Skip to main content Accessibility help
John Rawls: Reticent Socialist
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Grey, Colin 2018. Stability and the sense of justice. Philosophy & Social Criticism, Vol. 44, Issue. 9, p. 927.


Book description

This book is the first detailed reconstruction of the late work of John Rawls, who was perhaps the most influential philosopher of the twentieth century. Rawls's 1971 treatise, A Theory of Justice, stimulated an outpouring of commentary on 'justice-as-fairness,' his conception of justice for an ideal, self-contained, modern political society. Most of that commentary took Rawls to be defending welfare-state capitalism as found in Western Europe and the United States. Far less attention has been given to Rawls's 2001 book, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. In the Restatement, Rawls not only substantially reformulates the 'original position' argument for the two principles of justice-as-fairness but also repudiates capitalist regimes as possible embodiments. Edmundson further develops Rawls's non-ideal theory, which guides us when we find ourselves in a society that falls well short of justice.

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Anderson, Elizabeth 1999. What is the point of equality? Ethics 109: 287337.
Anderson, Elizabeth. forthcoming. Rawls’s difference principle. In Williams, Matthew and Clayton, Andrew, eds. The Cambridge Companion to a Theory of Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Arneson, Richard 1979. Mill’s doubts about freedom under socialism. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, supp. 5: 231249.
Arneson, Richard. 1986. Comment on Krouse and McPherson. Ethics 97(1): 139145.
Baumol, W. J. 1974. The transformation of values: What Marx “really” meant (an interpretation). Journal of Economic Literature 12(1): 5162.
Bell, Daniel. 1972. On meritocracy and equality. The Public Interest 29: 2968.
Berlin, Isaiah. 1970. Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bernstein, Eduard. 1993 [1899]. The Preconditions of Socialism. Tudor, Henry, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blackburn, Simon. 2001. Taking the veil. Times Literary Supplement, September 28, 11.
Bowles, Samuel, and Gintis, Herbert. 2002. The inheritance of inequality. Journal of Economic Perspectives 16(3): 330.
Brighouse, Harry 1997. Political equality in justice as fairness. Philosophical Studies 86(2): 155184.
Brudney, Daniel. 2014. The young Marx and the middle-aged Rawls. In Mandle, Jon and Reidy, David A., eds. A Companion to Rawls, pp. 450471. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
Buchanan, Allen. 1982. Marx and Justice: The Radical Critique of Liberalism. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allenheld.
Coates, David. 1975. The Labour Party and the Struggle for Socialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cohen, Joshua 1989. The economic basis of deliberative democracy. Social Philosophy and Policy 6: 2550.
Cohen, Joshua. 2003a. For a democratic society. In Freeman, Samuel, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Rawls, pp. 86138. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cohen, Joshua 2003b. Deliberation and democratic legitimacy. In Matravers, Derek and Pike, Jon, eds. Debates in Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Anthology, pp. 342360. London: Routledge and the Open University.
Dahl, Robert. 1989. Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Dahl, Robert 1956. A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Daniels, Norman. 1975. Equal liberty and unequal worth of liberty. In Daniels, Norman, ed. Reading Rawls: Critical Studies on Rawls’s A Theory of Justice pp. 253281. New York: Basic Books.
Dillon, Robin S. 1997. Self-respect: Moral, emotional, political. Ethics 107: 226249.
DiQuattro, Arthur. 1983. Rawls and Left criticism. Political Theory 11(1): 5378.
Doppelt, Gerald. 1981. Rawls’ system of justice: A critique from the Left. Noûs 15(3): 259307.
Dorfman, Avihay, and Harel, Alon. 2015. Against privatisation as such. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 2015: 128.
Dunn, John. 1984. The Politics of Socialism: An Essay in Political Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Elliott, Gregory. 1993. Labourism and the English Genius: The Strange Death of Labour England? London: Verso.
Elster, Jon. 1986. Comments on Krouse and McPherson. Ethics 97: 146173.
Elster, Jon, and Ove Moene, Karl, eds. 1989. Alternatives to Capitalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Estlund, David. 2003. The audacious humility of John Rawls. Dissent Spring 2003: 8991.
Fieldhouse, Andrew. 2013. A review of the economic research on the effects of raising ordinary income tax rates: Higher revenue, unchanged growth, and uncertain but potentially large reductions in the growth of inequality. Economic Policy Institute/The Century Foundation. Issue Brief #353.
