Skip to main content Accessibility help
Living with the Enemy
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Torrie, Julia S. 2018. German Soldiers and the Occupation of France, 1940–1944.

    2018. Books and films received. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 24, Issue. 1, p. 221.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Living with the Enemy
    • Online ISBN: 9781316823439
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

In post-liberation France, the French courts judged the cases of more than one hundred thousand people accused of aiding and abetting the enemy during the Second World War. In this fascinating book, Sandra Ott uncovers the hidden history of collaboration in the Pyrenean borderlands of the Basques and the Béarnais in southwestern France through nine stories of human folly, uncertainty, ambiguity, ambivalence, desire, vengeance, duplicity, greed, self-interest, opportunism and betrayal. Covering both the occupation and liberation periods, she reveals how the book's characters became involved with the occupiers for a variety of reasons, ranging from a desire to settle scores and to gain access to power, money and material rewards, to love, friendship, fear and desperation. These wartime lives and subsequent postwar reckonings provide us with a new lens through which to understand human behavior under the difficult conditions of occupation, and the subsequent search for retribution and justice.


'Sandra Ott, one of the leading experts on the history of the French Basques, offers an important and wonderfully readable study of the region during the Vichy Years. In Living with the Enemy, her ethnographic approach succeeds beautifully in describing and analyzing the relations between German occupiers and Basques in a place that in some significant ways stands apart from other regions in France. She brings to life the dramatic and complicated ‘hidden’ story of the Germanoccupation and Vichy collaboration in the Basque country. Ott’s compelling narrative and thoughtful conclusions nuance what we know about French collaboration with the Nazis during the Vichy years.'

John Merriman - Charles Seymour Professor of History, Yale University

'A subtle and enthralling exploration of the myriad ways in which Germans and French were drawn together in complex webs of greed and vengeance, generosity and betrayal under the occupation. A magnificent contribution to the historiography.'

Robert Gildea - University of Oxford

'This engaging and important book sees the big questions of France in the Second World War (questions of occupation and collaboration) refracted through the lives of individuals in one particular, and particularly interesting, region. It will be of special interest to those who study twentieth-century France or the Second World War, but it deserves a wider readership as well because it lives up to Marc Bloch’s injunction that the historian should be like the ogre in the fairy tale who finds his prey ‘by the smell of human flesh’.'

Richard Vinen - King’s College London

‘Living with the Enemy provides a rich and nuanced view of daily life in the French Basque country and raises interesting questions about postwar justice. Ott does not shy away from the complexity of wartime interactions and explores the complicated, multifaceted, and ambiguous motivations that lay beneath Franco-German relationships. Drawing on historical and ethnographic methods, Sandra Ott has mined the trial dossiers for what they can tell us about the past, but she is also careful to acknowledge their limits. Her own voice as an anthropologist, one who has maintained relationships with Basque locals stretching back to 1976, adds another layer to her analysis and demonstrates the enduring memories of World War II. The end result is a regional study that contributes 'greatly to our understanding of the choices people made and the factors that motivated them', as well as to our ideas about collaboration and cohabitation during the war.’

Shannon L. Fogg Source: German Studies Review

'Her [Ott’s] anthropologically rich work is a valuable contribution to our knowledge of collaboration, resistance, and justice during the occupation and postwar and will be a useful reference for historians interested in the unique history of the Basque country. … an engaging work that adds to Sandra Ott’s already extensive writing on the unique features of the southwest of France and further burnishes her reputation as a leading expert on Basque history and the Second World War.'

Keith Rathbone Source: H-France

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2

  • Series 27W: W6

  • Series 30W: classified trial dossiers of suspected collaborators, records of punishments: 30W2; 30W3; 30W6; 30W9; 30W10; 30W11; 30W13; 30W22; 30W23; 30W35; 30W36; 30W38; 30W39; 30W40; 30W42; 30W45; 30W52; 30W97; 30W102; 30W123; 30W125; 30W126.

  • Series 34W: 34W8, liberation committees; 34W9, administrative purge, 1944–1946; 34W13; 34W14; 34W17; 34W39; 34W43, intelligence concerning internment camps; 34W42; 34W44, Idron internment camp; 34W45; 34W47, local and departmental liberation committees.

  • Series 37W: 37W15; 37W16, file on political parties; 37W114, SD staff in Oloron.

  • Series 1031W: 1031W172, files on the purge, the search for justice by the judiciary; 1031W182: reports on atrocities committed by the Germans; 1031W224: Cabinet of the Prefect, files on German prisoners of war held in the camps at Polo-Beyris in Bayonne and Idron.

  • Series 1089W: purge commission, Pau: 1089W5; 1089W6; 1089W13, commerce with the enemy, Groupe Collaboration in Pau; 1089W14, list of summary executions by the Resistance.

  • Series 1257W: 1257W9: sentences and amnesties, court of appeal, Pau; 1257W14, list of death penalties pronounced by the court of justice, Pau.

  • Series 1259W9: judgments rendered by the court of justice, Pau.

  • Series 3Z: Z83: local and regional responses to refugees.

  • Series 1M: 1M94, Great War; 1M361, Great War; 1M278, circulars to mayors, 1939.

  • Series BB: BB/30/1752, inspection of the judiciary in Pau, 1945; BB/1031/W182, public security, Pau.

  • Series F/7/15305, on the Gestapo in the Basses-Pyrénées; F/7/15384, professionals in special services for the Third Reich; F/7/15389

  • Series 5H1/13: war, 1939–1946.

Scapini papers, correspondence 1928–1976, 27 ms. boxes.

Abélès, Marc. Quiet Days in Burgundy: A Study of Local Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Alexander, Martin S. The Republic in Danger: General Maurice Gamelin and the Politics of French Defence, 1933–1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
d'Almeida, Fabrice, La vie mondaine sous le nazisme. Paris: Perrin, 2008.
Aly, Götz. Hitler's Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War, and the Nazi Welfare State. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007.
Amicale des Anciens de la Résistance du Secteur IV. Août 1944: Libération de la Soule. Oloron: R. Denis, 1994.
Arnould, Claire. “L'acceuil des refugiès en Béarn et en Soule de 1936 à 1940,” in Les Espagnoles et la guerre civile, Papy, Michel (ed.), Biarritz: Atlantica, 1999.
Arricar, Canon Michel. “Reddition des 165 Allemands cantonnés à (Sustary), le 22 aoüt 1944,”Autour du Clocher, special edition, March 1962, page C.
L'Association Mémoire Collective en Béarn. Le Béarn à l'heure de la guerre d'Espagne: Récits et Témoignages. Bizanos: Bihet, 1995.
Atkin, Nicholas. The French at War, 1934–1944. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education, 2001.
Azéma, Jean-Pierre and Bédarida, François (eds.), Vichy et les Français. Paris: Fayard, 1992.
Bähr, Gerhardt. “Bibliografia” in Revue Internationale des Études Basques, Volume XXV, No. 4, October–December 1934.
Bancaud, Alain. Une exception ordinaire: La magistrature en France 1930–1950. Paris: Gallimard, 2002.
Bancaud, Alain. “L’Épuration des épurateurs: la magistrature” in Une poignée de misérables: l’épuration de la société française après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Baruch, Marc Olivier (ed.), Paris: Fayard, 2003.
Baruch, Marc Olivier (ed.). Une poignée de misérables: l’épuration de la société française après la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Paris: Fayard, 2003.
Bécamps, Pierre. Libération de Bordeaux. Paris: Hachette, 1974.
Beevor, Antony. The Spanish Civil War. London: Cassell & Co., 2000.
Bergère, Marc. Une société en épuration: épuration vécue et perçue en Maine-et-Loire. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2004.
Bergerson, Andrew Stuart. Ordinary Germans in Extraordinary Times: The Nazi Revolution in Hildesheim. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.
Berlière, Jean-Marc and de Tromelin, François le Goarant. Liaisons dangereuses: miliciens, truands, résistants, Paris, 1944. Paris: Perrin, 2013.
Bonnain, Rolande. “Une économie de la sociabilité: entraide, échange et relations de voisinage dans un village pyrénéen” in Les Baronnies des Pyrénées: Maisons, mode de vie, société, Augustine, Georges and Bonnain, Rolande (eds.). Paris: École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 1981.
Bouda, Karl. Die Beziehungen des Sumerischen zum Baskischen: Westkakasischen und Tibetischen. Leipzig: Harrasowitz, 1938.
Bourdieu, Pierre. The Bachelors’ Ball: The Crisis of Peasant Society in Béarn, translated by Nice, Richard. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2008. French edition, Le bal des célibataires: crise de la société. Paris: Éditions Seuil, 2002.
Bourdrel, Philippe. L’épuration sauvage. Paris: Perron, 2002.
Bowen, Wayne H. Spaniards and Nazi Germany: Collaboration in the New Order. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2000.
Brossat, Alain. Libération, fête folle. Paris: Éditions Autrement, 1994.
Brown, Keith. The Past in Question: Modern Macedonia and the Uncertainties of Nation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.
Burrin, Philippe. La France à l'heure allemande, 1940–1944. Paris: Éditions de Seuil, 1995.
Burrin, Philippe. France under the Germans: Collaboration and Compromise. New York: The New Press, 1996.
Bytwerk, Randall. Bending Spines. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2004.
Campo, Ramón J. Canfranc et l'or des Nazis. Biarritz: Atlantica, 2010.
Capdevilla, Luc. Les Bretons au lendemain de l'Occupation: imaginaire et comportement d'une sortie de guerre 1944–1945. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 1999.
Cappelletto, Francesca (ed.), Memory and World War II: An Ethnographic Approach. Oxford: Berg, 2005.
Carr, Raymond. Spain, 1808–1975. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982.
Carrard, Philippe. “Narrative and Historiography: Writing the France of the Occupation,” Style, Vol. 34 (2), Summer 2000, 243259.
Carrard, Philippe. The French Who Fought for Hitler: Memories from the Outcasts. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Castiella, Manuel. Un siècle à Bayonne. Anglet: Atlantica, 2003.
Ceroni, General M. Le Corps Franc Pommiès. Toulouse: Éditions du Grand-Rond, 1980, Vol. 1.
Ceroni, General M. Le Corps Franc Pommiès. Muret: Imprimerie du Parc, 1984, Vol. 2.
Clement, Jean-Louis. “Un conseiller national de Vichy: l'abbé Louis Sorel (1880–1943),” in Annales du Midi. Toulouse: Privat, 1989.
Cobb, Richard. French and Germans, Germans and French. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1983.
Cointet, Michèle. Marie-Madeleine Fourcade: un chef de la Résistance. Saint-Armand- Montrond: Perrin, 2006.
