice, Betty, trans. The Letters of Abelard to Heloise. London: Penguin, 1974.
Ramey, Lynn T. Black Legacies: Race and the European Middle Ages. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2014.
Raymond, d’Aguiliers. Historia Francorum Qui Ceperunt Iherusalem. Trans. Hill, John Hugh and Hill, Laurita L.. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1968.
Raymond, d’Aguiliers Le “Liber” de Raymond d’Aguiliers. Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem. Ed. Hill, John Hugh and Hill, Laurita L.. Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1969.
Recueil des Historiens des Croisades. Paris: Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Series Historiens Occidentaux. 5 vols. 1844–95.
Recueil des Historiens des Croisades. Paris: Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Series Historiens Orientaux. 5 vols. 1872–1906.
Richard of Devizes. Cronicon Richardi Divisensis De Tempore Regis Richardi Primi. Ed. Appleby, John T.. London: Thomas Nelson, 1963.
Richard, Jean. “The Relatio de Davide as a Source for Mongol History and the Legend of Prester John.” Prester John, the Mongols, and the Ten Lost Tribes. Ed. Beckingham, Charles F. and Hamilton, Bernard. Aldershot: Variorium, 1996. 139–58.
Richardson, Henry Gerald. The English Jewry under Angevin Kings. London: Methuen, 1960.
Richmond, Colin. “Englishness and Medieval Anglo-Jewry.” Chaucer and the Jews: Sources, Contexts, Meanings. Ed. Delany, Sheila. New York: Routledge, 2002. 213–27.
Rigg, J. M. Select Pleas, Starrs, and Other Records from the Rolls of the Exechequer of the Jews, A.D. 1220–1284. London: B. Quaritch, 1902.
Robbert, Louise Buenger. “Venice and the Crusades.” A History of the Crusades, Vol. 5: The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East. Ed. Zacour, Norman P. and Hazard, Harry W.. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985. 379451.
Rodenberg, Carl, ed. “102: Dei patris inmensa” and “105: Cum non solum.” Monumenta Germaniae Historica 4: Epistolae Saeculi XIII e regestis Pontificorum Romanorum selectae, t. ii. Vol. 3: Epistolae. Berlin: Weidmann, 1888. 73–4 and 74–5.
Roger of Howden. Chronica Magistri Rogeri De Houedene. Ed. Stubbs, William. 4 vols. London: Longman, 1868–71.
Roger of Wendover. Rogeri De Wendover Liber Qui Dicitur Flores Historiarum Ab Anno Domini MCLIV Annoque Henrici Anglorum Regis Secundi Primo. Ed. Hewlett, Henry G.. 3 vols. London: Longman, 1886–9.
Rokéah, Zefira Entin. “Money and the Hangman in Late-13th-century England: Jews, Christians and Coinage Offences Alleged and Real (Part I).” Jewish Historical Studies 31 (1988–90): 83109.
Rokéah, Zefira EntinMoney and the Hangman in Late-13th-century England: Jews, Christians and Coinage Offences Alleged and Real (Part II).” Jewish Historical Studies 32 (1990–2): 159218.
Ronchi, Gabriella, ed. Milione: Le devisement dou monde. Il milione nelle redazioni Toscana e franco-italiana. Milan: Mondadori, 1982.
Sir Ross, E. Denison. “Prester John and the Empire of Ethiopia.” Travel and Travellers of the Middle Ages. Ed. Newton, Arthur Percival. New York: Knopf, 1926. 174–94.
Rossabi, Morris. Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
Rossabi, MorrisAll the Khan’s Horses.” Natural History 103 (1994). Asian Topics in World History: http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/mongols/conquests/khans_horses.pdf
Roth, Cecil. A History of the Jews in England. Oxford: Clarendon, 1941.
Roth, Cecil The Jews of Medieval Oxford. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951.
Rotman, Youval. Byzantine Slavery and the Mediterranean World. Trans. Todd, Jane Marie. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009.
Rubenstein, Jay. “Cannibals and Crusaders.” French Historical Studies 31 (2008): 525–52.
Rubin, Miri. “Desecration of the Host: the Birth of an Accusation.” Christianity and Judaism. Ed. Wood, Diana. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. 169–85.
Rubin, MiriThe Eucharist and the Construction of Late Medieval Identities.” Culture and History 1350–1600: Essays on English Communities, Identities, and Writing. Ed. Aers, David. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992. 4363.
Rubin, Miri Gentile Tales: The Narrative Assault on Late Medieval Jews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.
Ruggles, D. Fairchild. “The Gardens of the Alhambra and the Concept of the Garden in Islamic Spain.” Al-Andalus: The Art of Islamic Spain. Ed. Dodds, Jerrilynn D.. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992. 163–71.
Ruggles, D. Fairchild Gardens, Landscape, and Vision in the Palaces of Islamic Spain, University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999.
Ruggles, D. FairchildMothers of a Hybrid Dynasty: Race, Genealogy, and Acculturation in al-Andalus.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 34(1) (2004): 6594.
Ruggles, D. Fairchild Islamic Gardens and Landscapes. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.
Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, [1951] 1995.
Russell, Josiah. “Demographic Factors of the Crusades.” The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange between East and West during the Period of the Crusades. Ed. Goss, Vladimir P. and Bornstein, Christine Verzár. Studies in Medieval Culture Vol. 21. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute, 1986. 53–8.
Ryan, James D.Christian Wives of Mongol Khans: Tartar Queens and Missionary Expectations in Asia.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 8(3) (1998): 411–21.
Rymer, Thomas, Sanderson, Robert, and Holmes, George, eds. Foedera. 20 vols. London: A. and J. Churchill, 1704–35.
The Sagas of Icelanders: A Selection. Preface by Smiley, Jane. Introduction by Kellogg, Robert. Various translators. New York: Penguin 2001.
Sager, Alexander. “Hungarians as vremde in Medieval Germany.” Meeting the Foreign in the Middle Ages. Ed. Classen, Albrecht. New York: Routledge, 2002. 2744.
Salter, Elizabeth. Fourteenth-Century English Poetry: Contexts and Readings. Oxford: Clarendon, 1983.
Scheer, Monique. “From Majesty to Mystery: Change in the Meaning of Black Madonnas from the Sixteenth to Nineteenth Centuries.” The American Historical Review 107(5) (2002): 1412–40.
Scheil, Andrew. The Footsteps of Israel: Understanding Jews in Anglo-Saxon England. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004.
Schroeder, Henry Joseph. Disciplinary Decrees of the General Councils: Text, Translation and Commentary. London: B. Herder, 1937.
Seaver, Kirsten A.Unanswered Questions.” Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga. Ed. Fitzhugh, William W. and Ward, Elisabeth I.. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000. 268–79.
Segol, Marla. “Medieval Cosmopolitanism and the Saracen-Christian Ethos.” CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 6(2) (2004): Article 4. http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/clcweb/vol6/iss2/
Sellassie, Sergew Hable. Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to 1270. Addis Ababa: United Printers, 1972.
Setton, Kenneth M. The Papacy and the Levant (1204–1571). Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1976.
Seymour, M. C. and Liegey, Gabriel M., eds. On the Properties of Things: John Trevisa’s Translation of Bartholomaeus Anglicus De Proprietatibus Rerum. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1975–88.
Shaw, M. R. B., trans. Joinville and Villehardouin: Chronicles of the Crusades. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1963.
Sherwood, Merriam. “Magic and Mechanics in Medieval Fiction.” Studies in Philology 44(4) (1947): 567–92.
Shiloah, Amnon. Music in the World of Islam: A Socio-Cultural Study. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1995.
Sinanoglu, Leah. “The Christ Child as Sacrifice: A Medieval Tradition and Corpus Christi Plays.” Speculum 58(3) (1973): 491509.
Skinner, Patricia. The Jews in Medieval Britain: Historical, Literary and Archaeological Perspectives. Woodbridge: Boydell, 2003.
Slessarev, Vsevolod. Prester John: The Letter and the Legend. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1959.
Snowden, Frank M. Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983.
So, Billy K. L. Prosperity, Regions, and Institutions in Maritime China: The South Fukien Pattern, 947–1368. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.
Soulis, George C.The Gypsies in the Byzantine Empire and the Balkans in the Late Middle Ages.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 15 (1961): 141–65.
Southern, R. W. Western Views of Islam in the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962.
Spenser, Edmund. The Works of Edmund Spenser: A Variorum Edition. Cambridge: Chadwyck-Healey, 1992.
Stacey, Robert C.Royal Taxation and the Social Structure of Medieval Anglo-Jewry: The Tallages of 1239–1242.” Hebrew Union College Annual 56 (1985): 175249.
Stacey, Robert C.1240–60: A Watershed in Anglo-Jewish Relations?Historical Research 61(145) (1988): 135–50.
Stacey, Robert C.The Conversion of Jews to Christianity in Thirteenth-Century England.” Speculum 67(2) (1992): 263–82.
Stacey, Robert C.Jewish Lending and the Medieval English Economy.” A Commercialising Economy: England 1086 to c. 1300. Ed. Britnell, Richard H. and Campbell, Bruce M. S.. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994. 78101.
Stacey, Robert C.Parliamentary Negotiation and the Expulsion of the Jews from England.” Thirteenth Century England VI: Proceedings of the Durham Conference 1995. Ed. Prestwich, Michael, Britnell, R. H., and Frame, Robin. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1997. 77101.
Stacey, Robert C.From Ritual Crucifixion to Host Desecration: Jews and the Body of Christ.” Jewish History 12(1) (1998): 1128.
Stacey, Robert C.Crusades, Martyrdoms, and the Jews of Norman England, 1096–1190.” Juden und Christen zur Zeit der Kreuzzüge. Ed. Haverkamp, Alfred. Sigmaringen: Jan Thorbecke Verlag, 1999. 233–51.
Stacey, Robert C.Anti-Semitism and the Medieval English State.” The Medieval State: Essays Presented to James Campbell. Ed. Madicott, J. R. and Palliser, D. M.. London: Hambledon, 2000. 163–77.
Stacey, Robert C.Jews and Christians in Twelfth Century England: Some Dynamics of a Changing Relationship.” Jews and Christians in Twelfth-Century Europe. Ed. Signer, Michael A. and Van Engen, John. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001. 340–54.
Stacey, Robert C.The Massacres of 1189–90 and the Origins of the Jewish Exchequer, 1186–1226.” Christians and Jews in Angevin England: The York Massacre of 1190, Narratives and Contexts. Ed. Jones, Sarah Rees and Watson, Sethina. York: York Medieval Press, 2016. 106–24.
Statutes of the Realm. London: Eyre and Strahan, 1810–28. 11 vols.
Stock, Lorraine. “Froissart’s Chroniques and Its Illustrators: Historicity and Ficticity in the Verbal and Visual Imaging of Charles VI’s Bal des Ardents.” Studies in Iconography 21 (2000): 123–80.
Stocker, David. “The Shrine of Little St Hugh.” Medieval Art and Architecture at Lincoln Cathedral. Ed. Heslop, T. A. and Sekules, V. A.. Leeds: British Archaeological Association, 1986. 109–17.
Stoler, Ann Laura. Race and the Education of Desire: Foucault’s History of Sexuality and the Colonial Order of Things. Durham: Duke University Press, 1995.
Stoler, Ann LauraRacial Histories and Their Regimes of Truth.” Political Power and Social Theory 11 (1997): 183206.
Stow, Kenneth R. Alienated Minority: The Jews of Medieval Latin Europe. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.
Strickland, Debra Higgs. Saracens, Demons, and Jews: Making Monsters in Medieval Art. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.
Stroll, Mary. The Jewish Pope: Ideology and Politics in the Papal Schism of 1130. Leiden: Brill, 1987.
Suckale-Redlefsen, Gude. Mauritius: Der Heilige Mohr. Zurich: Verlag Schnell & Steiner, 1987.
Sullivan, Andrew. “Christianity’s Original Sin.” New York Times Book Review January 14, 2001: 5–6.
Summit, Jennifer, and Wallace, David. “Rethinking Periodization.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies. 37 (3) (2007): 447–51.
Sutherland, Patricia D.The Norse and Native North Americans.” Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga. Ed. Fitzhugh, William W. and Ward, Elisabeth I.. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000. 238–47.
Sveinsson, Einar, and Þórđarson, Matthías, eds. “Grœnlendinga saga.” Íslenzk Fornrit Vol. 4. Reykjavik: Íslenzka Fornritafélag, 1935. 239–69.
Sweetenham, Carol, trans. Robert the Monk’s History of the First Crusade: Historia Iherosolimitana. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005.
Szigorich, Thomas. “Sanctified Violence: Militancy as the Tie That Bound Christian Rome and Islam.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 77(4) (2009): 895921.
Tambling, Jeremy. Confession: Sexuality, Sin, the Subject. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.
Taylor, Christopher. “Prester John, Christian Enclosure, and the Spatial Transmission of Islamic Alterity.” Contextualizing the Muslim Other in Medieval Christian Discourse. Ed. Frakes, Jerold. New York: Palgrave, 2011. 3964.
Taylor, ChristopherGlobal Circulation as Christian Enclosure: Legend, Empire, and the Nomadic Prester John.” Literature Compass 11(7) (2014): 389485.
Taylor, Christopher “The Peregrinations of Prester John: How a Global Story is Created across 600 Years.” The Global Middle Ages Project: www.globalmiddleages.org
Taylor, Julie Anne. Muslims in Medieval Italy: The Colony at Lucera. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield. 2003.
Tentler, Thomas N.The Summa for Confessors as an Instrument of Social Control. The Pursuit of Holiness in Late Medieval and Renaissance Religion. Ed. Trinkaus, Charles and Oberman, Heiko. Leiden: Brill, 1974. 103–37.
Terrall, Mary. “Heroic Narratives of Quest and Discovery.” Configurations 6(2) (1998): 223–42.
Terzioglu, Arslan. “The First Attempts of Flight, Automatic Machines, Submarines and Rocket Technology in Turkish History,” an online publication from the Foundation for Science, Technology, and Civilization, Publication ID 634 (January 2007). 1–15. http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/Rocket_Technology_in_Turkish_history1.pdf
Thomas, David, et al. Christian-Muslim Relations: A Bibliographical History. Leiden: Brill, 2009–13.
Thorpe, Lewis, trans. Einhard and Notker the Stammerer: Two Lives of Charlemagne. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984.
Thrupp, Sylvia. The Merchant Class of Medieval London, 1300–1500. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948.
Tinsley, David. “Mapping the Muslims: Images of Islam in Middle High German Literature of the Thirteenth Century.” Contextualizing the Muslim Other in Medieval Christian Discourse. Ed. Frakes, Jerold C.. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. 60101.
Tolan, John V. Saracens: Islam in the Medieval European Imagination. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.
Tolan, John V. Sons of Ishmael: Muslims through European Eyes in the Middle Ages. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2008.
Tolan, John V.Of Milk and Blood: Innocent III and the Jews, Revisited.” Jews and Christians in Thirteenth-Century France. Ed. Baumgarten, Elisheva and Galinsky, Judah. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. 139–49.
Tolan, John V.‘A wild man, whose hand will be against all’: Saracens and Ishmaelites in Latin Ethnographical Traditions, from Jerome to Bede.” Ed. Pohl, Walter and Gantner, Clemens. Visions of Community in the Post-Roman World: The West, Byzantium, and the Islamic World, 300–1100. New York: Routledge, 2016. 513–30.
Tolan, John Victor, Veinstein, Gilles, and Laurens, Henry. Europe and the Islamic World: A History. Trans. Todd, Jane Marie. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.
Tomasch, Sylvia. “Postcolonial Chaucer and the Virtual Jew.” The Postcolonial Middle Ages. Ed. Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome. New York: St. Martins, 2000. 243–60.
Tovey, D’Blossiers. Anglia Judaica. Oxford: The Theatre, 1738.
Trachtenberg, Joshua. The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Antisemitism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1943.
Trapp, Frank Anderson. “The Emperor’s Nightingale: Some Aspects of Mimesis.” Critical Inquiry 4(1) (1977): 85103.
Truitt, E. R.‘Trei poëte, sages dotors, qui mout sorent di nigromance’: Knowledge and Automata in Twelfth-Century French Literature.” Configurations 12 (2004): 167–93.
Turville-Petre, Thorlac. England the Nation: Language, Literature, and National Identity, 1290–1340. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996.
Sir Twiss, Travers. Henrici de Bracton: De legibus et consuetudinibus Angliæ. 6 vols. London: Longman, 1878–83.
Udovitch, Abraham L. At the Origins of the Western Commenda: Islam, Israel, Byzantium? and Credit as a Means of Investment in Medieval Islamic Trade. Princeton: Princeton Near East Papers Numbers 9 and 10, 1969.
Uebel, Michael. Ecstatic Transformation: On the Uses of Alterity in the Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave, 2001.
Uebel, MichaelImperial Fetishism: Prester John among the Natives.” The Postcolonial Middle Ages. Ed. Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome. New York: Palgrave, 2001. 264–91.
Van Buren, Anne Hagiopian. “Reality and Literary Romance in the Park of Hesdin.” Medieval Gardens. Ed. McDougall, Elisabeth B.. Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 9. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1986. 117–34.
Van Millingen, Alexander. Byzantine Churches in Constantinople. London: Variorum, 1974.
Verkerk, Dorothy Hoogland. “Black Servant, Black Demon: Color Ideology in the Ashburnham Pentateuch.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31(1) (2001): 5777.
Verlinden, Charles. L’esclavage dans l’Europe médiévale I: Péninsule ibérique - France. Bruges: De Temple, 1955. Rijksuniversiteit te Gent; Werken, uitgegeven door de Faculteit van de Letteren en Wijsbegeerte Vol. 119.
Verlinden, CharlesL’esclavage dans l’Europe médiévale II: Italie - Colonies italiennes du Levant - Levant latin, Empire byzantine. Bruges: De Temple, 1977. Rijksuniversiteit te Gent; Werken, uitgegeven door de Faculteit van de Letteren en Wijsbegeerte Vol. 162.
Vernadsky, George. The Mongols and Russia. History of Russia Vol. 3. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953.
Vincent, Nicholas. “Two Papal Letters on the Wearing of the Jewish Badge.” Jewish Historical Studies 34: 1994–6. 209–24.
Viswanathan, Gauri. Outside the Fold: Conversion, Modernity and Belief. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.
Vogel, Hans Ulrich. Marco Polo Was in China: New Evidence from Currencies, Salts and Revenues. Leiden: Brill, 2013.
Von Hammer, Joseph, and Wood, Oswald C.. The History of the Assassins. London: Smith and Elder, 1835.
Wade, Geoff. “The Zheng He Voyages: A Reassessment.” Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series No. 31, October 2004.
Walker, David. Medieval Wales. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Wallace, Birgitta Linderoth. “L’Anse aux Meadows: Gateway to Vinland.” The Norse of the North Atlantic. Ed. Bigelow, Gerald F.. Copenhagen: Acta Archaeologica 61, 1991. 166–97.
Wallace, Birgitta LinderothAn Archeologist’s Interpretation of the Vinland Sagas.” Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga. Ed. Fitzhugh, William W. and Ward, Elisabeth I.. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000. 228–31.
Wallace, Birgitta LinderothVinland and the Death of Þorvaldr.” Vinland Revisited: the Norse World at the Turn of the First Millennium. Ed. Lewis-Simpson, Shannon. St. Johns: Historic Sites Association of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2000. 377–90.
Wallace, Birgitta LinderothL’Anse aux Meadows and Vinland: An Abandoned Experiment.” Contact, Continuity, and Collapse: The Norse Colonization of the North Atlantic. Ed. Barrett, James H.. Turnhout: Brepols, 2003. 207–48.
Wallace, David. “Surinam: The Long History of Black and White.” University of Texas, Austin. October 18, 2002. Lecture.
Waltz, James. “The Significance of the Voluntary Martyrs of Ninth-Century Córdoba.” Muslim World 60 (1970): 226–36.
Warner, George F., ed. The Buke of John Maundeuill. London: Roxburghe Club, 1889.
Warren, F. M.The Enamoured Moslem Princess in Orderic Vital and the French Epic.” PMLA 29 (1914): 341–58.
Warren, Michelle R. History on the Edge: Excalibur and the Borders of Britain 1100–1300. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.
Watson, Andrew M.A Medieval Green Revolution: New Crops and Farming Techniques in the Early Islamic World.” The Islamic Middle East: 700–1900. Ed. Udovitch, A. L.. Princeton: Darwin, 1981. 2958.
Watt, J. A.The Jews, the Law, and the Church: The Concept of Jewish Serfdom in Thirteenth-Century England.” The Church and Sovereignty c. 590–1918. Ed. Wood, Diana. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991. 153–72.
Watt, W. Montgomery. The Influence of Islam on Medieval Europe. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1972.
Watt, W. Montgomery A History of Islamic Spain. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1996.
Wawn, Andrew and Sigurdardóttir, Þórunn, eds. Approaches to Vínland. Reykjavik: Sigurður Nordal Institute, 2001.
Weatherford, Jack. The Secret History of the Mongol Queens. New York: Broadway, 2010.
Weiss, Judith. “The Wooing Woman in Anglo-Norman Romance.” Romance in Medieval England. Ed. Mills, Maldwyn, Fellows, Jennifer, and Meale, Carol M.. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1991. 140–61.
Wells, D. A.The Middle Dutch Moriaen, Wolfram von Eschenbach’s Parzival, and Medieval Tradition.” Studia Neerlandica 2 (1971): 243–81.
Wells, D. A.Source and Tradition in the Moriaen.” European Context: Studies in the History and Literature of the Netherlands Presented to Theodoor Weevers. Ed. King, P. K. and Vincent, P. F.. Cambridge: Modern Humanities Research Association, 1971. 3051.
Westrem, Scott D.Against Gog and Magog.” Text and Territory: Geographical Imagination in the European Middle Ages. Ed. Tomasch, Sylvia and Gilles, Sealy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998. 5475.
Westrem, Scott D. The Hereford Map: A Transcription and Translation of the Legends with Commentary. Turnhout: Brepols, 2001.
Whitaker, Cord, ed. Special issue on Making Race Matter in the Middle Ages, postmedieval 6(1) (2015).
Willey, Peter. The Castles of the Assassins. Fresno: Linden, 2001.
Willey, Peter The Eagle’s Nest: Ismaili Castles in Iran and Syria. London: I. B. Tauris, 2005.
William of Malmsbury. De Gestis Regum Anglorum. Ed. Stubbs, William. 2 vols. London: Rolls, 1887–9.
William of Newburgh. Historia Rerum Anglicarum. Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I. Ed. Howlett, Richard. Rolls Series, 82(1). London: Longman, [1884] 1964.
Winstedt, Eric Otto. “The Gypsies of Modon and the ‘Wyne of Romeney’.” Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society Third Series. 3 (1909–10): 5769.
Wolf, Kenneth Baxter. Christian Martyrs in Muslim Spain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Wolfe, Alexander. “Marco Polo, Factotum, Auditor: Language and Political Culture in the Mongol World Empire.” Literature Compass 11(7) (2014): 409–22.
Wolfram von, Eschenbach. Parzival. Ed. Lachmann, Karl. Rev. Nellmann, Eberhard. Trans. Kühn, Dieter. 2 vols. Frankfurt am Main: Deutscher Klassiker, 1994.
Wolfram von, Eschenbach Willehalm. Trans. Gibbs, Marion E. and Johnson, Sidney M.. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984.
Wood, Frances. Did Marco Polo Go to China? London: Secker and Warburg, 1995.
Wyngaert, Anastasius van den. Sinica Franciscana, Vol. 1: Itinera et Relationes Fratrum Minorum saec. XIII et XIV. Quaracchi: Franciscan Press, 1929.
Yeager, Suzanne M. Jerusalem in Medieval Narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, [2008] 2011.
Sir Yule, Henry, ed. and trans.; Cordier, Henri, rev. Cathay and the Way Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China. 4 vols. Vol. 2: Odoric of Pordenone. London: Hakluyt Society, 1913–16.
Zacher, Samantha, ed. Imagining the Jew in Anglo-Saxon Literature and Culture. Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2016.
Zarncke, F.Prester John’s Letter to the Byzantine Emperor Emanuel, with a Note by B. Hamilton on Additional Latin Manuscripts of the Letter.” Prester John, the Mongols, and the Ten Lost Tribes. Ed. Beckingham, Charles F. and Hamilton, Bernard. Aldershot: Variorum, 1996. 39102.
Ziada, Mustafa M.The Mamluk Sultans to 1293.” A History of the Crusades Vol. 2: The Later Crusades, 1189–1311. Ed. Lee Wolff, Robert and Hazard, Harry W.. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969. 735–58.
Ziada, Mustafa M.The Mamluk Sultans, 1291–1517.” A History of the Crusades Vol. 3: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Ed. Hazard, Harry W.. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1975. 486512.
Ziegler, Joseph. “Physiognomy, Science, and Proto-Racism 1200–1500.” The Origins of Racism in the West. Ed. Eliav-Feldon, Miriam, Isaac, Benjamin, and Ziegler, Joseph. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 181–99.