Freeman, Samuel, ed. 2003. The Cambridge Companion to Rawls. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Freeman, Samuel 2007a. Justice and the Social Contract: Essays on Rawlsian Political Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Freeman, Samuel 2007b. Rawls. New York: Routledge.
Freeman, Samuel 2013. Property-owning democracy and the difference principle. Analyse & Kritik 9(1): 936.
Friedman, Milton. 1962. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Galston, William. 2010. Realism in political theory. European Journal of Political Theory 9(4): 385411.
Gardner, John. 2014. The evil of privatization (June 20, 2014). Available at SSRN: at 16.
Gaus, Gerald. 2011. The Order of Public Reason. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Geuss, Raymond. 2005. Outside Ethics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Gilens, Martin, and Page, Benjamin I.. 2014. Testing theories of American politics: Elites, interest groups, and average citizens. Perspectives on Politics 12: 564581.
Gray, Alexander. 1968 [1946]. The Socialist Tradition: Moses to Lenin. New York: Harper & Row.
Gray, John. 1989. Liberalisms: Essays in Political Philosophy. London: Routledge.
Green, Jeffrey Edward. 2013. Rawls and the forgotten figure of the most advantaged: In defense of reasonable envy toward the superrich. American Political Science Review 107: 123138.
Gutmann, Amy. 2003. Rawls on the relationship between liberalism and democracy. In Freeman, Samuel, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Rawls, pp. 168199. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Harris, Kenneth. 1982. Attlee. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Hayek, Friedrich. 1976. The Mirage of Social Justice. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Hayek, Friedrich 1984. The Essence of Hayek, Nishiyama, Chakai and Leube, Kurt R., eds. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press.
Henning, Christoph. 2014. Philosophy after Marx. Henniger, Max, trans. Chicago: Haymarket Books.
Huberman, Leo. 1968. The ABC of socialism. In Huberman, Leo and Sweezy, Paul, eds. Introduction to Socialism. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Jackson, Ben. 2005. Revisionism reconsidered: “Property-owning democracy” and egalitarian strategy in post-war Britain. Twentieth-Century British History 16: 416440.
Jackson, Ben 2007. Equality and the British Left: A Study in Progressive Political Thought, 1900–64. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Jackson, Ben 2014. Property-owning democracy: A short history. In O’Neill, Martin and Williamson, Thad, eds., Property-Owning Democracy: Rawls and Beyond. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
Kant, Immanuel (1793/1996), Practical Philosophy, Gregor, M. J. (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kołakowski, Lesek. 2005 [1978]. Main Currents of Marxism. Falla, P. S., trans. New York: W. W. Norton.
Krouse, Richard, and McPherson, Michael. 1986. A “mixed” property regime: Liberty and equality in a market economy. Ethics 97: 119–38.
Krouse, Richard, and McPherson, Michael 1988. Capitalism, “property-owning democracy,” and the welfare state. In Gutmann, Amy, ed. Democracy and the Welfare State. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 79105.
Kuhner, Timothy K. 2011. Citizens United as neoliberal jurisprudence: The resurgence of economic theory. Virginia Journal of Social Policy and Law 18: 395468.
Leiter, Brian. 2015. Why Marxism still does not need normative theory. Analyse und Kritik 2015(37): 2350.
Lenin, Vladimir Ilych. 1971. Lenin Collected Works, vol. 36. Tr. Rothstein, Andrew. Moscow: Progress Publishers.
Little, Daniel. 2014. Rawls and economics. In Mandle, Jon and Reidy, David A., eds. A Companion to Rawls. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, pp. 504525.
MacLeod, Colin M. 2014. Applying justice as fairness to institutions. In Mandle, Jon and Reidy, David A., eds. A Companion to Rawls. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, pp. 164–184.
Mandle, Jon and Reidy, David A., eds. 2014. A Companion to Rawls. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
Marx, Karl, and Engels, Friedrich. 1978. The Marx-Engels Reader, 2nd ed. Tucker, Robert C., ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
McClennan, E. F. 1989. Justice and the problem of stability. Philosophy & Public Affairs 18(1): 330.
Meade, J. E. 1949. Next steps in domestic economic policy. The Political Quarterly 20: 1224.
Meade, J. E. 1950. Review of Bertrand de Jouvenel, Problems of Socialist England. The Economic Journal 60(237): 114117.
Meade, J. E. 1964. Efficiency, Equality and Ownership of Property. London: George Allen and Unwin. Reprinted (with a minor addition to p. 50, fn. 2) in J. E. Meade. 1993. Liberty, Equality and Efficiency. New York: New York University Press.