Conklin, Alice L., Fishman, Sarah, and Zaretsky, Robert (eds.), France and its Empire Since 1870. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Davis, Natalie Zemon. The Return of Martin Guerre. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983.
Dazet-Brun, Philippe. Champetier de Ribes, 1882–1947: un catholique social en République. Biarritz: Atlantica-Séguier, 2008.
Des Chene, Mary. “Locating the Past” in Anthropological Locations: Boundaries and Grounds of a Field Science, Gupta, Akhil and Ferguson, James (eds.), Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997, 6685.
Detwiler, Donald S.Spain and the Axis during World War II,” The Review of Politics, Vol. 33 (1), January 1971.
Diamond, Hanna. Women and the Second World War in France, 1939–1948. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education, 1999.
Donovan, James M. Juries and the Transformation of Criminal Justice in France in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2010.
Dreyfus-Armand, Geneviève. L'exile des Républicains espagnols en France. Paris: Albin Michel, 1999.
Drolshagen, Ebba D. Der freundliche Feind: Wehrmachtssoldaten im besetzten Europa Munich: Droemer, 2009.
Dumérial, Edmond. Journal d'un honnête homme pendant l'Occupation (juin 1940–août 1944). Thonon-les-Bains: l'Albaron, 1990.
Elliott, Catherine. French Criminal Law. Portland: Willan Publishing, 2001.
Estèbe, Jean (ed.), Les Juifs à Toulouse et en Midi Toulousain au temps de Vichy. Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail, 1996.
Eychenne, Emilienne. Les fougères de la liberté, 1939–1945. Milan: Éditions Milan, 1987.
Fabre, Michel. Petite Histoire de Biarritz. Prince Negue: Monein, 2007.
Farmer, Sarah. Martyred Village: Commemorating the 1944 Massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999.
Fishman, Sarah. We Will Wait: Wives of French Prisoners of War, 1940–1945. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.
Fishman, Sarah. The Battle for Children: World War II, Youth Crime, and Juvenile Justice in Twentieth-Century France. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002.
Fitzpatrick, Sheila and Gellately, Robert (eds.), Accusatory Practices: Denunciation in Modern European History, 1789–1989. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Fogg, Shannon. The Politics of Everyday Life in Vichy France: Foreigners, Undesirables, and Strangers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Foot, M.R.D. SOE in France: An Account of the Work of the British Special Operations Executive in France, 1940–1944. Abingdon: Frank Cass Publishers, 2004.
Fourcade, Marie-Madeleine. L'Arche de Noé, réseau “Alliance,” 1940–1945. Paris: Plon, 2007.
Fritzsche, Peter. Life and Death in the Third Reich. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 2008.
Gacon, Stéphane. “L'amnistie de la collaboration,” in Baruch, Marc Olivier (ed.), Une poignée de misérables. Paris: Fayard, 2003.
Gallop, Rodney. A Book of the Basques. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1970.
Gerwath, Robert. Hitler's Hangman: The Life of Heydrich. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.
Giannerini, Pierre-Louis (ed.), Arrêt sur images: Oloron-Sainte-Marie 1908–1945. Oloron: Éditions Maison du Patrimoine, 1989.
Gildea, Robert. Marianne in Chains: In Search of the German Occupation, 1940–1945. London: Pan Macmillan, 2002.
Gildea, Robert. Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2015.
Ginzburg, Carlo. The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a 16th Century Miller London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980.
Goland-Blaufoux, Dora. Un present qui s'accroche à moi: Dieuze-Pau-Auschwitz et retour. Paris: Perrin, 2007.
Gómez-Ibáñez, Daniel Alexander. The Western Pyrenees: Differential Evolution of the French and Spanish Borderland. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.
Gordon, Bertram. Collaborationism in France During the Second World War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980.
Gordon, Bertram. “Ist Gott Französisch? Germans, tourism, and occupied France, 1940–1944,” Modern and Contemporary France. Volume 4 (3), 1996, 287298.
Graaf, Beatrice de, de Jong, Ben and Platje, Wies (eds.). Battleground of Western Europe: Intelligence Operations in Germany and the Netherlands in the 20th Century. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 2007.
Grignon, Claude. “Commensality and Social Morphology: An Essay of Typology” in Food, Drink, and Identity. Oxford: Berg, 2001.
Hanna, Martha. Your Death Would Be Mine. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006.
Herbert, Ulrich. Werner Best: un Nazi de l'ombre, Paris: Tallandier, 2010.
Hewitt, Leah D.Salubrious Scandals/Effective Provocations: Identity Politics Surrounding Lacombe Lucien,” South Central Review. Issue 13:3, 2000, 7187.
Hodgson, Jacqueline. “The Police, the Prosecutor and the Juge d'Instruction: Judicial Supervision in France, Theory and Practice,” in The British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 41, 2001, 342361.
Hodgson, Jacqueline. French Criminal Justice: A Comparative Account of the Investigation and Prosecution of Crime in France. Portland: Hart Publishing, 2005.
Hubert, Henri and Mauss, Marcel. Sacrifice: Its Nature and Function. London: Cohen & West, 1964.
Humboldt, Wilhelm von. Diario de viaje a España 1799–1800. Madrid: EdiciónesCátedra, 1998.
Humboldt, Wilhelm von. Selected Writings: The Basques and Announcement of a Publication, translated by Corcoran, Andreas, Basque Classics Series, No. 9, Reno: Center for Basque Studies, 2013.
Irujo, Xabier. “The Impact of the Bombing of Gernika in the North American Press,” in Sandra, Ott (ed.) War, Exile, Justice, and Everyday Life, 1936–1946. Reno: Center for Basque Studies, 2011.
Irujo, Xabier. Gernika, 1937: The Market Day Massacre. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2015.
Itçaina, Xabier. “Les identités basques face aux guerres,” in Koscielniak, Jean-Pierre and Souleau, Philippe (eds.), Vichy en Aquitaine. Paris: Éditions de l'Atelier, 2011.
Jackson, Julian. France: The Dark Years, 1940–1944. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Jacob, James E. Hills of Conflict: Basque Nationalism in France. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1994.
Jankowski, Paul. Communism and Collaboration: Simon Sabiani and Politics in Marseille, 1919–1944. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.
Jankowski, Paul. “In Defense of Fiction: Resistance, Collaboration, and Lacombe, Lucien,” The Journal of Modern History. Vol. 63, 1991, 457482.
Jankowski, Paul. Stavisky: A Confidence Man in the Republic of Virtue. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.
Jarausch, Konrad H. (ed.), Reluctant Accomplice: A Wehrmacht Soldier's Letters from the Eastern Front. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.
Jenkins, Timothy. The Life of Property: House, Family and Inheritance in Béarn, South-West France. New York: Berghahn Books, 2010.
Jiménez de Aberásturi, Juan Carlos. En passant la Bidassoa: le réseau Comète au pays basque (1941–1944). Biarritz: J&D Éditions, 1996.
Jiménez de Aberásturi, Juan Carlos & Izquierdo, Rafael Moreno, Al servicio del extranjero: historia del servicio vasco de información (1936–1943). Madrid: A. Machado Libros, 2009.
Jourdan, Louis, Helfgott, Julien, and Goillet, Pierre, Glières, Haute-Savoie, 31 janvier–26 mars 1944. Première bataille de la Résistance. Annecy: Association des rescapés des Glières, 1946.
Jullat, Christine (ed.). Mémoires de Pau: récits et témoignages, Bulletin no. 11. Pau: Association Mémoire Collective en Béarn, 1996.
Jussen, Bernhard (ed.). Signal: Christian Boltanski. Wallstein Verlag, 2004.
Kaplan, Alice. The Collaborator: The Trial and Execution of Robert Brasillach. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2000.
Karakasidou, Anastasia. Fields of Wheat, Hills of Blood: Passages to Nationhood in Greek Macedonia, 1870–1990. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Karakasidou, Anastasia. The Interpreter. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2005.
Kedward, H. R. Vichy France and the Resistance. Toronto: Barnes & Noble Books, 1985.
Kedward, H. R. In Search of the Maquis: Rural Resistance in Southern France, 1942–1944. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
Kedward, H. R.Introduction: ‘Ici commence la France libre,’” The Liberation of France, eds. Kedward, H. R. and Wood, Nancy. Oxford: Berg, 1995.
Kedward, H. R. France and the French: A Modern History. Woodstock: The Overlook Press, 2007.
Kitson, Simon. The Hunt for Nazi Spies: Fighting Espionage in Vichy France. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.
Komter, Aafke E. Social Solidarity and the Gift. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Koreman, Megan. The Expectation of Justice, France 1944–1946. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999.
Kramer, Steven P.The Political Role of the Commissaires Régionaux de la République,” The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1981, 10911101.
Laborie, Pierre. “1940–1944: Double-Think in France,” France at War: Vichy and the Historians. Oxford: Berg, 2000, 181190.
Lagrèze, Gaston B. de. La Société et les moeurs en Béarn. Pau: G. Cazaux, 1886.
Laharie, Claude. Le camp de Gurs, 1939–1945. Biarritz: Éditions J&D, 1999.
Lamant-Duhart, Hubert. Saint-Jean-de-Luz: histoire d'une cité corsair. Donibane Lohizune: Ekaldia, 1992.
Lannon, Frances. The Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2002.
Larronde, Jean-Claude. Eugène Goyheneche. Donostia: Eusko Ikaskuntza, 1989.
Larronde, Jean-Claude. Le movement Eskualherriste (1932–1937), naissance du movement nationaliste basque en Iparralde. Gasteiz: Fondation Sabino Arana, 2000.
Lauburu, , Jean Baratçabal raconte. La vie dans un village basque de Soule au début du 20ième siècle. Bayonne: Association Lauburu, 1998.
Lecouturier, Yves. 1944, l’épuration en Normandie. Rennes: Éditions Ouest-France, 2011.
Lendresse, Pierre Arette. Léon Bérard, 1876–1960. Biarritz: J&D Éditions, 1988.
Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel. Montaillou: Cathars and Catholics in a French Village, 1294–1324. London: Penguin, 1980.
Lévi-Strauss, Claude. The Elementary Structures of Kinship. Boston: Beacon, revised edition 1961.
Lottman, Herbert R. The Purge: The Purification of French Collaborators after World War II. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1986.
Lougarot, Gisèle. Dans l'ombre des passeurs. Donostia: Elkar, 2004.
Loustaunau-Lacau, Georges. Mémoirs d'un Français rebelle, 1914–1948. Paris: Robert Laffont, 1948.
Lyons, Martyn. “Love Letters and writing practices: on écritures intimes in the nineteenth century,” Journal of Family History (Vol. 24), 1999, 232239.
Makazaga, Jesus Mari. “A Small Country, a Small Language, Many Dialects and Accents,” Salaburu, Pello & Alberdi, Xabier (eds.), The Challenges of a Bilingual Society in the Basque Country. Reno: Center for Basque Studies, 2012.
Malinowski, Bronislaw. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1922.
Mallmann, Klaus-Michael and Cüppers, Martin, Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine, New York: Enigma Books, in conjunction with the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2010.
Malompré, Maxime and Nicolas, Carole, Orage de feu et de sang sur Portet, 3 juillet 1944. Pau: Éditions Marrimpouey, 2003.
Martin, Michel. Résistances en Haut-Béarn. Biarritz: Atlantica, 2000.
Mauss, Marcel. The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies. Norton: New York, 1967.
Mees, Ludger. “The Völkisch Appeal: Nazi Germany, the Basques, and the Bretons,” in War, Exile, Justice, and Everyday Life, 1936–1946, Ott, Sandra (ed.), Reno: Center for Basque Studies, 2011.
Messenger, David A. Hunting Nazis in Franco's Spain. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2014.
Meyer-Lübke, W.La organización des los estudios lingüísticos en la Universidad Vasca,” in III Congreso de Estudios Vascos. Donostia: Eusko Ikaskuntza, 1922.
Mouré, Kenneth. “Food Rationing and the Black Market in France, 1940–1944,” French History (24), no. 2 (2010), 262282.
Mouré, Kenneth. “Réalités Cruelles: State Controls of the Black Market for Food,” in Food and War in Twentieth Century Europe, Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina, Duffett, Rachel, and Drouard, Alain (eds.). Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2011.
Mouré, Kenneth and Schwartz, Paula, “On vit mal: Food Shortages and Popular Culture in Occupied France, 1940–1944,” in Food, Politics and Culture (10), no. 2 (Summer 2007), 261295.
Mueller, Michael. Canaris: The Life and Death of Hitler's Spymaster. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2007.
Némirovsky, Irène. Suite Française. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.
Novick, Peter. The Resistance Versus Vichy: The Purge of Collaborators in Liberated France. New York: Columbia University Press, 1968.
Ostrum, Meg. The Surgeon and the Shepherd: Two Resistance Heroes in Vichy France. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004.
Ott, Sandra. The Circle of Mountains: A Basque Shepherding Community. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1993 (first edition, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981).
Ott, Sandra. “Good Tongues, Bad Tongues: Denunciation, Rumour and Revenge in the Basque Country (1940–1945),” History and Anthropology, (March) Vol. 17, No. 1, Cassia, Paul Sant (ed.), London: Taylor & Francis, 2006, 5772.
Ott, Sandra. “Gift-Giving and the Management of Justice among Borderland Basques during the Occupation (1942–1944) and the Liberation,” The Proceedings of the Western Society for French History (October), 2007, 266–281.
Ott, Sandra. “The Informer, The Lover and The Gift Giver,” French History, Vol. 22 (No. 1), (March) 2008, 94114.
Ott, Sandra. War, Judgment, and Memory in the Basque Borderlands, 1914–1945. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2008.
Ott, Sandra. “Duplicity, Indulgence and Ambiguity, in Relations, Franco-German, 1940–1946,” History and Anthropology, (March) Vol. 28, No. 1, 2009, pp. 5797.
Ott, Sandra. “The Enemy as Insider,” in Ott, Sandra (ed.), War, Exile, Justice, and Everyday Life, 1936–1946, Reno: Center for Basque Studies, 2011.
Ott, Sandra. “Looking for Lacombe, Lucien in Southwestern France,” The Proceedings of the Western Society for French History, Vol. 39, 2013, 290299.
Ott, Sandra. “Undesirable Pen Pals, Unthinkable Houseguests: Representations of Franco-German Friendships in a Post-Liberation Trial Dossier and Suite Française,” French Politics, Culture & Society, Vol. 23 (No. 1), Spring 2014, 2646.
Ott, Sandra. “Cohabitation and Opportunistic Accommodation in Occupied France: A Test Case from the Western Pyrenees,” French History, Vol. 30 (No. 3), (September) 2016, 401–422.
Ottis, Sherri Greene. Silent Heroes: Downed Airmen and the French Underground. Lexington: The University of Kentucky Press, 2001.
Pablo, Santiago de. “The Basque Country Through the Nazi Looking Glass,” in Ott, Sandra (ed.), War, Exile, Justice, and Everyday Life, 1936–1946. Reno: Center for Basque Studies, 2011.
Payne, Stanley G. Basque Nationalism. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1975.
Payne, Stanley G. Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World War II. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008.
Paxton, Robert O. Vichy France: Old Guard New Order, 1940–1944. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, 2001 edition.
Penaud, Guy. Histoire secrète de la Résistance dans le Sud-Ouest. Bordeaux: Éditions Sud-Ouest, 2011.
Pérez-Agote, Alfonso. The Social Roots of Basque Nationalism. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2006.
Picaber, Jean-Paul & Norz, Ludwig. Les enfants maudits. Paris: Éditions France Loisirs, 2004.
Pike, David Wingeate. France Divided: The French and the Civil War in Spain. Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, 2014.
Pontet, Josette (ed.), Histoire de Bayonne. Toulouse: Éditions Privat, 1991.
Porch, Douglas. The French Secret Services: From the Dreyfus Affair to the Gulf War. New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 1995.
Poullenot, Louis. Basses-Pyrénées: occupation, libération, 1940–1945. Biarritz: J&D Éditions, 1995.
Pourcher, Yves. Les jours de guerre: la vie des Français au jour au jour 1914–1918. Paris: Plon, 1994.
Reagin, Nancy R. Sweeping the German Nation: Domesticity and National Identity in Germany, 1870–1945. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Ricou, Josiane. La vie à Pau pendant la deuxième guerre mondiale (TER maitrise), 1988, available in the AD, P-A, Bib 4, art. 8.08.
Roquefort, Joël. Avant oubli, soldats et civils de la côte basque durant la Grande Guerre. Biarritz: Alantica, 1997.
Rousso, Henry. The Vichy Syndrome: History and Memory in France since 1944. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.
Rubio, Javier. La emigración de la guerra civil de 1936–1939. Madrid: Librería Editorial San Martin, 1977.
Salaburu, Pello & Alberdi, Xabier, “The Search for a Common Code,” The Challenge of a Bilingual Society in the Basque Country. Reno: Center for Basque Studies, 2012.
Sallaberry, Francis. Quand Hitler bétonnait la côte basque. Bayonne: Harriet, 1988.
Salter, James. Burning the Days: Recollections. New York: Random House, 1997.
Schuchardt, Hugo. “Saludo del Prof. H. Schuchardt al Congreso,” Gruss zum Fest von Gernika/Gernikako yaialdiari agurra, in III Congreso de Estudios Vascos. Donostia: Eusko Ikaskuntza, 1922.
Sica, Emanuele. Mussolini's Army in the French Rivera: Italy's Occupation of France. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2016.
Simonin, Anne. Le Déshonneur dans la République: une histoire de l'indignité 1791–1958. Paris: Bernard Grasset, 2008.
Soo, Scott. The Routes to Exile: France and the Spanish Civil War Refugees, 1939–2009. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013.
Stargardt, Nicholas. The German War: A Nation Under Arms, 1939–1945. New York: Basic Books, 2015.
Sturrock, John. The French Pyrenees. London: Faber & Faber, 1988.
Sweets, John. Choices in Vichy France: The French under Nazi Occupation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Terres, Robert. Double jeu pour la France 1939–1944. Paris: Bernard Grasset, 1977.
Terrisse, René. Bordeaux, 1940–1944. Paris: Perrin, 1993.
Terrisse, René. À la botte de l'occupant: Itinéraires de cinc collaborateurs. Paris: Auberon, 1998.
Terrisse, René. Grandclément, traître ou bouc émissaire? Bordeaux: Aubéron, 1999.
Thalmann, Rita. La mise au pas: idéologie et stratégie dans la France occupée. Paris: Fayard, 1991.
Théofilakis, Fabien. Les prisonniers de guerre allemands: France, 1944–1949. Paris: Fayard, 2014.
Thomas, Hugh. The Spanish Civil War. New York: Modern Library, 2001.
Todorov, Tzvetan. A French Tragedy: Scenes of Civil War, Summer 1944. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1996.
Torrès, Tereska. Une Française libre: journal, 1939–1945. Lonrai: Éditions Phèbus, 2000.
Torrie, Julia S.For Their Own Good”: Civilian Evacuations in Germany and France, 1939–1945. New York: Berghahn Books, 2010.
Torrie, Julia S.‘Our Rear Area Probably Lived Too Well’: Tourism and the German Occupation of France, 1940–1944,” Journal of Tourism History. Vol. 3, no. 3, November 2011, 309330.
Torrie, Julia S.Soldatenkaufhaus: Everyday acquisitiveness and the German occupation of France, 1940–44,” unpublished conference paper, Society for French Historical Studies, Montréal, April 2014.
Touyarot, Jean. l'Hôtel des ombres. Paris: Seuil, 2011.
Trenc-Ballester, Elisée. “Rapports d'Alexandre de Riquer avec l'art français, belge, allemande, autrichien et italien,” Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez, Vol. 19, issue 19, 317346.
Tuco-Chala, Pierre. Petite histoire du Béarn (du Moyen Âge au XXe siècle). Pau: Princi Néguer, 2000.
Urtel, Hermann. “El pasado y el porvenir de los estudios vascos en Alemania,” in III Congreso de Estudios Vascos. Donostia: Eusko Ikaskuntza, 1922.
Védrine, Jean (ed.). Dossier PG: rapatriés, 1940–1945. Asnières, Vol. 1, 2nd edition, 1981.
Veillon, Dominique Vivre et survivre en France, 1939–1947. Paris: Payot, 1995.
Vercors, (Bruller, Jean). Le silence de la mer. Paris: Albin Michel, 1951.
Vinen, Richard. The Unfree French: Life Under the Occupation. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
Virgili, Fabrice. Naître ennemi: Les enfants de couples franco-allemands nés pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Paris: Payot, 2014.
Vlossak, Elizabeth. Marianne or Germania? Nationalizing Women in Alsace, 1870–1946. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Vonau, Jean-Laurent. L’Épuration en Alsace: la face méconnue de la Libération, 1944–1953. Strasbourg: La Nuée Bleue, 2005.
Wallenstein, Marcel, Red Canvas. New York: Avon Publishing Company, 1952 (first edition 1946).
Wallenstein, Marcel. Tuck's Girl. New York: Eton Books, 1953.
Weber, Eugen. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870–1914. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1976.
Weber, Eugen. The Hollow Years: France in the 1930s. London: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1995.
Welch, David. Propaganda and the German Cinema, 1933–1945. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.
West, Nigel. MI6 British Secret Service Operations 1909–1945. London: Random House, 1983.
Whealey, Robert H. Hitler and Spain: The Nazi Role in the Spanish Civil War 1936–1939. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 1989.
Wieviorka, Olivier. The French Resistance. Trans. Todd, Jane Marie. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2016.
Wylie, Lawrence. Village in the Vaucluse: An Account of Life in a French Village. New York: Harper & Row, 1957.
Wynne, J. Barry. No Drums, No Trumpets: The Story of Mary Lindell, Wartime Secret Agent. Milton Keynes, UK: Robin Clark, 1961.
Zabaleta Gorrotxategi, Iñaki. “Introduction: Wilhelm von Humboldt and the Basques,” in von Humboldt, , Selected Writings: The Basques and Announcement of a Publication, translated by Corcoran, Andreas, Basque Classics Series, No. 9, Reno: Center for Basque Studies, 2013.
Ziesemer, Wilhelm. Das Land der Basken, Skizzen aus der Heimat der ältesten Europäer. Berlin: Reimar Hobbing, 1934.
Zonabend, Françoise. The Enduring Memory: Time and History in a French Village. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1978.
  • L'Action: November 2, 1945.

  • La IVième République, Pau: no. 2, August 24, 1944; no. 3, August 25, 1944; no. 6, August 29, 1944; no. 8, August 31, 1944; no. 9, September 1, 1944; no. 11, September 2–3, 1944; no. 19, September 14, 1944; no. 28, September 23, 1944; no. 31, September 27, 1944; no. 49, December 18, 1944; no. 51, October 20, 1944; no. 57, October 27, 1944; no. 99, December, 14, 1944; no. 100, December 15, 1944; no. 407, December 20, 1945; no. 460, February 22, 1946; no. 451, February 23, 1946; no. 530, May 17, 1946; no. 531, May 18, 1946; no. 532, May 19–20, 1946; no. 533, May 21, 1946; no. 679, November 12, 1946; no. 755, February 12, 1947; no. 757, February 14, 1947; no. 810, April 17, 1947; no. 826, May 7, 1947; no. 891, July 24, 1947; no. 893, July 26, 1947; no. 901, August 5, 1947.

  • Eskualduna: no. 1936, June 11, 1937.

  • France-Pyrénées: no. 257, August 2, 1941; no. 279, August 24, 1941; no. 291, September 5, 1941; no. 354, November 13, 1941; no. 861, July 15, 1943.

  • L'Indépendent des Basses-Pyrénées: February 7, 1939.

  • Le Patriote des Pyrénées: February 9, 1939.

  • 44: issue 1, Pau, August 21, 1944.

  • La République, organe du CDL nationale: Pau, August 22, 1944.

  • La République des Pyrénées: May 7, 2012.

  • La République du Sud-Ouest: Biarritz, no. 188, October 19, 1944; no. 645, April 16, 1947; no. 725, July 23, 1947.

  • La Résistance Républicain: no. 8342, August 24, 1944; no. 8343, August 25, 1944; no. 272, July 13, 1945; no. 882, July 24, 1947; no. 883, July 27, 1947.

  • Le Sud-Ouest La Presse: no. 7695, July 10, 1940; no. 7750, September 15, 1942; no. 8257, May 12, 1944.

  • The New York Times: November 13, 1915.

  • Palais des Pyrénées: Pau, December 5, 1943.

  • Signal: issue no. 1, (spring) 1944.

  • Le Chagrin et la Pitié by Marcel Ophüls, 1970.

  • Lacombe, Lucien by Louis Malle, 1974.

Among other local and regional studies of the occupation, Vichy, the purge and liberation period, see Marc Bergère, Une société en épuration: Épuration vécue et perçue en Maine-et-Loire (Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2004); Shannon Fogg, The Politics of Everyday Life in Vichy France: Foreigners, Undesirables, and Strangers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009); Robert Gildea, Marianne in Chains: In Search of the German Occupation, 1940–1945 (London: Macmillan, 2002). In the 1990s, local and regional studies include Luc Capdevila, Les Bretons au lendemain de l'Occupation: imaginaire et comportement d'une sortie de guerre 1944–1945 (Rennes: Presses Universitaire de Rennes, 1999); Étienne Dejonghe & Yves Maner, Le-Nord-Pas-de-Calais dans la main allemande, 1940–1944 (Lille: La Voix du Nord, 1999); Megan Koreman, The Expectation of Justice: France 1944–1946 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1999); Tzvetan Todorov, A French Tragedy: Scenes of Civil War, Summer 1944 (Hanover: University Press of New England, 1996); and Robert Zaretsky, Nîmes at War: Religion, Politics, and Public Opinion in the Gard, 1938–1944 (University Park: Penn State Press, 1995).

Among those scholars who use French trial dossiers extensively, but with more focus on quantitative rather than qualitative evidence, see, for example, the excellent work by Marc Bergère, Une société en épuration: épuration vécue et perçue en Maine-et-Loire (Rennes: Presses Universitaire de Rennes, 2004) and Luc Capdevilla, Les Bretons au lendemain de l'Occupation: imaginaire et comportement d'une sortie de guerre 1944–1945 (Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 1999). See also Jean-Laurent Vonau, l’Épuration en Alsace: la face méconnue de la Libération, 1944–1953 (Strasbourg: La Nuée Bleue, 2005). Yves Lecouturier, 1944, l’épuration en Normandie (Rennes: Éditions Ouest-France, 2011) deals with both prominent public figures and ordinary citizens who faced the courts. He cites both national and departmental archives as primary sources but does not, lamentably, use footnotes. See also Marc Olivier Baruch's edited collection about the purge of the professions, Une poignée de misérables: L’épuration de la société française après la Seconde Guerre mondiale (Paris: Fayard, 2003).

Classic microhistorical studies include the excellent works by Natalie Zemon Davis, The Return of Martin Guerre (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983), Carlo Ginzburg, The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a 16th Century Miller (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980) and Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Montaillou: Cathars and Catholics in a French Village, 1294–1324 (London: Penguin, 1980).

On the contribution of French volunteers to the German war effort, see Pierre Giolitto, Volontaires français sous l'uniforme allemande (Paris: Perrin, 2002) and Bertram M. Gordon, Collaborationism in France during the Second World War (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980). In fiction, Jonathan Littell's novel, The Unkindly Ones (New York: Harper, 2009), contains the detailed, horrific confessions of a German SS officer who volunteered to serve on the Eastern Front.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed