Skip to main content
×
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: May 2016

11 - Topoclimatic Effects on Microclimate

from Part II - Local (Topo-)Climates
Summary

This chapter examines the various effects of topoclimate on microclimates. These include exposition (or aspect), slope angle, and shading, which are all related to incoming solar radiation and thus affect surface and soil temperatures. Exposition and slope angle also modify the wind direction and speed and the precipitation amount. Specific localities such as lakeshores and coasts and spatial subdivisions of urban areas are discussed, as well as mosaic landscapes.

Exposition, Slope Angle, and Shade Effects

Slope exposition (or aspect) has significant effects on solar radiation receipts and, therefore, on surface temperature. One of the earliest investigations of the effects of exposition was carried out in Munich, Germany, by Wollny (1878), who showed that south-facing slopes in the Northern Hemisphere received more radiation and had slightly higher soil temperatures at 15 cm than horizontal surfaces and north-facing slopes. At 560 m elevation in the Inn valley and at 780 m elevation in the Gschnitztal in Austria, soil temperatures were measured by Kerner (1891) at a depth of 70 cm over a three-year period with eight different exposures around a small hillock. The slope angles were not reported. Table 11.1 summarizes a few of his results.

The range of soil temperature with exposition at Inntal (Gschnitztal) in February is 2.9 °C (2.8) and in August it is 4.4 °C (2.3). For the yearly average with exposition the range is 3.2 °C (2.7). The annual range on N slopes is 12.5 °C (13.0) and on SE slopes 15.3 °C (7.1). The snow cover melt date averaged February 21 on the south-facing slope and March 12 on the north-facing slope at Inntal and, correspondingly, on March 25 and April 17 at Gschnitztal.

Cantlon (1953) analyzed microclimates during May 1948–January 1950 on 20° N and S slopes of Cushetunk Mountain, New Jersey, at an elevation of 200 m. He recorded temperatures weekly, or daily during the summer, at 4 cm in the duff layer of the soil, at 5 cm in the bryophyte layer, at 20 cm in the herbaceous layer, 1 m in the shrub layer, and 2 m within the trees to represent the air temperature. The stations were substantially screened by trees, and during summer 1949 two additional slope stations received no direct insolation. Table 11.2 summarizes the differences between south- and north-facing slopes and shade effects for selected months in 1949.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Microclimate and Local Climate
  • Online ISBN: 9781316535981
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316535981
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
Auer, A. H., 1978. Correlation of land use and cover with meteorological anomalies. J. Appl. Met. 17, 636–43.
Barry, R. G. 1978. Diurnal effects on topoclimate on an equatorial mountain. Arbeiten aus der Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (Vienna) Publ. 32(72), 1–8.
Bornstein, R. D. 1968. Observations of the urban heat island effect in New York city. J. Appl. Met. 7, 575–82.
Buffo, J., Fritschen, L. J., and Murphy, J. L. 1972. Direct solar radiation on various slopes from 0 to 60 degrees north latitude. Res. Paper PNW-142. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Cantlon, J.E 1953. Vegetation and microclimates on north and south slopes of Cushetunk Mountain, New Jersey. Ecol. Monogr., 23, 241–70.
Duguay, C. R. 1993. Radiation modeling in mountainous terrain: Review and status. Mountain Res. Devel. 13, 339–57.
Ellefsen, R. 1990/91. Mapping and measuring buildings in the urban canopy boundary layer in ten US cities. Energ. Buildings 15–16, 1025–49.
Forman, R. T. T. 1995. Land mosaics: The ecology of landscapes and regions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gates, D. M., and Janke, R. 1966. The energy environment of the alpine tundra. Oecol. Plantarum 1, 39–62.
Gol'tsberg, I, A. (ed.) 1969. Microclimate of the USSR. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations. (Gidromet Izdatel, Leningrad 1967).
Grimmond, C. S. B. et al. 2010 The International Urban Energy Balance Models Comparison Project: First results from phase 1. J. Appl. Met. Climatol. 49, 1268–92.
Grimmond, C. S. B. et al. 2011 Initial results from phase 2 of the International Urban Energy Balance Model comparison. Int. J. Climatol. 31, 244–72.
Grosse, G., Schirrmeister, L., and Malthus, T. J. 2006. Application of Landsat-7 satellite data and a DEM for the quantification of thermokarst-affected terrain types in the periglacial Lena–Anabar coastal lowland. Polar Res. 25, 51–67.
Hammond, E. H. 1964. Analysis of properties in landform geography: An application to broadscale landform mapping. Annals Assoc. Amer. Geogr. 54, 11–19
Holmes, R. M., and Wright, J. L. 1978. Measuring the effects of surface features on the atmospheric boundary layer with instrumented aircraft. J. Appl. Met. 17(8), 1163–70.
Holtmeier, F-K. 2009. Mountain timberlines: Ecology, patchiness, and dynamics, 2nd ed. New York: Springer
Kerner, A. 1891. Die Änderumg der Bodentemperatur mit der Exposition. Sitzungsbericht d. Akademie d. Wissensschaft, Wien 100, 704–29.
Körner, C. 2012. Alpine treelines: Functional ecology of the global high elevation tree limits.Basel: Springer.
Landsberg, H. 1951. Physical climatology.University Park:Pennsylvania State University.
Lenschow, D. H., and Dutton, J. A. 1964. Surface temperature variations measured from an airplane over several surface types. J. Appl. Met. 3, 65–9.
MacMillan, R. A. et al. 2000. A generic procedure for automatically segmenting landforms into landform elements using DEMs, heuristic rules and fuzzy logic. Fuzzy Sets Systems 113, 81–109.
MacMillan, R. A. et al. 2003. Automated analysis and classification of landforms using high-resolution digital elevation data: applications and issues. Can. J. Rem. Sensing 29, 592–606.
Masson, V. 2000. A physically-based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models. Bound.-Layer Met. 94, 357–97.
Morgan, D. et al. 1977. Microclimates within an urban area. Annals, Assoc. Amer. Geogr. 67, 55–65.
Morgan, J. N., and Lesh, A. M. 2005. Developing landform maps using ESRI'S ModelBuilder. http://proceedings.esri.com/library/userconf/proc05/papers/pap2206.pdf.
Myrup, L. O. 1969. A numerical model of the urban heat island. J. Appl. Met. 8, 908–18.
Pacific Energy Center. 2006. Guide to California's climate zones and bioclimatic design. San Francisco, CA.
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A. 2007. Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrol. Earth System Sci. 11, 1638–43.
Philip, J. R. 1996a. One-dimensional checkerboards and blending heights. Bound.-layer Met. 77, 135–51.
Philip, J. R. 1996b. Two-dimensional checkerboards and blending heights. Bound.-layer Met. 80, 1–18.
Philip, J. R. 1997. Blending heights for winds oblique to checkerboards. Bound.-Layer Met. 82, 263–81.
Salisbury, F. B., and Spomer, G. G. 1964. Leaf temperatures of alpine plants in the field. Planta 60, 497–505.
Simpson, J. E. 2007. Sea breeze and local winds.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 252 pp.
Smith, J. M. B. 1977. Vegetation and microclimate of east- and west-facing slopes in the grasslands of Mt Wilhelm, Papua New Guinea. J. Ecol. 65, 39–53.
Steele, C. J. et al. 2015. Modelling sea-breeze climatologies and interactions on coasts in the southern North Sea: implications for offshore wind energy. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 141, 1821–35.
Stewart, I. D., and Oke, T. R. 2012. Local climate zones for urban temperature studies. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 93, 1879–1900.
Swift, L. W. 1976. Algorithm for solar radiation on mountain slopes. Water Resour, Res., 12, 108–12.
Suggitt, A. J. et al. 2011. Habitat microclimates drive fine-scale variation in extreme temperatures.Oikos 120, 1–8.
Thiery, W. et al. 2015. The impact of the African Great Lakes on the regional climate. J. Climate 38, 4061–85.
Thompson, R. D. 1973. The influence of relief on local temperatures: Data from New South Wales, Australia. Weather 28, 377–82.
Wollny, E. 1878. Untersuchungen über den Einfluss der Exposition auf die Erwarmung des Bodens. Forsch. Agr. Phys. 1, 43–69.
Yoshino, M. M. 1975. Climate in a small area. An introduction to local meteorology.Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.