Melzer, Arthur M. 2014. Philosophy between the Lines: The Lost History of Esoteric Writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Metz, Thaddeus. 2002. Review of John Rawls, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. The Philosophical Review 111(4): 618620.
Michelman, Frank. 1973. In pursuit of constitutional welfare rights: One view of Rawls’ theory of justice. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 121(5): 9621019.
Michelman, Frank 1979. Welfare rights in a constitutional democracy. Washington University Law Quarterly 1979(3): 659693.
Michelman, Frank 2003. Rawls on constitutionalism and constitutional law. In Freeman, Samuel, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Rawls. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 394425.
Miliband, Ralph. 1973. Parliamentary Socialism: A Study in the Politics of Labour, 2nd ed. London: Merlin Press.
Mill, John Stuart. 2006. Collected Works of John Stuart Mill. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.
Moran, Terry. 2009. Obama chides receding Wall Street: “There is no easy out.” Interview with President Barak Obama. ABC News (February 9) (accessed April 13, 2017).
Nagel, Thomas. 2003. Rawls and liberalism. In Freeman, Samuel, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Rawls. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 6285.
Neilsen, Kai. 1989. A moral case for socialism. Critical Review 3: 542553.
Nozick, Robert. 1974. Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books.
Nozick, Robert 1989. The Examined Life: Philosophical Meditations. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Nuttall, Jeremy. 2006. Psychological Socialism: The Labour Party and Qualities of Mind and Character, 1931 to the Present. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
O’Neill, Martin. 2014. Free (and fair) markets without capitalism: Political values, principles of justice, and property-owning democracy. In O’Neill, Martin and Williamson, Thad, eds., Property-Owning Democracy: Rawls and Beyond. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, pp. 75100.
O’Neill, Martin and Williamson, Thad, eds.. 2014. Property-Owning Democracy: Rawls and Beyond. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
Orwell, George. 1941. The Lion and the Unicorn. London: Secker & Warburg.
Otsuka, Michael. 2003. Libertarianism without Inequality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Page, Benjamin I., Bartels, Larry M., and Seawright, Jason. 2013. Democracy and the policy preferences of wealthy Americans. Perspectives on Politics 11: 5173.
Peffer, Rodney G. 2014 [1990]. Marxism, Morality, and Social Justice. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Piketty, Thomas. 2014. Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge, MA: Belknap/Harvard University Press.
Pogge, Thomas. 1989. Realizing Rawls. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Pogge, Thomas 2007. John Rawls: His Life and Theory of Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ponce, Pedro. 1999. John Rawls. (accessed July 4, 2016).
Putnam, Hilary. 1997. A half-century of philosophy, viewed from within. Daedalus 126(1): 311332.
Pyke, Steve. 1995. Philosophers, 2nd ed. London: Zelda Cheatle Press.
Rawls, John. 1989. Justice as Fairness: A Guided Tour. Unpublished photocopy. [cited herein as GT]
Rawls, John 1996. Political Liberalism, paperback ed. New York: Columbia University Press. [cited herein as PL]
Rawls, John 1999a. A Theory of Justice, revised ed. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. [cited herein as TJ]
Rawls, John 1999b. Collected Papers. Freeman, Samuel, ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. [cited herein as CP]
Rawls, John 1999c. The Law of Peoples. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. [cited herein as LP]
Rawls, John 2000a. Burton Dreben: Afterword, a Reminiscence. In Floyd, Juliet and Shieh, Sanford, eds., Future Pasts: Perspectives on the Place of the Analytic Tradition in Twentieth-Century Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 417430.
Rawls, John 2000b. Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy. Herman, Barbara, ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. [cited herein as LHMP]
Rawls, John 2001. Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Kelly, Erin, ed. Cambridge MA: Belknap/Harvard University Press. [cited herein as JF]
Rawls, John 2007. Lectures on the History of Political Philosophy, Freeman, Samuel, ed. Cambridge MA: Belknap/Harvard University Press. [cited herein as LHPP]
Rawls, John 2009. A Brief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and Faith. Nagel, Thomas, ed. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. [cited herein as BI]
Rawls, John, and van Parijs, Phillipe. 2003. Three letters on the Law of Peoples and the European Union. Revue de Philosophie Économique 8: 720.
Robinson, Joan. 1966. An Essay on Marxian Economics. London: Macmillan.
Roemer, John E. 1986. Value, Exploitation, and Class. New York: Harwood.
Roemer, John E. 1994a. A Future for Socialism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Roemer, John E. 1994b. Egalitarian Perspectives: Essays in Philosophical Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rogers, Ben. 2002. John Rawls (obituary). The Guardian, November 27.
Rogers, Ben 1999. John Rawls. Prospect, June 20.
Ron, Amit. 2008. Visions of democracy in “property-owning democracy”: Skelton to Rawls and beyond. History of Political Thought 29(1): 168187.
Scheffler, Samuel. 2008. Cosmopolitanism, justice, and institutions. Daedalus 137: 6877.
Scheffler, Samuel 2003. What is egalitarianism? Philosophy & Public Affairs 31(1): 539.
Schelling, Thomas C. 1960. The Strategy of Conflict. London: Oxford University Press.
Schemmel, Christian. 2015. How (not) to criticise the welfare state. Journal of Applied Philosophy 32(2015): 393409.
Schliesser, Eric. 2016. On Rawls and esotericism. (accessed May 8, 2016).
Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1950. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy, 3rd ed. New York: Harper & Row.
Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1954. History of Economic Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.
Schweikart, David. 1978. Should Rawls be a socialist? Social Theory and Practice 5(1): 127.
Schweikart, David 2014. Property-owning democracy or economic democracy? In O’Neill, Martin and Williamson, Thad, eds., Property-Owning Democracy: Rawls and Beyond. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, pp. 201222.
Sedgwick, Peter. 1970. The end of Labourism. New Politics 8: 7786.
Shaw, G. Bernard. 2006 [1884]. The basis of socialism: Economic, in Shaw, G. Bernard, ed., Fabian Essays in Socialism. New York: Cosimo, pp. 1545.
Stepan, Alfred, and Linz, Juan J.. 2011. Comparative perspectives on inequality and the quality of democracy in the United States. Perspectives on Politics 9(4): 841856.
Stoller, Matt. 2016. How the Democrats killed their populist soul. The Atlantic, October 24.
Streek, Wolfgang. 2014. Buying Time: The Delayed Crisis of Democratic Capitalism. Candler, Patrick, trans. London: Verso.
Taylor, Robert S. 2014. Illiberal socialism. Social Theory and Practice 40: 433460.
Thomas, Alan 2012. Rawls, Adam Smith and an argument from complexity to property-owning democracy. The Good Society 21: 420.
Thomas, Alan 2014. Property-owning democracy, liberal republicanism, and the idea of an egalitarian ethos. In O’Neill, Martin and Williamson, Thad, eds., Property-Owning Democracy: Rawls and Beyond. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, pp. 101128.
Thomas, Alan. 2016. Republic of Equals: Predistribution and Property-Owning Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tomasi, John. 2012. Free-Market Fairness. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Vallier, Kevin. 2014. A moral and economic critique of the new property-owning democrats: On behalf of a Rawlsian welfare state. Philosophical Studies, DOI 10.1007/s11098 014 0303 2
van Parijs, Phillipe. 2011. Just Democracy: The Rawls-Machiavelli Programme. Colchester: ECPR Press.
Waldron, Jeremy. 2016. Political Political Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wall, Stephen. 2006. Rawls and the status of political liberty. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 87(2): 245270.
Walzer, M. 1979. A theory of revolution. Marxist Perspectives 2(1): 3044.
Walzer, M. 2013. The political theory license. Annual Review of Political Science 16: 19.
Weithman, Paul 2010. Why Political Liberalism? On John Rawls’s Political Turn. New York: Oxford University Press.
Weithman, Paul. 2013. Review of O’Neill and Williamson, eds., Property-Owning Democracy: Rawls and Beyond. Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews,
Weithman, Paul forthcoming. Autonomy and disagreement. Ethics.
Wenar, Leif. 2004. The unity of Rawls’s work. Journal of Moral Philosophy 1(3): 265275.
Williams, Bernard. 2005. In the Beginning Was the Deed: Realism and Moralism in Political Argument. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Williams, Bernard 2014. Essays and Reviews 1959–2002. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Williamson, Thad. 2009. Who owns what? An egalitarian interpretation of John Rawls’s idea of a property-owning democracy. Journal of Social Philosophy 40: 434453.
Williamson, Thad 2015. How (not) to criticise property-owning democracy: A response to Schemmel. Journal of Applied Philosophy 32 (2015): 410417.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed