Skip to main content
×
×
Home
Islamic Politics, Muslim States, and Counterterrorism Tensions
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Chan, Nicholas 2018. The Malaysian “Islamic” State versus the Islamic State (IS): evolving definitions of “terror” in an “Islamising” nation-state. Critical Studies on Terrorism, p. 1.

    ×
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Islamic Politics, Muslim States, and Counterterrorism Tensions
    • Online ISBN: 9781316534328
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316534328
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The US Global War on Terror and earlier US counterterrorism efforts prompted a variety of responses from Muslim states despite widespread Islamic opposition. Some cooperated extensively, some balked at US policy priorities, and others vacillated between these extremes. This book explains how differing religion-state relationships, regimes' political calculations, and Islamic politics combined to produce patterns of tensions and cooperation between the United States and Muslim states over counterterrorism, using rigorous quantitative analysis and case studies of Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates, and Turkey. The book combines recent advances in the study of political institutions with work on religion and politics to advance a novel theory of religion and international relations that will be of value to anyone studying religion, terrorism, or Islamic politics. It also provides numerous insights into current events in the Middle East by extending its analysis to the Arab Spring and the rise of the Islamic State.

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

  • Foreign Broadcast Information Service/World News Connection

  • ProQuest

  • al-Akhbar

  • Al-Arabiya

  • The Arab American News

  • Asian News International

  • Asian Wall Street Journal

  • BBC Monitoring

  • BBC News

  • Christian Science Monitor

  • CNN Online

  • Daily News Egypt

  • The Daily Star

  • The Daily Telegraph

  • Financial Times

  • The Gazette

  • The Guardian

  • The Hindustan Times

  • The Irish Examiner

  • IPS-InterPress Service

  • Irish Times

  • Jerusalem Post

  • Khaleej Times

  • Los Angeles Times

  • International Herald Tribune

  • Mideast Mirror

  • The National

  • National Post

  • New York Times

  • The New Zealand Herald

  • Newsweek

  • The Ottawa Citizen

  • Reuters

  • al-Shorfa

  • Sunday Times

  • The Times

  • Toronto Star

  • Wall Street Journal

  • The Washington Post

The 9/11 Commission. The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2004.
Acemoglu, Daron, and Robinson, James A.. Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty. New York: Crown Business, 2012.
Adams, T. W.The American Concern in Cyprus.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 401 (May 1972): 95105.
Ahmad, Feroz.The Historical Background of Turkey's Foreign Policy” in The Future of Turkish Foreign Policy, edited by Martin, Lenore G. and Keridis, Dimitris, 936. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.
Ahmed, Ishtiaq. “The Spectre of Islamic Fundamentalism over Pakistan” in Pakistan in Regional and Global Politics, edited by Jetly, Rajshree, 150–80. London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2009.
Ahmed, Samina. “The United States and Terrorism in Southwest Asia: September 11 and Beyond.” International Security 26, no. 3 (2002).
Aktay, Yasin. “Politics at Home, Politics in the World the Return of the Political in Turkish Foreign Policy.” Mediterranean Quarterly 21, no. 1 (Winter 2010): 6175.
al-Qasimi, NoorImmodest Modesty: Accommodating Dissent and the ‘Abaya-as-Fashion in the Arab Gulf States.” Journal of Middle East Women's Studies 6, no. 1 (2010).
Angrist, Michele Penner. “Party Systems and Regime Formation in the Modern Middle East: Explaining Turkish Exceptionalism,” Comparative Politics 36, no. 2 (January 2004): 229–49.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony. “Causes of Quarrel: What's Special about Religious Disputes?” in Religious Pluralism, Globalization, and World Politics, edited by Banchoff, Thomas, 4165. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Arango, Tim, and Yeginsu, Ceylan. “Turkey's Push into War Is Seen as Erdogan's Political Strategy.” New York Times, August 5, 2015.
Aras, Bulent. Palestinian Israeli Peace Process and Turkey. Commack, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 1998.
Ayata, Sencer. “Patronage, Party and State: The Politicization of Islam in Turkey.” Middle East Journal 50, no. 1 (Winter 1996): 4056.
Aybet, Gulnur. Turkey's Foreign Policy and Its Implications for the West: A Turkish Perspective. Rusi Whitehall Paper Series. Dorset: Roal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, 1994.
Aybet, Gulnur. “Azerbaijan: Freedom in the World.” Freedom House, 1999.
Aziz, Mazhar. Military Control in Pakistan: The Parallel State. New York: Routledge, 2008.
Bajpai, Kanti. “Managing Ambivalence: Pakistan's Relations with the United States and China since 2001” in Pakistan in Regional and Global Politics, edited by Jetly, Rajshree, 6397. London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2009.
Banchoff, Thomas. “Introduction: Religious Pluralism in World Affairs” in Religious Pluralism, Globalization, and World Politics, edited by Banchoff, Thomas, 341. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Banchoff, Thomas. ed. Religious Pluralism, Globalization and World Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu, Sandler, Todd, and Younas, Javed. “Foreign Aid as Counterterrorism Policy.” Oxford Economic Papers 63, no. 3 (2011): 423–47.
Barbieri, Katherine, Keshk, Omar M. G., and Pollins, Brian. “Trading Data: Evaluating Our Assumptions and Coding Rules.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 26, no. 5 (November 2009): 471–91.
Bayer, Reşat. “Diplomatic Exchange Data Set, V2006.1.” 2006.
Bellin, Eva. “Democratization and Its Discontents: Should America Push Political Reform in the Middle East?Foreign Affairs 87, no. 4 (July 1, 2008).
Bellin, Eva. “Faith in Politics: New Trends in the Study of Religion and Politics.” World Politics 60, no. 2 (January 2008): 315–47.
Bennett, Andrew. “Process Tracing and Causal Inference” in Rethinking Social Inquiry: Diverse Tools, Shared Standards, edited by Brady, Henry and Collier, David, 207–21. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010.
Bennett, Andrew, and Checkel, Jeffrey. “Process Tracing: From Philosophical Roots to Best Practices” in Process Tracing: From Metaphor to Analytic Tool, edited by Bennett, Andrew and Checkel, Jeffrey. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Bennett, Andrew, and Elman, Colin. “Qualitative Research: Recent Developments in Case Study Methods.” Annual Review of Political Science 9 (2006): 455–76.
Bergen, Peter. The Longest War: The Enduring Conflict between Al-Qaeda and America. New York: Free Press, 2011.
Beyer, Peter. Religions in Global Society. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Blum, Douglas W.Beyond Blood and Belief: Culture and Foreign Policy Conduct” in The Limits of Culture: Islam and Foreign Policy, edited by Shaffer, Brenda, 6583. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
Bolukbasi, Suha. “Behind the Turkish-Israeli Alliance: A Turkish View.” Journal of Palestine Studies 29, no. 1 (Autumn 1999): 2135.
Bronson, Rachel. Thicker Than Oil: America's Uneasy Partnership with Saudi Arabia. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Brooks, Stephen G., and Wohlforth, William C.. World Out of Balance: International Relations and the Challenge of American Primacy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.
Brown, James. “The Turkish Imbroglio: Its Kurds.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 541 (September 1995): 116–29.
Brown, Sophie. “Malaysian Court to Christians: You Can't Say ‘Allah’.” CNN Online, June 24, 2014.
Brumberg, Daniel. “Authoritarian Legacies and Reform Strategies in the Muslim World” in Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World, edited by Brynen, Rex, Korany, Bahgat, and Noble, Paul, 229–60. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reiner Publishers, 1995.
Brumberg, Daniel. “Survival Strategies versus Democratic Bargaining: The Politics of Economic Reform in Contemporary Egypt” in The Politics of Economic Reform in the Middle East, edited by Barkey, Henri, 73105. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 1992.
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, and Smith, Alastair. “Leader Survival, Revolutions, and the Nature of Government Finance.” American Journal of Political Science 54, no. 4 (2010): 936–50.
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, Smith, Alastair, Siverson, Randolph M., and Morrow, James D.. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2003.
Bushku, Michael B.Albania and the Middle East.” Mediterranean Quarterly 24, no. 2 (2013).
Butt, Gerald. “Oil and Gas in the UAE” in United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective, edited by al-Abed, Ibrahim and Hellyer, Peter, 231–49. London: Trident Press, 1997.
Byman, Daniel. Al Qaeda, the Islamic State, and the Global Jihadist Movement: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
Byman, Daniel. Deadly Connections: States That Sponsor Terrorism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Byman, Daniel. “Friends Like These: Counterinsurgency and the War on Terrorism.” International Security 31, no. 2 (2006): 79115.
Cagaptay, Soner. Islam Secularism and Nationalism in Modern Turkey: Who Is a Turk?. London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2006.
Cagaptay, Soner, and Parris, Mark. “Turkey after the Iraq War: Still a US Ally?” in Policy Analysis: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2003.
Carlson, John D., and Owens, Erik C.. “Introduction: Reconsidering Westphalia's Legacy for Religion and International Politics” in The Sacred and the Sovereign: Religion and International Politics, edited by Carlson, John D. and Owens, Erik C., 141. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2003.
Carpenter, Ted Galen. “Estrangement: The United States and Turkey in a Multipolar Era.” Mediterranean Quarterly 21, no. 4 (Fall 2010): 2737.
Casanova, Jose. “Globalizing Catholicism and the Return to a ‘Universal’ Church” in Transnational Religion and Fading States, edited by Hoeber, Susanna and Rudoplh, James Piscatori, 121–43. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
Casanova, Jose. Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.
Chellany, Brahma. “Fighting Terrorism in Southern Asia: The Lessons of History.” International Security 26, no. 3 (2002).
Chengappa, Bidanda M. Pakistan: Islamisation, Army and Foreign Policy. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, 2004.
Christie-Miller, Alexander. “Kurds Accuse Turkish Government of Supporting Isis.” Newsweek, October 22, 2014.
Cloud, David S. “Pakistan Shuts Down US ‘Intelligence Fusion’ Cells.” The Los Angeles Times, May 27, 2011.
Cohen, Stephen Philip. The Idea of Pakistan. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2004.
Coll, Steve. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and bin Ladin, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2011. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
Collier, David, and Brady, Henry, eds. Rethinking Social Inquiry: Diverse Tools, Shared Standards. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010.
Cooley, Alexander. Base Politics: Democratic Change and the US Military Overseas Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2008.
Cooley, Alexander. Logics of Hierarchy: The Organization of Empires, States and Military Occupations. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005.
Cooper, Helen. “United Arab Emirates, Key US Ally in Isis Effort, Disengaged in December.” New York Times, February 3, 2015.
Cooper, Helen. “Country Reports on Terrorism 2003,” edited by US Department of State, 2004.
Cooper, Helen. “Country Reports on Terrorism 2008: Chapter 2. Country Reports: Africa Overview.” US Department of State, 2009.
Cooper, Helen. “Country Reports on Terrorism 2009: Chapter 2. Country Reports: Africa Overview.” US Department of State, 2010.
Dagi, Ihsan. “Turkey's AKP in Power.” Journal of Democracy 19, no. 3 (July 2008): 2530.
Dark, K. R.Large-Scale Religious Change and World Politics” in Religion in International Relations, edited by Dark, K. R., 5082. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.
Davidson, Christoper M. Dubai: The Vulnerability of Success. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.
Davidson, Christoper M. The United Arab Emirates: A Study in Survival. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reiner Publishers, 2005.
Dawisha, Adeed. “Islam in Foreign Policy: Some Methodological Issues” in Islam in Foreign Policy, edited by Dawisha, Adeed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Dismorr, Anne. Turkey Decoded. London: Saqi, 2008.
Donnelly, Jack. “Sovereign Inequalities and Hierarchy in Anarchy: American Power and International Security.” European Journal of International Relations 12, no. 2 (2006): 139–70.
Donnelly, Jack. “Egypt and Saudi Arabia Deny Split over Syria.” Al-Jazeera, May 31, 2015.
Ehteshami, Anoushiravan, and Wright, Steven. “Political Change in the Arab Oil Monarchies: From Liberalization to Enfranchisement.” Royal Institute of International Affairs 83, no. 5 (2007).
Esposito, John. The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Esposito, John. “Fact Sheet on the Global Counterterrorism Forum.” www.cfr.org/counterterrorism/fact-sheet-global-counterterrorism-forum/p28460.
Fair, C. Christine Fair. “Pakistan's Relations with Central Asia” in Pakistan in Regional and Global Politics, edited by Jetly, Rajshree, 125–49. London: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, 2009.
Fair, C. Christine Fair, Crane, Keith, Chivvis, Christopher C., Puri, Samir, and Spirtas, Michael. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State? RAND Corporation, 2010.
Farr, Thomas. World of Faith and Freedom: Why International Religious Liberty Is Vital to American National Security. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Fearon, James. “Domestic Politics, Foreign Policy, and Theories of International Relations.” Annual Review of Political Science 1 (1998): 289313.
Fearon, James D.Counterfactuals and Hypothesis Testing in Political Science.” World Politics 43, no. 2 (January 1991): 169–95.
Fearon, James D.Domestic Political Audiences and the Escalation of International Disputes.” American Political Science Review 88, no. 3 (September 1994): 577–92.
Finnemore, Martha. “Legitimacy, Hypocrisy, and the Social Structure of Unipolarity: Why Being a Unipole Isn't All It's Cracked up to Be.” World Politics 61, no. 1 (January 2009): 5885.
Fox, Jonathan. “Ethnoreligious Conflict in the Third World: The Role of Religion as a Cause of Conflict.” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 9, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 101–25.
Fox, Jonathan. A World Survey of Religion and the State. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Fox, Jonathan, and Sandal, Nukhet. “State Religious Exclusivity and International Crises between 1990 and 2002” in Religion, Identity and Global Governance: Theory, Evidence, and Practice, edited by James, Patrick. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.
Fox, Jonathan, and Sandler, Shmuel. Bringing Religion into International Relations. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004.
Friedman, Thomas L. “Dubai and Dunces.” New York Times, March 15, 2006.
Fuller, Graham E. The New Turkish Republic: Turkey as a Pivotal State in the Muslim World. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2008.
Gartzke, Erik. “Kant We All Just Get Along? Opportunity, Willingness, and the Origins of the Democratic Peace.” American Journal of Political Science 42, no. 1 (1998): 127.
Gartzke, Erik, and Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede. “Identity and Conflict: Ties That Bind and Differences That Divide.” European Journal of International Relations 12, no. 1 (2006): 5387.
George, Alexander, and Bennett, Andrew. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.
Ghosn, Faten, Palmer, Glenn Palmer, and Bremer, Stuart. “The Mid3 Data Set, 1993–2001: Procedures, Coding Rules, and Description.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 21, no. 133–54 (2004).
Gibler, Douglas M., and Sarkees, Meredith. “Measuring Alliances: The Correlates of War Formal Interstate Alliance Data Set, 1816–2000.” Journal of Peace Research 41, no. 2 (2004): 211–22.
Gilbert, Ben. “Saudi Arabia Walks a Fine Line in Backing Syrian Rebellion.” Al-Jazeera America, January 10, 2014.
Gill, Anthony. The Political Origins of Religious Liberty. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Gill, Anthony. “Religion and Comparative Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 4 (2001): 117–38.
Gill, Anthony. Rendering Unto Caesar: The Catholic Church and the State in Latin America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
Gill, Anthony. “Global Restrictions on Religion.” Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, 2009.
Gole, Nilüfer. “Secularism and Islamism in Turkey: The Making of Elites and Counter-Elites.” Middle East Journal 51, no. 1 (Winter 1997): 4658.
Gordon, Philip H., and Taspinar, Omer. Winning Turkey: How America, Europe and Turkey Can Revive a Fading Partnership. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2008.
Griesa, Thomas, Meierrieksb, Daniel, and Redlinc, Margarete. “Oppressive Governments, Dependence on the USA, and Anti-American Terrorism.” Oxford Economic Papers 67, no. 1 (2015): 83103.
Grigoriadis, Ioannis N.Friends No More? The Rise of Anti-American Nationalism in Turkey.” Middle East Journal 64, no. 1 (Winter 2010): 5166.
Grim, Brian J., and Finke, Roger. The Price of Freedom Denied: Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Gul, Imtiaz. The Most Dangerous Place: Pakistan's Lawless Frontier. New York: Penguin Books, 2011.
Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda. New York: Berkley Books, 2003.
Guth, James L., Green, John C., Kellstedt, Lyman A., and Smidt, Corwin E.. “Faith and Foreign Policy: A View from the Pews.” The Review of Faith and International Affairs 3, no. 2 (2005): 310.
Hafez, Mohammed M. Why Muslims Rebel: Repression and Resistance in the Muslim World. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reiner Publishers, 2003.
Haider, Ziad. The Ideological Struggle for Pakistan. Stanford: Hoover Institute Press, 2010.
Haleem, Irm. “Ethnic and Sectarian Violence and the Propensity Towards Praetorianism in Pakistan.” Third World Quarterly 24, no. 3 (June 2003): 463–77.
Haqqani, Husain. Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005.
Harrison, Selig. “Global Terrorism: US Policy after 9/11 and Its Impact on the Domestic Politics and Foreign Relations of Terrorism” in Pakistan in Regional and Global Politics, edited by Jetly, Rajshree, 2045. London: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, 2009.
Hassner, Ron E.Blasphemy and Violence.” International Studies Quarterly 55, no. 1 (March 2011): 2347.
Hassner, Ron E.To Halve and to Hold: Conflicts over Sacred Space and the Problem of Indivisibility.” Security Studies 12, no. 4 (Summer 2003): 133.
Haydar, Afak. “The Sipah-E-Sahaba Pakistan” in Pakistan: Founders’ Aspirations and Today's Realities, edited by Malik, Hafeez, 263–86. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Heard-Bey, Frauke. “The United Arab Emirates: Statehood and Nation-Building in a Traditional Society.” Middle East Journal 59, no. 3 (2005).
Hellyer, Peter. “Evolution of UAE Foreign Policy” in United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective, edited by al-Abed, Ibrahim and Hellyer, Peter, 161–79. London: Trident Press, 1997.
Henne, Peter S.The Domestic Politics of International Religious Defamation.” Politics and Religion 6, no. 3 (2013).
Henne, Peter S.The Two Swords: Religion-State Connections and Interstate Conflict.” Journal of Peace Research 49, no. 6 (2012): 753–68.
Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.
Horowitz, Michael. “Long Time Going: Religion and the Duration of Crusading.” International Security 34, no. 2 (Fall 2009).
Hunter, Shireen T.Religion, Politics and Security in Central Asia.” SAIS Review 2, no. 1 (2001).
Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
Hurd, Elizabeth Shakman. Beyond Religious Freedom: The New Global Politics of Religion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015.
Hurd, Elizabeth Shakman. “The Political Authority of Secularism in International Relations.” European Journal of International Relations 10, no. 2 (June 2004): 235–62.
Iannaccone, Lawrence, Finke, Roger, and Stark, Rodney. “Deregulating Religion: The Economics of Church and State.” Economic Inquiry 35, no. 2 (1997): 350–64.
Iannaccone, Lawrence, Finke, Roger, and Stark, Rodney. “International Religious Freedom Report.” US Department of State, 2010.
Jackson, Patrick Thaddeus. The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations. New York: Routledge, 2011.
Jalal, Ayesha. The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan. London: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Jenkins, Gareth. “Muslim Democrats in Turkey?Survival 45, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 4566.
Jones, Seth. “The Rise of Afghanistan's Insurgency: State Failure and Jihad.” International Security 32, no. 4 (2008).
Juergensmeyer, Mark. The New Cold War?: Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Jung, Dietrich, and Piccoli, Wolfango. Turkey at the Crossroads: Ottoman Legacies and a Greater Middle East. London: Zed Books, 2001.
Karasipahi, Sena. “Comparing Islamic Resurgence Movements in Turkey and Iran.” Middle East Journal 63, no. 1 (Winter 2009).
Karasipahi, Sena. “Kazakhstan Promotes Central Asian Interests within OIC.” In Eurasia Daily Monitor, Jamestown Foundation, 2013.
Keohane, Robert O., and Katzenstein, Peter J.. Anti-Americanisms in World Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007.
Kepel, Gilles. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 2002.
Kirchgaesser, Stephanie. “US Coast Guard Warned on Dubai Ports Deal.” February 28, 2006.
Kirkpatrick, David D. “Egypt Launches Airstrike in Libya against ISIS Branch.” New York Times, February 16, 2015.
Kizilbash, Hamid H.Anti-Americanism in Pakistan.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 497 (May 1988): 5867.
Kolbe, Melanie, and Henne, Peter S.. “The Effect of Religious Restrictions on Forced Migration.” Politics and Religion 7, no. 4 (2014): 665–83.
Krause, Wanda. Women in Civil Society: The State, Islamism and Networks in the UAE. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008.
Krebs, Ronald R., and Jackson, Patrick Thaddeus. “Twisting Tongues and Twisting Arms: The Power of Political Rhetoric.” European Journal of International Relations 13, no. 1 (2007): 3566.
Kull, Steven. Feeling Betrayed: The Roots of Muslim Anger at America. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2011.
Kupchan, Charles A. The End of the American Era: US Foreign Policy and the Geopolitics of the Twentieth Century. New York: Random House, 2002.
Kuru, Ahmet T. Secularism and State Policies Towards Religion: The United States, France, and Turkey. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Lake, David A.Anarchy, Hierarchy and the Variety of International Relations.” International Organization 50, no. 1 (1996): 133.
Lake, David A.Escape from the State of Nature: Authority and Hierarchy in World Politics.” International Security 32, no. 1 (Summer 2007): 4779.
Lake, David A.Legitimating Power: The Domestic Politics of US International Hierarchy.” International Security 38, no. 2 (Fall 2013).
Lalami, Laila. “Islamophobia and Its Discontents,” The Nation, July 2, 2012.
Larrabee, F. Stephen. Troubled Partnership: US-Turkish Relations in an Era of Global Geopolitical Change. Washington, DC: The RAND Corporation, 2010.
Larrabee, F. Stephen, and Lesser, Ian O.. Turkish Foreign Policy in an Age of Uncertainty. Santa Monica, CA: The RAND Corporation, 2003.
Leege, David C., and Kellstedt, Lyman A., eds. Rediscovering the Religious Factor in American Politics. New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc, 1993.
Lewis, Bernard. The Crisis of Islam. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2003.
Lewis, Bernard. “The Roots of Muslim Rage.” The Atlantic Monthly (September 1990): 4760.
Lieber, Kier A., and Alexander, Gerard. “Waiting for Balancing: Why the World Is Not Pushing Back.” International Security 30 no. 1 (Summer 2005): 109–39.
Lieber, Robert J. The American Era: Power and Strategy for the 21st Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Lieberman, Evan S.Nested Analysis as a Mixed-Method Strategy for Comparative Research.” American Political Science Review 99, no. 3 (August 2005): 435–52.
Lynch, Marc. The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East. New York: Public Affairs, 2013.
MacKay, Mairi. “Prayer and Politics: How Friday Became the Middle East's Day of Protest.” CNN, June 20, 2011.
Mahoney, James. “Path Dependence in Historical Sociology.” Theory and Society 29, no. 4 (2000): 507–48.
Mahoney, James. “Strategies of Causal Assessment in Comparative Historical Analysis” in Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences, edited by Mahoney, James and Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, 337–73. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Mahoney, James, and Goertz, Gary. “A Tale of Two Cultures: Contrasting Quantitative and Qualitative Research.” Political Analysis 14, no. 3 (Summer 2006): 227–48.
Mahoney, James, Kimball, Erin, and Koivu, Kenra L.. “The Logic of Historical Explanation in the Social Sciences.” Comparative Political Studies 42, no. 1 (November 2008): 114–46.
Mahoney, James, and Thelen, Kathleen, eds. Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Mahoney, James, and Thelen, Kathleen, “A Theory of Gradual Institutional Change” in Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power, edited by Mahoney, James and Thelen, Kathleen, 138. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Malik, Anas. Political Survival in Pakistan: Beyond Ideology. New York: Routledge, 2011.
Malik, Hafeez. Pakistan: Founders’ Aspirations and Today's Realities. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Martin, Lenore G.Turkey's Middle East Foreign Policy” in The Future of Turkish Foreign Policy, edited by Lenore, G. and Martin, Dimitris Keridis, 157–90. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.
Masood, Salman. “In Protest over Nato Strike, Pakistan Will Skip Afghan Conference.” The New York Times, November 29, 2011, 6.
Mazaheri, Nimah. “Iraq and the Domestic Political Effects of Economic Sanctions.” The Middle East Journal 64, no. 2 (2010).
McAdam, Douglas, Tarrow, Sidney, and Tilly, Charles. Dynamics of Contention. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
McGillivray, Fiona, and Smith, Alastair. Punishing the Prince: A Theory of Interstate Relations, Political Institutions, and Regime Change. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.
Mecham, R. Quinn. “From the Ashes of Virtue, a Promise of Light: The Transformation of Political Islam In Turkey.” Third World Quarterly 25, no. 2 (2004): 339–58.
Mehta, Pratap Bhanu. “On the Possibility of Religious Pluralism” in Religious Pluralism, Globalization, and World Politics, edited by Banchoff, Thomas, 6589. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Milner, Helen. Interests, Institutions, and Information: Domestic Politics and International Relations. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.
Mitchell, Joshua. “Religion Is Not a Preference.” The Journal of Politics 69, no. 2 (May 2007): 351–62.
Morrow, James D., Mesquita, Bruce Bueno de, Siversion, Randolph M., and Smith, Alastair. “Retesting Selectorate Theory: Separating the Effects of W from Other Elements of Democracy.” American Political Science Review 102, no. 3 (2008): 393400.
Mousseau, Michael. “Market Civilization and Its Clash with Terror.” International Security 27, no. 3 (Winter 2002): 529.
Mufti, Malik. “Daring and Caution in Turkish Foreign Policy.” Middle East Journal 52, no. 1 (Winter 1998): 3250.
Munir, Metin. “Principles Come at a Price.” Euromoney, April 2003.
Myers, Steven Lee. “Tumult of Arab Spring Prompts Worries in Washington.” The New York Times, September 17, 2011.
Nasr, S. V. R. Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the Making of State Power. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Nasr, Vali. “International Politics, Domestic Imperatives, and Identity Mobilization: Sectarianism in Pakistan.” Comparative Politics 32, no. 2 (January 2000): 171–90.
Nasr, Vali. “Regional Implications of Shi'a Revival in Iraq.” The Washington Monthly 27, no. 3 (2004).
Nasr, Vali. “The Rise of ‘Muslim Democracy’.” Journal of Democracy 16, no. 2 (April 2005): 1327.
Nexon, Daniel H.Religion and International Relations: No Leap of Faith Required” in Religion and International Relations Theory, edited by Snyder, Jack. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.
Nexon, Daniel H. The Struggle for Power in Early Modern Europe: Religious Conflict, Dynastic Empires and International Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009.
Nexon, Daniel H.What's This, Then? ‘Romanes Eunt Domus”?International Studies Perspectives 9, no. 3 (August 2008): 300–8.
Nexon, Daniel H., and Wright, Thomas. “What's at Stake in the American Empire Debate?American Political Science Review 101, no. 2 (May 2007): 253–71.
Niaz, Ilhan. The Culture of Governance and Power in Pakistan, 1947–2008. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Niaz, Ilhan. The Culture of Power and Governance of Pakistan, 1947–2008. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Olson, Robert. “Turkey-Iran Relations, 1997 to 2000: The Kurdish and Islamist Questions.” Third World Quarterly 21, no. 5 (October 2000): 871–90.
Owen, John M. IV. The Clash of Ideas in World Politics: Transnational Networks, States, and Regime Change, 1510–2010. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010.
Owen, John M. IV. “Pakistani Public Opinion.” Pew Research Center, 2009.
Owen, John M. IV. “Patterns of Global Terrorism.” edited by US Department of State, 2001.
Owen, John M. IV. “Patterns of Global Terrorism.” edited by US Department of State, 2003.
Owen, John M. IV. “Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002: Eurasia Overview.” US Department of State, 2003.
Owen, John M. IV. “Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002: Europe Overview.” US Department of State, 2003.
Owen, John M. IV. “Peter King: Dubai Ports Company in ‘Al Qaeda Heartland’.” NewsMax Online, February 20, 2006.
Philpott, Daniel. “Explaining the Political Ambivalence of Religion.” American Political Science Review 101, no. 3 (August 2007): 505–25.
Philpott, Daniel. “Has the Study of Global Politics Found Religion?Annual Review of Political Science 12 (2009): 183202.
Philpott, Daniel. “The Religious Roots of Modern International Relations.” World Politics 52, no. 2 (January 2000): 206–45.
Pierson, Paul. Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004.
Pinto, Vania Carvalho. Nation-Building, State, and the Genderframing of Women's Rights in the United Arab Emirates (1971–2009). Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, 2012.
Piscatori, James P.Islamic Values and National Interest: The Foreign Policy of Saudi Arabia” in Islam in Foreign Policy, edited by Dawisha, Adeed, 18. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Piscatori, James P.Religion and Realpolitik: Islamic Responses to the Gulf War” in Islamic Fundamentalisms and the Gulf Crisis, edited by Piscatori, James P., 127. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.
Pollack, Ken, and Byman, Daniel. The Arab Awakening: America and the Transformation of the Middle East. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2011.
Pope, Nicole, and Pope, Hugh. Turkey Unveiled: A History of Modern Turkey. Woodstock, NY and New York, NY: The Overlook Press, 1997.
Putnam, Robert D.Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games.” International Organization 42, no. 3 (Summer 1988).
Rabasa, Angel, and Larrabee, F. Stephen. The Rise of Political Islam in Turkey. Washington, DC: The RAND Corporation, 2008.
Rapoport, David C.Fear and Trembling: Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions.” American Political Science Review 78, no. 3 (December 1983): 658–77.
Rapoport, David C.The Fourth Wave: September 11 in the History of Terrorism.” Current History 100, no. 650 (December 2001): 419–24.
Reetz, Dietrich Reetz. “The Deoband Universe: What Makes a Transcultural and Transnational Educational Movement of Islam?Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 27, no. 1 (2007).
Robins, Philip. “Confusion at Home, Confusion Abroad: Turkey between Copenhagen and Iraq.” International Affairs 79, no. 3 (May 2003): 547–66.
Ross, Michael L. “Does Oil Hinder Democracy?World Politics 53, no. 3 (2001): 325–61.
Rouleau, Eric. “The Challenges to Turkey.” Foreign Affairs 72, no. 5 (November–December 1993): 110–26.
Roy, Olivier. Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Umma. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
Rudolph, Susanna Hoeber. “Introduction: Religion, States and Transnational Civil Society” in Transnational Religions and Fading States, edited by Hoeber, Susanna and Rudoplh, James Piscatori, 126. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997.
Ruggie, John G.Territoriality and Beyond.” International Organization 47, no. 1 (1993).
Rugh, William A. Diplomacy and Defense Policy of the United Arab Emirates. London: Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research, 2002.
Saif, Lubna. Authoritarianism and Underdevelopment in Pakistan 1947–1958: The Role of the Punjab. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Saikal, Amin. “Musharraf and Pakistan's Crisis” in Pakistan in Regional and Global Politics, edited by Jetly, Rajshree, 119. London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2009.
Sandal, Nukhet. “Religious Actors as Epistemic Communities in Conflict Transformation: The Cases of South Africa and Northern Ireland.” Review of International Studies 37, no. 3 (July 2011): 929–49.
Sandal, Nukhet, and Fox, Jonathan. Religion in International Relations Theory: Concepts, Tools, and Debates. London: Routledge, 2013.
Sarkissian, Ani. The Varieties of Religious Repression: Why Governments Restrict Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
Sayari, Sabri. “Turkey and the Middle East in the 1990s.” Journal of Palestine Studies 26, no. 3 (Spring 1997): 4455.
Schanzer, Jonathan. Al-Qaeda's Armies: Middle East Affiliate Groups and the Next Generation of Terror. Washington, DC: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2005.
Schmidt, John R. The Unravelling: Pakistan in the Age of Jihad. New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 2011.
Seawright, Jason, and Gerring, John. “Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research: A Menu of Qualitative and Quantitative Options.” Political Research Quarterly 61, no. 2 (June 2008): 294308.
Sever, Ayegul. “Turkey's Constraining Position on Western Reform Initiatives in the Middle East.” Mediterranean Quarterly 18, no. 4 (Fall 2007): 131–48.
Shaffer, Brenda, ed. The Limits of Culture: Islam and Foreign Policy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
Shaffer, Brenda.Introduction: The Limits of Culture” in The Limits of Culture: Islam and Foreign Policy, edited by Shaffer, Brenda, 126. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006.
Shehata, Dina. Islamists and Secularists in Egypt: Opposition, Conflict and Cooperation. New York: Routledge, 2010.
Smith, Alastair. “International Crises and Domestic Politics.” American Political Science Review 92, no. 3 (September 1998): 623–38.
Smith, Alastair. “Political Groups, Leader Change, and the Pattern of International Cooperation.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 53, no. 6 (2009): 853–77.
Smith, Alastair, and Mesquita, Bruce Bueno de. “Contingent Prize Allocation and Pivotal Voting,” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 42, no. 2 (2011): 371–92.
Smith, Alastair, Mesquita, Bruce Bueno de, and LaGatta, Tom. “Group Incentives and Rational Voting.” Journal of Theoretical Politics (forthcoming).
Smith, Christian. “Correcting a Curious Neglect, or Bringing Religion Back In” in Disruptive Religion: The Force of Faith in Social-Movement Activism, edited by Smith, Christian, 128. New York: Routledge, 1996.
Snyder, Jack. “Introduction” in Religion and International Relations Theory, edited by Snyder, Jack. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.
Somer, Murat. “Turkey's Model of ‘Moderate’ Islamism Can Be Misleading.” The National, October 1, 2012.
Soysal, Mumtaz.The Future of Turkish Foreign Policy” in The Future of Turkish Foreign Policy, edited by Lenore, G. and Martin, Dimitris Keridis, 3746. Cambridge, MA: 2004.
Spruyt, Hendrik. The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.
Steinmo, Sven, Thelen, Kathleen, and Longstreth, Frank, eds. Structuring Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Stern, Jessica. Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Streeck, Wolfgang, and Thelen, Kathleen. “Introduction: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies” in Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies, edited by Streeck, Wolfgang and Thelen, Kathleen. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Sultan, Tepe. “Politics between Market and Islam: The Electoral Puzzles and Changing Prospects of Pro-Islamic Parties.” Mediterranean Quarterly 18, no. 2 (Spring 2007): 107–35.
Syed, Anwar H.The Sunni-Shia Conflict in Pakistan” in Pakistan: Founders’ Aspirations and Todays’ Realities, edited by Malik, Hafeez Malik, 244–62. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Syed, Anwar H. “Syria's Opposition Opens Office in Turkey.” Al-Jazeera, December 14, 2011.
Tahir-Khelli, Shirin. “In Search of an Identity: Islam and Pakistan's Foreign Policy.” In Islam in Foreign Policy, edited by Dawisha, Adeed, 6883. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Talbot, Ian. Pakistan: A Modern History. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005.
Thelen, Kathleen. “How Institutions Evolve: Insights from Comparative Historical Analysis” in Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences, edited by Mahoney, James and Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, 208–41. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Thomas, Scott. The Global Resurgence of Religion and the Transformation of International Relations: The Struggle for the Soul of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Thomas, Scott. “Religion and International Conflict” in Religion and International Relations, edited by Dark, K. R., 123. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.
Tilly, Charles. Identities, Boundaries, and Social Ties. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2005.
Tilly, Charles. The Politics of Collective Violence. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Tilly, Charles. “Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists.” Sociological Theory 22, no. 1 (March 2004): 520.
Toft, Monica Duffy, Philpott, Daniel, and Shah, Timothy Samuel. God's Century: Resurgent Religion and Global Politics. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2011.
Towns, Ann E.Norms and Social Hierarchies: Understanding International Policy Diffusion ‘from Below’.” International Organization 66, no. 2 (2012): 179209.
Tschirgi, Dan.Turkey and the Arab World in the New Millenium” in Turkey's Foreign Policy in the 21st Century, edited by Tareq, Y. and Ismael, Mustafa Aydin, 103–20. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2003.
Tschirgi, Dan. “Turkey's Political Imams: The Gulenists Fight Back.” The Economist, May 18, 2013.
Tschirgi, Dan. “Turkish Army ‘Bans’ Game of Thrones, Prepares for Islam Classes.” Hurriyet Daily News, November 7, 2014.
Tschirgi, Dan. “Turkish Parliament Approves Anti-Terrorism Financing Law.” Reuters, February 7, 2013.
Tuysuz, Gul. “Turkish Warplanes Bomb Isis Positions in Syria for the First Time.” CNN, July 25, 2015.
Ulrichsen, Kristian Coates. “The Persian Gulf States and Afghanistan: Regional Geopolitics and Competing Interests.” Asia Policy 17 (2014).
Ulrichsen, Kristian Coates. “Qatar and the Arab Spring: Policy Drivers and Regional Implications.” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2014.
Ulrichsen, Kristian Coates. “US ‘Threatened to Bomb’ Pakistan.” BBC News Online, September 22, 2006.
Vick, Carl. “Party Tied to Islam Wins Big in Turkey.” The Washington Post, November 4, 2002.
Voeten, Erik. “Resisting the Lonely Superpower: Responses of States in the United Nations to US Dominance.” The Journal of Politics 66, no. 3 (2004): 729–54.
Wald, Kenneth D., and Wilcox, Clyde. “Getting Religion: Has Political Science Rediscovered the ‘Faith Factor’?” American Political Science Review 100, no. 4 (November 2006): 523–29.
Walker, Joshua. “Turkey and Israel's Relationship in the Middle East.” Mediterranean Quarterly 17, no. 4 (Fall 2006): 6090.
Walker, Joshua.Reexamining the US-Turkish Alliance.” The Washington Quarterly 31, no. 1 (Winter 2007/2008): 93109.
Walsh, Declan. “Pakistani Media ‘Name’ Cia Station Chief in Islamabad.” The Guardian, May 9, 2011.
Watsi, Tahir. The Application of Islamic Criminal Law in Pakistan: Shariah in Practice. Leiden: Brill, 2009.
Watson, Katy. “Dubai Dress Code: ‘Cover up’, UAE Women Tell Foreigners.” BBC News Online, July 5, 2012.
White, Joshua T. “Pakistan's Islamist Frontier: Islamic Politics and US Policy in Pakistan's North-West Frontier.” CFIA Religion and Security Monograph Series, 2008.
Wickham, Carrie Rosefsky. “Interests, Ideas and Islamist Outreach in Egypt” in Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Approach, edited by Wiktorowicz, Quintan, 231–50. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2004.
Wickham, Carrie Rosefsky. Mobilizing Islam: Religion, Activism, and Political Change in Egypt. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.
Wilcox, Clyde, Wald, Kenneth D., and Jelen, Ted G.. “Religious Preferences and Social Science: A Second Look.” The Journal of Politics 70, no. 3 (July 2008): 874–79.
Willoughby, John. “Segmented Feminization and the Decline of Neopatriarchy in GCC Countries of the Persian Gulf.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 28, no. 1 (2008).
Worth, Robert F. “Saudis Back Syrian Rebels Despite Risks.” New York Times, January 7, 2014.
Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York: Vintage Books, 2006.
Yacoubian, Mona. “Bridging the Divide: US Efforts to Engage the Muslim World.” The Middle East Journal 63, no. 3 (2009).
Yavuz, M. Hakan, ed. The Emergence of a New Turkey: Democracy and the Ak Parti. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2006.
Yavuz, M. Hakan, Islamic Political Identity in Turkey. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Yavuz, M. Hakan, “The Politics of Fear: The Rise of the Nationalist Action Party (MHP) in Turkey.” Middle East Journal 56, no. 2 (Spring 2002): 200–21.
Yavuz, M. Hakan, Secularism and Muslim Democracy in Turkey. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Yavuz, M. Hakan, “Turkish-Israeli Relations through the Lens of the Turkish Identity Debate.” Journal of Palestine Studies 27, no. 1 (Autumn 1997): 2237.
Zahlan, Rosemarie Said. The Origins of the United Arab Emirates. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1978.
Zayani, Mohamed. “Civil Society and Democratic Change in the Arab World: Promises and Impediments.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 32, no. 3 (2012).
Ziring, Lawrence. Pakistan in the Twentieth Century: A Political History. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Ziring, Lawrence. “Weak State, Failed State, Garrison State: The Pakistan Saga” in South Asia's Weak States: Understanding the Regional Insecurity Predicament, edited by Paul, T. V., 170–95. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010.
Zorn, Christopher J. W. “Generalized Estimating Equation Models for Correlated Data: A Review with Applications.” American Journal of Political Science 45, no. 2 (2001).