Skip to main content
Models of Obesity
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Models of Obesity
    • Online ISBN: 9781316338650
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Taking a comparative approach, this book investigates the ways in which obesity and its susceptibilities are framed in science and policy and how they might work better. Providing a clear, authoritative voice on the debate, the author builds on early work to engage further in ecological and complexity thinking in obesity. Many of the models that have emerged since obesity became a population-level issue are examined, including the energy balance model, and models used to examine human body fatness from a range of perspectives including evolutionary, anthropological, environmental, and political viewpoints. The book is ideal for those working on, or interested in, obesity science, health policy, health economics, evolutionary medicine, medical sociology, nutrition and public health who want to understand the shifts that have taken place in obesity science, policy, and intervention in the past forty years.

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
6, P. (2004). Joined-up government in the Western world in comparative perspective: a preliminary literature review and exploration. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 14: 103–38.
Adam T.C. & Epel E.S. (2007). Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiology and Behavior 91: 449–58.
Adams J., Clark M., Ezrow L. & Glasgow G. (2004). Understanding change and stability in party ideologies: do parties respond to public opinion or to past election results? British Journal of Political Science 34: 589610.
Adams J., Halligan J., Watson D.B. et al. (2012). The Change4Life convenience store programme to increase retail access to fresh fruit and vegetables: a mixed methods process Q6 evaluation. PLoS One 7: e39431.
Aderem A. (2005). Systems biology: its practice and challenges. Cell 121: 511–3.
Aekplakorn W., Chaiyapong Y., Neal B. et al. (2004). Prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity in Thai adults: results of the Second National Health Examination Survey. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 87: 685–93.
Aiello L.C. & Wells J.C.K. (2002). Energetics and the evolution of the genus Homo. Annual Review of Anthropology 31: 323–38.
Albritton R. (2009). Let Them Eat Junk: How Capitalism Creates Hunger and Obesity. London: Pluto Press.
Albuquerque D., Stice E., Manco L. & Nobrega C. (2015). Current review of genetics of human obesity: from molecular mechanisms to an evolutionary perspective. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 290: 1191–221.
Al-Kandari Y.Y. (2006). Prevalence of obesity in Kuwait and its relation to sociocultural variables. Obesity Reviews 7: 147–54.
Allender S., Gleeson E., Crammond B. et al. (2012). Policy change to create supportive environments for physical activity and healthy eating: which options are the most realistic for local government? Health Promotion International 27: 261–74.
Allison D.B., Kaprio J., Korkeila M. et al. (1996). The heritability of body mass index among an international sample of monozygotic twins reared apart. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 20: 501–6.
Allison D.B., Zannolli R. & Narayan K.M. (1999). The direct health care costs of obesity in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 89: 1194–9.
Allison H.E. & Hobbs R.J. (2006). Science and Policy in Natural Resource Management: Understanding System Complexity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Al-Saeed W.Y., Al-Dawood K.M., Bukhari I.A. & Bahnassy A. (2007). Prevalence and socioeconomic risk factors of obesity among urban female students in Al-Khobar city, Eastern Saudi Arabia, 2003. Obesity Reviews 8: 93–9.
American Dietetic Association (2006). Position of the American Dietetic Association: individual-, family-, school-, and community-based interventions for pediatric overweight. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 106: 925–45.
American Medical Association (2013). House of Delegates Resolution: 420 (A-13). Recognition of obesity as a disease. (accessed 5 November 2016).
Anand P. & Gray A. (2009). Obesity as market failure: could a ‘deliberative economy’ overcome the problems of paternalism? Kyklos: International Review for Social Sciences 62: 182–90.
Anderson P.M. & Butcher K.F. (2006). Childhood obesity: trends and potential causes. Future of Children 16: 1945.
Andreyeva T., Puhl R.M. & Brownell K.D. (2008). Changes in perceived weight discrimination among Americans, 1995–1996 through 2004–2006. Obesity 16: 1129–34.
Aphramor L. (2005). Is a weight-centred health framework salutogenic? Some thoughts on unhinging certain dietary ideologies. Social Theory and Health 3: 315–40.
Arnaud P. & Riordan J. (1998). Sport and International Politics: Impact of Facism and Communism on Sport. London: Routledge.
Assmann S.F., Enios L.E. & Kasten L.E. (2000). Subgroup analysis and other (mis)uses of baseline data in clinical trials. Lancet 355: 1064–9.
Association for the Study of Obesity (2011). Obesity Policy in England. Deal, Kent: Association for the Study of Obesity.
Association of Life Insurance Medical Directors and Actuarial Society of America (1912). Medico-Actuarial Mortality Investigation. New York: Nabu Press.
Atkinson A.B. (2015). Inequality. What can be Done? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Avena N.M., Rada P. & Hoebel B.G. (2009). Sugar and fat bingeing have notable differences in addictive-like behavior. Journal of Nutrition 139: 623–8.
Ayo N. (2012). Understanding health promotion in a neoliberal climate and the making of health conscious citizens. Critical Public Health 22: 99105.
Bader P., Boisclair D. & Ferrence R. (2011). Effects of tobacco taxation and pricing on smoking behavior in high risk populations: a knowledge synthesis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8: 4118–39.
Bambra C.L., Hillier F.C., Cairns J.-M. et al. (2015). How Effective are Interventions at Reducing Socioeconomic Inequalities in Obesity Among children And Adults? Two Systematic Reviews. London: National Institute for Health Research.
Banks G. (2009). Evidence-based Policy Making: What Is It? How Do We Get It? Canberra: ANU Public Lecture Series, Productivity Commission.
Barker D. (ed.) (2004). Mothers, Babies and Disease in Later Life. London: BMJ Publishing Group.
Barkin D. (1987). The end to food self-sufficiency in Mexico. Latin American Perspectives 14: 271–97.
Barquera S., Hernandez-Barrera L., Tolentino-Mayo M.L. et al. (2008). Dynamics of adolescent and adult beverage intake patterns in Mexico. FASEB Journal 22: 461.4.
Barquera S., Campirano F., Bonvecchio A. et al. (2010). Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children. Nutrition Journal 9: 47.
Barres R., Kirchner H., Rasmussen M. et al. (2013). Weight loss after gastric bypass surgery in human obesity remodels promoter methylation. Cell Reports 3: 1020–7.
Barry C.L., Brescoll V.L., Brownell K.D. & Schlesinger M. (2009). Obesity metaphors: how beliefs about the causes of obesity affect support for public policy. Millbank Quarterly 87: 747.
Barsh G.S. & Schwartz M.W. (2002). Genetic approaches to studying energy balance: perception and integration. Nature Reviews Genetics 3: 589600.
Basri H.B. & Stentiford E.I. (1995). Expert systems in solid waste management. Waste Management and Research 13: 6789.
Basu S., Vellakkal S., Agrawal S. et al. (2014). Averting obesity and type 2 diabetes in India through sugar-sweetened beverage taxation: an economic-epidemiologic modeling study. PLoS Medicine 11: e1001582.
Baudrillard (1970). The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures. New York, NY: Sage Publications.
Bauman Z. (2001). Consuming life. Journal of Consumer Culture 1: 929.
Bauman Z. (2003). Liquid Love: On the Frailty of Human Bonds. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Beaujard P. & Fee S. (2005). The Indian Ocean in Eurasian and African world-systems before the sixteenth century. Journal of World History 16: 411–65.
Becker G.S. & Murphy K.M. (1988). A theory of rational addiction. Journal of Political Economy 96: 675700.
Beeken R.J. & Wardle J. (2013). Public beliefs about the causes of obesity and attitudes towards policy initiatives in Great Britain. Public Health Nutrition 16: 2132–7.
Bellisle F., Dalix A.M. & Slama G. (2004). Non food-related environmental stimuli induce increased meal intake in healthy women: comparison of television viewing versus listening to a recorded story in laboratory settings. Appetite 43: 175–80.
Bellwood P. (2005). First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Belshaw C.S. (1976). The Sorcerer’s Apprentice: An Anthropology of Public Policy. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.
Bennett T., Savage M., Silva E.B. et al. (2009). Culture, Class, Distinction. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge.
Bergem T. (1990). The teacher as moral agent. Journal of Moral Education 19: 88100.
Bernard P., Charafeddine R., Frohlich K.L. et al. (2007). Health inequalities and place: a theoretical conception of neighbourhood. Social Science and Medicine 65: 1839–52.
Berrington de Gonzalez A., Hartge P., Cerhan J.R., et al. (2010). Body-mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults. New England Journal of Medicine 363: 2211–9.
Bertakis K.D., Azari R., Helms L.J., Callahan E.J. & Robbins J.A. (2000). Gender differences in the utilization of health care services. Journal of Family Practice 49: 147–52.
Bertalanffy L. (1969). General System Theory. New York, NY: George Braziller.
Berthoud H.R. (2004). Mind versus metabolism in the control of food intake and energy balance. Physiology and Behavior 81: 781–93.
Berthoud H.R. & Morrison C. (2008). The brain, appetite, and obesity. Annual Review of Psychology 59: 5592.
Bevegni C. & Adami G.F. (2003). Obesity and obesity surgery in ancient Greece. Obesity Surgery 13: 808–9.
Beyerlein A. & von Kris R. (2011). Breastfeeding and body composition in children: will there ever be conclusive empirical evidence for a protective effect against overweight? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 94 (Suppl.): 1772S–5S.
Bicchieri C. (2004). Rationality and game theory. In Mele A.R. & Rawling P., eds., The Oxford Handbook of Rationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 182205.
Billewicz W.Z., Kemsley W.F.F. & Thomson A.M. (1962). Indices of adiposity. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine 16: 183–8.
Bindon J.R. (1982). Breadfruit, banana, beef, and beer: modernization of the Samoan diet. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 12, 4960.
Bish C.L., Blanck H.M., Serdula M.K. et al. (2005). Diet and physical activity behaviors among Americans trying to lose weight: 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Obesity Research 13: 596607.
Block J.P., Scribner R.A. & DeSalvo K.B. (2004). Fast food, race/ethnicity, and income: a geographic analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 27: 211–7.
Block J.P., He Y., Zaslavsky A.M. et al. (2009). Psychosocial stress and change in weight among US adults. American Journal of Epidemiology 170: 181–92.
Bluford D.A.A., Sherry B. & Scanlon K.S. (2007). Interventions to prevent or treat obesity in preschool children: a review of evaluated programs. Obesity 15: 1356–72.
Blundell J.E. & MacDiarmid J.I. (1997). Fat as a risk factor for overconsumption: satiation, satiety, and patterns of eating. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 97 (Suppl.): S63–9.
Blundell J.E. & Stubbs R.J. (1999). High and low carbohydrate and fat intakes: limits imposed by appetite and palatability and their implications for energy balance. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (Suppl. 1): S148–65.
Bobroff E.M. & Kissileff H.R. (1986). Effects of changes in palatability on food intake and the cumulative food intake curve in man. Appetite 7: 8596.
Boe J., Humerfelt S. & Wedervang F. (1957). The blood pressure in a population: blood pressure readings and height and weight determinations in the adult population of the city of Bergen. Acta Medica Scandinavica 321: 1336.
Boero N.C. (2014). Obesity in the US media, 1990–2011. In Eli K. & Ulijaszek S., eds., Obesity, Eating Disorders and the Media. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 3748.
Bogdanor V. (2005). Joined-up Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bogin B. (1998). Patterns of human growth. In Ulijaszek S.J., Johnston F.E. & Preece M.A., eds., Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 91–5.
Bogin B. (1999). Patterns of Human Growth, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Boodai S.A. & Reilly J.J. (2013). Health related quality of life of obese adolescents in Kuwait. BMC Pediatrics 13: 105.
Booth S.L., Sallis J.F., Ritenbaugh C. et al. (2001). Environmental and societal factors affect food choice and physical activity: rationale, influences, and leverage points. Nutrition Reviews 59: S21–39.
Bosy-Westphal A., Geisler C., Onur S. et al. (2006). Value of body fat mass vs anthropometric obesity indices in the assessment of metabolic risk factors. International Journal of Obesity 30: 475–83.
Botterill L.C. & Hindmoor A. (2012). Turtles all the way down: bounded rationality in an evidence-based age. Policy Studies 33: 367–79.
Bouchard C. (2008). Gene–environment interactions in the etiology of obesity: defining the fundamentals. Obesity 16 (Suppl. 3): S5–10.
Bouchard L., Rabasa-Lhoret R., Faraj M. et al. (2010). Differential epigenomic and transcriptomic responses in subcutaneous adipose tissue between low and high responders to caloric restriction. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91: 309–21.
Bourdieu P. (1984). Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste (Nice R., translator). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bourdieu P. (1986). The forms of capital. In Richardson J., ed., Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York, NY: Greenwood Press, pp. 241–58.
Bourdieu P. & Boltanski L. (1976). La production de l’idéologie dominante. Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales 2–3: 373.
Bowen S. & Zwi A.B. (2005). Pathways to “evidence-informed” policy and practice: a framework for action. PLoS Medicine 2: e166.
Bratanova B., Loughnan S., Klein O., Claassen A. & Wood R. (2016). Poverty, inequality, and increased consumption of high calorie food: experimental evidence for a causal link. Appetite 100, 162–71.
Braveman P.A., Cubbin C., Egerter S. et al. (2005). Socioeconomic status in health research. One size does not fit all. Journal of the American Medical Association 294: 2879–88.
Bray G. (2004). Medical consequences of obesity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89: 2583–9.
Bray G. (2008). Some historical aspects of drug treatment for obesity. In Wilding J.P.H., ed., Pharmacotherapy of Obesity. Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag, pp. 1119.
Bray G.A., Nielsen S.J. & Popkin B.M. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79: 537–43.
Brennan S.L., Henry M.J., Nicholson G.C., Kotowicz M.A. & Pasco J.A. (2010). Socioeconomic status, obesity and lifestyle in men: The Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Journal of Men’s Health 7: 3141.
Brewis A.A. (2014). Stigma and the perpetuation of obesity. Social Science and Medicine 118, 152–8.
Brewis A.A., McGarvey S.T., Jones J. & Swinburn B.A. (1998). Perceptions of body size in Pacific Islanders. International Journal of Obesity 22: 185–9.
Brewis A.A., Wutich A., Falletta-Cowden A. & Rodriguez-Soto I. (2011). Body norms and fat stigma in global perspective. Current Anthropology 52: 269–76.
Briggs A.D.M., Mytton O.T., Kehlbacher A. et al. (2013). Overall and income specific effect on prevalence of overweight and obesity of 20% sugar sweetened drink tax in UK: econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. British Medical Journal 347: f6189.
Brown P.J. & Konner M. (1987). An anthropological perspective of obesity. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 499: 2946.
Brownell K. & Roberto C.A. (2015). Strategic science with policy impact. Lancet 385: 2445–6.
Brownell K.D., Puhl R., Schwartz M.B. & Rudd L. (2005). Weight Bias: Nature, Consequences, and Remedies. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Brownell K.D., Farley T., Willett W.C. et al. (2009a). The public health and economic benefits of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages. New England Journal of Medicine 361: 1599–605.
Brownell K.D., Schwartz M.B., Puhl R.M., Henderson K.E. & Harris J.L. (2009b). The need for bold action to prevent adolescent obesity. Journal of Adolescent Health 45 (Suppl.): S8–17.
Brownell K.D., Kersh R., Ludwig D.S. et al. (2010). Personal responsibility and obesity: a constructive approach to a controversial issue. Health Affairs 29: 379–87.
Browning L.M., Hsieh S.D. & Ashwell M. (2010). A systematic review of waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for the prediction of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: 0.5 could be a suitable global boundary value. Nutrition Research Reviews 23: 247–69.
Brownson R.C., Boehmer T.K. & Luke D.A. (2004). Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: what are the contributors? Annual Review of Public Health 26: 421–43.
Brunner E.J., Chandola T. & Marmot M.G. (2007). Prospective effect of job strain on general and central obesity in the Whitehall II Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 165: 828–37.
Burdge G. & Lillycrop K. (2010). Nutrition, epigenetics, and developmental plasticity: implications for understanding human disease. Annual Review of Nutrition 30: 315–39.
Butland B., Jebb S., Kopelman P. et al. (2007). Tackling Obesities: Future Choices – Project Report, 2nd edn. London: Foresight Programme of the Government Office for Science.
Calle E.E., Thun M.J., Petrelli J.M., Rodriguez C. & Heath C.W. Jr. (1999). Body-mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults. New England Journal of Medicine 341: 1097–105.
Cameron N. & Demerath E.W. (2002). Critical periods in human growth and their relationship to diseases of aging. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 45: 159–84.
Campbell P. & Ulijaszek S.J. (1994). Relationships between anthropometry and retrospective morbidity in poor men in Calcutta, India. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48: 507–12.
Campbell S., Benita S., Coates E., Davies P. & Penn G. (2007). Analysis for Policy: Evidence-based Policy in Practice. London: Government Social Research Unit, HM Treasury.
Campion J., Milagro F.I. & Martinez J.A. (2009). Individuality and epigenetics in obesity. Obesity Reviews 10: 383–92.
Campos P., Saguy A., Emsberger P. & Oliver E. (2006). The epidemiology of overweight and obesity: public health crisis or moral panic? International Journal of Epidemiology 35: 5560.
Canoy D., Boekholdt S.M., Wareham N. et al. (2007). Body fat distribution and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition in Norfolk cohort: a population-based prospective study. Circulation 116: 2933–43.
Carmichael C.M. & McGue M. (1995). A cross-sectional examination of height, weight, and body mass index in adult twins. Journal of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences 50A: B237–44.
Carr D. & Friedman M.A. (2005). Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 46: 244–59.
Carroll J.F., Chiapa A.L., Rodriquez M. et al. (2008). Visceral fat, waist circumference, and BMI: impact of race/ethnicity. Obesity 16: 600–7.
Carryer J. (2001). Embodied largeness: a significant women’s health issue. Nursing Inquiry 8: 90–7.
Casazza K., Fontaine K.R., Astrup A. et al. (2013). Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity. New England Journal of Medicine 368: 446–54.
Caterson M. (2000). Car culture and global environmental politics. Review of International Studies 26: 253–70.
Cawley J. (2010). The economics of childhood obesity. Health Affairs 29: 364–71.
Cawley J. & Meyerhoefer C. (2012). The medical care costs of obesity: an instrumental variables approach. Journal of Health Economics 31: 219230.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011a). National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011. (accessed 11 May 2017).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011b). Smoking and Tobacco Use: Trends in Current Cigarette Smoking Among High School Students and Adults, United States, 1965–2010. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). Obesity prevalence maps. (accessed 25 April 2016).
Cerny P. (1995). Globalization and the changing logic of collective action. International Organization 49: 595626.
Chaloupka F.J. & Warner K.E. (2000). The economics of smoking. In Culyer A.J. & Newhouse J.P., eds., Handbook of Health Economics, Volume 1, Part B. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, pp. 1539–627.
Chamberlin L.A., Sherman S.N., Jain A. et al. (2002). The challenge of preventing and treating obesity in low-income, preschool children: perceptions of WIC health care professionals. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 156: 662–8.
Champion S.L., Rumbold A.R., Steele E.J. et al. (2012). Parental work schedules and child overweight and obesity. International Journal of Obesity 36: 573–80.
Chan J.M., Rimm E.B., Colditz G.A., Stampfer M.J. & Willett W.C. (1994). Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 17: 961–9.
Charlesworth J. (2006). Tackling obesities: the future of obesity over the next 50 years. (accessed 13 June 2014).
Charnov E.L. (1993). Life History Invariants. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chen A.Y. & Escarce J.J. (2010). Family structure and childhood obesity, early childhood longitudinal study – kindergarten cohort. Preventing Chronic Disease 7: A50.
Chen J.-L., Tsai R., Tzeng H.-W. & Hong C.-M. (1993). A distributed expert system for distribution planning. In IEA/AIE ’93 Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Industrial and Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems. London: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, pp. 117–22.
Cho I., & Blaser M.J. (2012). The human microbiome: at the interface of health and disease. Nature Reviews Genetics 13: 260–70.
Christakis N.A. & Fowler J.H. (2007). The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. New England Journal of Medicine 357: 370–9.
Chung W.K. & Leibel R.L. (2005). Molecular physiology of syndromic obesities in humans. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 16: 267–72.
Clapp J. & Fuchs D. (eds.) (2009). Corporate Power in Global Agrifood Governance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Clarke S.F. & Foster J.R. (2012). A history of blood glucose meters and their role in self-monitoring of diabetes mellitus. British Journal of Biomedical Science 69: 8393.
Coburn D. (2000). Income inequality, social cohesion and the health status of populations: the role of neo-liberalism. Social Science and Medicine 51: 135–46.
Colchero M.A., Popkin B.M., Rivera J.A. & Ng S.W. (2016). Beverage purchases from stores in Mexico under the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages: observational study. British Medical Journal 352: h6704.
Colditz G.A. (1999). Economic costs of obesity and inactivity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31 (Suppl.): S663–7.
Colditz G.A., Willett W.C., Rotnitzky A. & Manson J.E. (1995). Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes mellitus in women. Annals of Internal Medicine 122: 481–6.
Cole T.J. (2003). The secular trend in human physical growth: a biological view. Economics and Human Biology 1: 161–8.
Cole T.J., Bellizzi M.C., Flegal K.M. & Dietz W.H. (2000). Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. British Medical Journal 320: 1240–5.
Colls R. (2007). Materialising bodily matter: intra-action and the embodiment of fat. Geoforum 38: 353–65.
Colls R. & Evans B. (2008). Embodying responsibility: children’s health and supermarket initiatives. Environment and Planning A 40: 615–31.
Colon-Gonzalez F., Kim G.W., Lin J.E., Valentino M.A. & Waldman S.A. (2013). Obesity pharmacotherapy: what is next? Molecular Aspects of Medicine 34: 7183.
Commonwealth of Australia (2013). Income inequality in Australia. Economic Roundup Issue 2, 2013. (accessed 11 January 2017).
Comuzzie A.G. (2002). The emerging pattern of the genetic contribution to human obesity. Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 16: 611–21.
Cordain L., Eaton S.B., Miller J.B. & Hill K. (2002). The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56: S42–52.
Cordero P., Campion J., Milagro F.I. et al. (2011). Leptin and TNF-α promoter methylation levels measured by MSP could predict the response to a low-calorie diet. Journal of Physiological Biochemistry 67: 463–70.
Cornier M.-A., von Kaenel S.S., Bessesen D.H. & Tregellas J.R. (2007). Effects of overfeeding on the neuronal response to visual food cues. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86: 965–71.
Cosgel M.M. (1992). Rhetoric in the economy: consumption and audience. Journal of Socio-Economics 21: 363–77.
Costanza R., Kubiszewski I., Giovannini E. et al. (2014). Development: time to leave GDP behind. Nature 505: 283–5.
Costa-Font J., Mas N. & Navarro P. (2013). Globesity: Is Globalization a Pathway to Obesity? LSE Health Working Paper No. 31. London: London School of Economics.
Coveney J.D. (2000). Food, Morals and Meaning. The Pleasure and Anxiety of Eating. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge.
Craig R. & Mindell J. (eds.) (2014). Health Survey for England 2013. London: The Health and Social Care Information Centre.
Credit Suisse (2014). Global Wealth Report. Zurich: Credit Suisse.
Cristea A.L. & Zaharia C.N. (1988). Methodology for the development of expert systems of viral epidemiology. Virologie 39: 713.
Critser G. (2003). Fat Land. How Americans Became the Fattest People in the World. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Cross G.S. (2000). An All-Consuming Century: Why Commercialism Won in Modern America. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Cross-Government Obesity Unit, Department of Health and Department of Children, Schools and Families (2008). Healthy Weight, Healthy Lives: A Cross-government Strategy for England. London: Her Majesty’s Government.
Crossley N. (2004). Fat is a sociological issue: obesity rates in late modern, ‘body-conscious’ societies. Social Theory and Health 2: 222–53.
Crow J.F. (1958). Index of total selection intensity. Some possibilities for measuring selection intensities in man. Human Biology 30: 13.
Culyer A.J. & Newhouse J.P. (2000). Handbook of Health Economics, Vols. 1A and B. New York, NY: Elsevier.
Cummins S. & Macintyre S. (2006). Food environments and obesity – neighbourhood or nation? International Journal of Epidemiology 35: 100–4.
Curry A., Hodgson T., Kelnar R. & Wilson A. (2006). Intelligent Infrastructure Futures. The Scenarios – Towards 2055. London: Office of Science and Technology, Her Majesty’s Government.
Cutler D.M., Glaeser E.L. & Shapiro J.M. (2003). Why have Americans become more obese? Journal of Economic Perspectives 17: 93118.
Daar A.S., Singer P.A., Persad D.L. et al. (2007). Grand challenges in chronic non-communicable diseases. Nature 450: 494–6.
D’Addio A.C. (2007). Intergenerational Transmission of Disadvantage. Mobility or Immobility Across Generations? OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Paper Number 52. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Dallman M.F. (2010). Stress-induced obesity and the emotional nervous system. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 21: 159–65.
Dallman M.F., Pecoraro N., Akana S.F. et al. (2003). Chronic stress and obesity: a new view of “comfort food.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100: 11696–701.
Dallman M.F., Pecoraro NC. & la Fleur S.E. (2005). Chronic stress and comfort foods: self-medication and abdominal obesity. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 19: 275–80.
Darmon N. & Drewnowski A. (2008). Does social class predict diet quality? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87: 1107–17.
Davies M.J. (2006). Evidence for effects of weight on reproduction in women. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 12: 532–41.
Davila-Cervantes C.A. & Pardo A.M. (2014). Diabetes mellitus: contribution to changes in the life expectancy in Mexico 1990, 2000, and 2010. Revista de Salud Publica 16: 910–23.
Davis C., Patte K., Curtis C. & Reid C. (2010). Immediate pleasures and future consequences. A neuropsychological study of binge eating and obesity. Appetite 54: 208–13.
Davy B. (1997). Essential Injustice. When Legal Institutions Cannot Resolve Environmental and Land Use Disputes. New York, NY: Springer.
Davy B. (2008). Plan it without a condom! Planning Theory 7: 301–17.
Davy B. (2013). Planning cultures in Europe. Decoding cultural phenomena in urban and regional planning. Planning Theory 12: 219–22.
de Castro J.M. (1994). Family and friends produce greater social facilitation of food intake than other companions. Physiology and Behavior 56: 445–55.
de Castro J.M. (1999). Heritability of hunger relationships with food intake in free-living humans. Physiology and Behavior 67: 249–58.
de Garine I. & Harrison G.A. (eds.) (1988). Coping with Uncertainty in Food Supply. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
de Garine I. & Koppert G.J.A. (1991). Guru-fattening session among the Massa. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 25: 128.
de Vogli R., Kouvonen A. & Gimeno D. (2011). ‘Globesization’: ecological evidence on the relationship between fast food outlets and obesity among 26 advanced economies. Critical Public Health 21: 395402.
de Vogli R., Kouvonen A., Elovainioe M. & Marmot M. (2014). Economic globalization, inequality and body mass index: a cross-national analysis of 127 countries. Critical Public Health 24: 721.
de Vries J. (2007). The obesity epidemic: medical and ethical considerations. Science and Engineering Ethics 13: 5567.
Dear M. & Flusty S. (1998). Postmodern urbanism. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 88: 5072.
Deeks S.G., Lewin S.R. & Havlir D.V. (2013). The end of AIDS: HIV infection as a chronic disease. Lancet 382: 28.
Dejong W. (1980). The stigma of obesity: the consequences of naïve assumptions concerning the causes of physical deviance. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 21: 7587.
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Ltd (2017). Global Powers of Retailing. London: Deloitte.
Department of Health (1992). The Health of the Nation: A Strategy for Health in England. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
Department of Health (1999). Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation. London: Her Majesty’s Government.
Department of Health (2000). National Service Framework: Coronary Heart Disease. London: Her Majesty’s Government.
Department of Health (2008). Healthy Weight, Healthy Lives: A Cross-Government Strategy for England. London: Her Majesty’s Government.
Department of Health (2009). Change4Life Marketing Strategy. In Support of Healthy Weight, Healthy Lives. London: Her Majesty’s Government.
Department of Health (2010). White Paper: Healthy Lives, Healthy People: Our Strategy for Public Health in England. London: Her Majesty’s Government.
Department of Health (2011). Healthy Lives, Healthy People: a Call to Action on Obesity in England. London: Her Majesty’s Government.
Department of Health, Prime Minister’s Office, Her Majesty’s Treasury and Cabinet Office (2016). Childhood Obesity: a Plan for Action. London: Her Majesty’s Government.
Department of Trade and Industry (2005). Scoping the Foresight Project on Tackling Obesities: Future Choices. (accessed 11 May 2017).
Design Council (2017). The power of branding. (accessed 27 January 2017).
Desmarais A.A. (2012). La Vía Campesina. In Ritzer G., ed., The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Globalization. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
Despres J.-P., Moorjani S., Lupien P.J. et al. (1990). Regional distribution of body fat, plasma lipoproteins, and cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 10: 497511.
Dethlefsen A., McFall-Ngai M. & Relman D.A. (2007). An ecological and evolutionary perspective on human–microbe mutualism and disease. Nature 449: 811–8.
Deurenberg P., Deurenberg-Yap M. & Guricci S. (2002). Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship. Obesity Reviews 3: 141–6.
Diamond J. (2003). The double puzzle of diabetes. Nature 423: 599602.
Dietz W.H., Benken D.E. & Hunter A.S. (2009). Public health law and the prevention and control of obesity. Millbank Quarterly 87: 215–27.
Dinsa G.D., Goryakin Y., Fumagalli E. & Suhrcke M. (2012). Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review. Obesity Reviews 13: 1067–79.
Dixon J. (2002). The Changing Chicken: Chooks, Cooks and Culinary Culture. Sydney, NSW: University of New South Wales Press.
Dixon J. (2009). From the imperial to the empty calorie: how nutrition relations underpin food regime transitions. Agriculture and Human Values 26: 321–33.
Dodson J., Li X., Ming K. et al. (2009). Early bronze in two Holocene archaeological sites in Gansu, NW China. Quaternary Research 72: 309–14.
Dodson J.R., Li X., Zhou X. et al. (2013). Origin and spread of wheat in China. Quaternary Science Reviews 72: 108–11.
Dolan P., Peasgood T. & White M. (2008). Do we really know what makes us happy? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being. Journal of Economic Psychology 29: 94122.
Doll H.A., Peterson S.E.K. & Stewart-Brown S.L. (2000). Obesity and physical and emotional well-being: associations between body mass index, chronic illness, and the physical and mental components of the SF-36 questionnaire. Obesity Research 8: 160–70.
Donovan M.R., Glue P., Kolluri S. & Emir B. (2010). Comparative efficacy of antidepressants in preventing relapse in anxiety disorders – a meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders 123: 916.
Douglas M. (1978). Cultural Bias. Occasional Paper No. 35. London: Royal Anthropological Institute.
Douglas M. (1986). How Institutions Think. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Douglas M. (1996). Thought Styles: Critical Essays on Good Taste. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Drayna D. (2005). Human taste genetics. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 6: 217–35.
Dreher A, Gaston N. & Martens P. (eds.) (2008). Measuring Globalisation. Gauging Its Consequences. New York, NY: Springer Science.
Drewnowski A. (1998). Energy density, palatability, and satiety: implications for weight control. Nutrition Reviews 56: 347–53.
Drewnowski A. (2012). Statial analyses of obesity and poverty. In Offer A., Pechey R. & Ulijaszek S.J., eds., Insecurity, Inequality and Obesity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 83104.
Drewnowski A. & Darmon N. (2005). The economics of obesity: dietary energy density and energy cost. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82: 265S–73S.
Drewnowski A. & Greenwood M.R.C. (1983). Cream and sugar: human preferences for high-fat foods. Physiology and Behavior 30: 629–33.
Drewnowski A. & Popkin B.M. (1997). The nutrition transition: new trends in the global diet. Nutrition Reviews 55: 3143.
Du S., Lu B., Zhai F. & Popkin B.M. (2002). A new stage of the nutrition transition in China. Public Health Nutrition 5: 169–74.
Due P., Damsgaard M.T., Rasmussen M. et al. (2009). Socioeconomic position, macroeconomic environment and overweight among adolescents in 35 countries. International Journal of Obesity 33: 1084–93.
Dulloo A.G. (2006). Regulation of fat storage via suppressed thermogenesis: a thrifty phenotype that predisposes individuals with catch-up growth to insulin resistance and obesity. Hormone Research. 65 (Suppl. 3): 90–7.
Dulloo A.G. (2013). Translational issues in targeting brown adipose tissue thermogenesis for human obesity management. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences USA 1302: 110.
Dunbar R.I.M. (1998). The social brain hypothesis. Evolutionary Anthropology 6: 178–90.
Easterlin R.A. (2001). Income and happiness: towards a unified theory. Royal Economic Society 111: 465–84.
Ebbeling C., Pawlak D. & Ludwig D. (2002). Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet 360: 473–82.
Ebrahim G.J. (1980). Cross-cultural aspects of pregnancy and breast feeding. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 39: 1315.
Edwards F.M., Wise P.H., Thomas D.W., Murchland J.B. & Craig R.J. (1976). Blood pressure and electrocardiographic findings in the South Australian Aborigines. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 6: 197205.
Eisenstadt S.N. (1969). The Political Systems of Empires. London: Transaction Publishers.
Eli K. & Ulijaszek S.J. (eds.) (2014). Obesity, Eating Disorders and the Media. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing.
Elinder L.S. & Jansson M. (2009). Obesogenic environments – aspects on measurement and indicators. Public Health Nutrition 12: 307–15.
Elks C.E., den Hoed M., Zhao J.H. et al. (2012). Variability in the heritability of body mass index: a systematic review and meta-regression. Frontiers in Endocrinology 3: 29.
Ellis L. & Haman D. (2004). Population increases in obesity appear to be partly due to genetics. Journal of Biosocial Science 36: 547–59.
Ellison P.T. (2001). On Fertile Ground: a Natural History of Reproduction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Emmett P.M. & Heaton K.W. (1995). Is extrinsic sugar a vehicle for dietary fat? Lancet 345: 1537–40.
Engerman S. (1976). The height of U.S. slaves. Local Population Studies 16: 45–9.
Erlichman J., Kerbey A.L. & James W.P.T. (2002). Physical activity and its impact on health outcomes. Paper 2: Prevention of unhealthy weight gain and obesity by physical activity: an analysis of the evidence. Obesity Reviews 3: 273–87.
Esping-Andersen G. (1990). The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Esping-Andersen G. (ed.) (2002). Why We Need a New Welfare State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Evans B. (2006). ‘Gluttony or sloth’: critical geographies of bodies and morality in (anti)obesity policy. Area 38: 259–67.
Evans B. & Colls R. (2009). Measuring fatness, governing bodies: the spatialities of the body mass index (BMI) in anti-obesity politics. Antipode 41: 1051–83.
Evans B. & Colls R. (2011). Doing more good than harm? The absent presence of children’s bodies in (anti-)obesity policy. In Rich E., Monaghan L.F. & Aphramor L., eds., Debating Obesity. Critical Perspectives. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 115–38.
Evans B., Colls R. & Horschelmann K. (2011). ‘Change4Life for your kids’: embodied collectives and public health pedagogy. Sport, Education and Society 16: 323–41.
Exworthy M. & Hunter D.J. (2011). The challenge of joined up government in tackling health inequalities. International Journal of Public Administration 34: 201–12.
Faith M.S., Berkowitz R.I., Stallings V.A. et al. (2004). Parental feeding attitudes and styles and child body mass index: prospective analysis of a gene–environment interaction. Pediatrics 114: e429–36.
Fantom N.J. & Serajuddin U. (2016).The World Bank’s Classification of Countries by Income. World Bank Policy Research Paper 7528. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Farhani S., Mrizak S., Chaibi A. & Rault C. (2014). The environmental Kuznets curve and sustainability: a panel data analysis. Energy Policy 71: 189–98.
Farooqi I.S., Keogh K.M., Kamath S. et al. (2001). Partial leptin deficiency and human adiposity. Nature 414: 34–5.
Feigenbaum E.A. (2003). Some challenges and grand challenges for computational intelligence. Journal of the ACM 50: 3240.
Felt U., Felder K., Ohler T. & Penckler M. (2014). Timescapes of obesity: coming to terms with a complex socio-medical phenomenon. Health 18: 646–64.
Filozof C., Pinilla M.C.F. & Fernandez-Cruz A. (2004). Smoking cessation and weight gain. Obesity Reviews 5: 95103.
Filter M., Appel B. & Buschulte A. (2016). Expert systems for food safety. Current Opinion in Food Science 6: 61–5.
Finegood D.T. (2011). The complex systems science of obesity. In Cawley J., ed., Oxford Handbook of the Social Science of Obesity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Finegood D.T., Merth D.T.N. & Rutter H. (2010). Implications of the Foresight Obesity System Map for solutions to childhood obesity. Obesity 18: S13–16.
Finkelstein E.A., Ruhm C.J. & Kosa K.M. (2005). Economic causes of and consequences of obesity. Annual Review of Public Health 26: 239–57.
Finkelstein E.A., Trogdon J.G., Cohen J.W. & Dietz W. (2009). Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: payer- and service-specific estimates. Health Affairs 28: w822–31.
Finucane M.L., Alhakami A., Slovic P. & Johnson S.M. (2000). The affect heuristic in judgments of risks and benefits. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 13: 117.
Finucane M.M., Stevens G.A., Cowan M.J. et al. (2011). National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants. Lancet 377: 557–67.
Fischhoff B., Slovic P., Lichtenstein S., Reid S. & Combs B. (1978). How safe is safe enough? A psychometric study of attitudes towards technological risks and benefits. Policy Sciences 9: 127–52.
Fisher R.A. (1930). The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Fjellstrom C. (2004). Mealtime and meal patterns from a cultural perspective. Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition 48: 161–4.
Flegal K.M., Carroll M.D., Kuczmarski R.J. & Johnson C.L. (1998). Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960–1994. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 22: 3947.
Flegal K.M., Ogden C.L., Carroll M.D. et al. (2002). Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2000. Journal of the American Medical Association 288: 1723–7.
Flegal K.M., Graubard B.I., Williamson D.F. & Gail M.H. (2007). Cause-specific excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association 298: 2028–37.
Flegal K.M., Kit B.K., Orpana H. & Graubard B.I. (2013). Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association 309: 7182.
Flint S.W., Hudson J. & Lavallee D. (2015). UK adults’ implicit and explicit attitudes towards obesity. BMC Obesity 2: 31.
Flood R.L. (2010). The relationship of ‘systems thinking’ to action research. Systems Practice and Action Research 23: 269–84.
Florey C.d.V. (1970). The use and interpretation of ponderal index and other weight-height ratios in epidemiological studies. Journal of Chronic Diseases 23: 93103.
Foley D.K. (1998). Introduction. In Albin P.S., ed., Barriers and Bounds to Rationality: Essays on Economic Complexity and Dynamics in Interactive Systems. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 372.
Foley R.A. (1993). The influence of seasonality on hominid evolution. In Ulijaszek S.J. & Strickland S.S., eds., Seasonality and Human Ecology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1737.
Food and Agriculture Organization (2002). World agriculture: towards 2015/2030. Summary report. (accessed 28 March 2017).
Food and Agriculture Organization (2017a). Food supply – Crops Primary Equivalent. (accessed 19 May 2017).
Food and Agriculture Organization (2017b). Food Supply – Livestock and Fish Primary Equivalent. (accessed 19 May 2017).
Foote R. (2007). Mathematics and complex systems. Science 318: 410–2.
Foresight (2007a). Tackling Obesities: Future Choices. Modelling Future Trends in Obesity and their Impact on Health. London: Office of Science and Technology, Her Majesty’s Government.
Foresight (2007b). Tackling Obesities: Future Choices – Obesity System Atlas. London: Government Office for Science.
Foresight (2010). Tackling Obesities: Future Choices. Mid-Term Review. November 2008–September 2010. London: Government Office for Science.
Foresight (2017). Foresight projects. (accessed 14 June 2017).
Foresight International Dimensions of Climate Change (2011). Final Project Report. London: Her Majesty’s Government.
Forth C.E. & Leitch A. (eds.) (2014). Fat: Culture and Materiality. London: Bloomsbury.
Fox N.J. (2011). Boundary objects, social meanings and the success of new technologies. Sociology 45: 7085.
Fox N.J., Ward K.J. & O’Rourke A.J. (2005). The ‘expert patient’: empowerment or medical dominance? The case of weight loss, pharmaceutical drugs and the internet. Social Science and Medicine 60: 1299–309.
Franck C., Grandi S.M. & Eisenberg M.J. (2013). Agricultural subsidies and the American obesity epidemic. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 45: 327333.
Frank L.D., Andresen M.A. & Schmid T.L. (2004). Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 27: 8796.
Franz M.J., van Wormer J.J., Crain A.L. et al. (2007). Weight-loss outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight-loss clinical trials with a minimum 1-year follow-up. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107: 1755–67.
Fraser Institute (2013). Economic Freedom of the World Annual Report 2013. Vancouver, BC: Fraser Institute.
Frayling T.M., Timpson N.J., Weedon M.N. et al. (2007). A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science 316: 889–94.
Frederick C.B., Snellman K. & Putnam R.D. (2014). Increasing socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111: 1338–42.
Freedman D.S. & Sherry B. (2009). The validity of BMI as an indicator of body fatness and risk among children. Pediatrics 124 (Suppl. 1): 1338–42.
Friedman G.C. (1982). The heights of slaves in Trinidad. Social Science History 6: 482515.
Friedman M. (2002). Kant, Kuhn, and the rationality of science. Philosophy of Science 69: 171–90.
Friedmann H. (1993). The political economy of food: a global crisis. New Left Review 197: 2957.
Friel S., Chopra M. & Satcher D. (2007). Unequal weight: equity oriented policy responses to the global obesity epidemic. British Medical Journal 335: 1241–3.
Frood S., Johnson L.M., Matteson C.L. & Finegood D.T. (2013). Obesity, complexity, and the role of the health system. Current Obesity Reports 2: 320–6.
Fry J. & Finley W. (2005). The prevalence and costs of obesity in the EU. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 64: 359–62.
Fryar C.D. & Ervin R.B. (2013). Caloric Intake from Fast Food Among Adults: United States, 2007–2010. NCHS Data Brief, No. 114. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Furrow R.E., Christiansen F.B. & Feldman M.W. (2011). Environment-sensitive epigenetics and the heritability of complex diseases. Genetics 189: 1377–87.
Gallagher D., Visser M., Sepulveda D. et al. (1996). How useful is body mass index for comparison of body fatness across age, sex, and ethnic groups? American Journal of Epidemiology 143: 228–39.
Ganley R.M. (1989). Emotion and eating in obesity: a review of the literature. International Journal of Eating Disorders 8: 343–61.
Garaulet M.P., Pérez-Llamas F., Fuente T., Zamora S. & Tebar F.J. (2000). Anthropometric, computer tomography and fat cell data in an obese population: relationship with insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α, sex hormone-binding globulin and sex hormones. European Journal of Endocrinology 143: 657–66.
Gard M. (2011a) Between alarmists and sceptics: on the cultural politics of obesity scholarship and public policy. In Bell K., McNaughton D. & Salmon A., eds., Alcohol, Tobacco and Obesity: Morality, Medicine and the New Public Health. London: Routledge, pp. 5972.
Gard M. (2011b). The End of the Obesity Epidemic. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge.
Gard M. and Wright J. (2005). The Obesity Epidemic. Science, Morality and Ideology. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge.
Garrow J.S. (1978). Energy Balance and Obesity in Man, 2nd edn. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Garrow J.S. (1985). Quetelet’s index (W/H2) as a measure of fatness. International Journal of Obesity 9: 147–53.
Gecas V. (1979). The influence of social class on socialization. In Burr W.R., Hill R., Nye F.I. & Reiss I.L., eds., Contemporary Theories about the Family. New York, NY: Free Press, pp. 365404.
Gelbach J.B., Klick J. & Stratmann T. (2009). Cheap donuts and expensive broccoli: the effect of relative prices on obesity. Research Paper No. 261. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University College of Law.
George S. (1977). How the Other Half Dies. Montclair, NJ: Allanheld, Osmun and Company.
Gerace T.A. & George V.A. (1996). Predictors of weight increases over 7 years in fire fighters and paramedics. Preventive Medicine 25: 593600.
German J.B., Hammock B.D. & Watkins S.M. (2005). Metabolomics: building on a century of biochemistry to guide human health. Metabolomics 1: 39.
Gerstein D.E., Woodward-Lopez G., Evans A.E. et al. (2004). Clarifying concepts about macronutrients’ effects on satiation and satiety. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 104: 1151–3.
Gewertz D. & Errington F. (2010). Cheap Meat: Flap Food Nations in the Pacific Islands. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Geyer S., Hemstrom O., Peter R. & Vagero D. (2006). Education, income, and occupational class cannot be used interchangeably in social epidemiology. Empirical evidence against a common practice. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60: 804–10.
Gibson L.Y., Byrne S.M., Davis E.A. et al. (2007). The role of family and maternal factors in childhood obesity. Medical Journal of Australia 186: 591–5.
Giddens A. (1990). The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Giddens A. (1998). Conversations with Anthony Giddens: Making Sense of Modernity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Gigerenzer G. (2010). Moral satisficing: rethinking moral behavior as bounded rationality. Topics in Cognitive Science 2: 528–54.
Gillies V. (2005). Raising the ‘meritocracy’: parenting and the individualization of social class. Sociology 39: 835–53.
Gilman S.L. (2010). Obesity: the Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gluckman P. & Hanson M. (2004). The Fetal Matrix: Evolution, Development and Disease. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gluckman P.D., Hanson M.A. & Low F.M. (2011). The role of developmental plasticity and epigenetics in human health. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews 93: 1218.
Golden M.H.N. (1994). Is complete catch-up possible for stunted malnourished children? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48 (Suppl. 1): S58–71.
Goldman D., Lakdawalla D. & Zheng Y. (2011). Food prices and the dynamics of body weight. In Grossman M. & Mocan N., eds., Economic Aspects of Obesity. National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 6583.
Goodman A.H. & Leatherman T.L. (eds.) (1998). Building a New Biocultural Synthesis. Political-Economic Perspectives on Human Biology. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Goodman E. & Whitaker R.C. (2002). A prospective study of the role of depression in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity. Pediatrics 110: 497504.
Goran M.I., Ulijaszek S.J. & Ventura E.E. (2012). High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective. Global Public Health 8: 5564.
Gornall J. (2015). Sugar: spinning a web of influence. British Medical Journal 350: h231.
Gortmaker S.L., Swinburn B.A., Levy D. et al. (2011). Changing the future of obesity: science, policy, and action. Lancet 378: 838–47.
Gosby A.K., Conigrave A.D., Lau N.S. et al. (2011). Testing protein leverage in lean humans: a randomised controlled experimental study. PLoS One 6: e25929.
Gottlob G. & Nejdl W. (1990). Expert Systems in Engineering, Principles and Applications, International Workshop, Vienna, Austria, September 24–26, 1990, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 462. New York, NY: Springer.
Government of Western Australia Department for Planning and Infrastructure (2009). Perth 2009. Public Spaces and Public Life. Perth, WA: Government of Western Australia Department for Planning and Infrastructure.
Graham H. (2007). Unequal Lives: Health and Socioeconomic Inequalities. Maidenhead, Berkshire: Open University Press.
Green D.P. & Shapiro I. (1994). Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory: a Critique of Applications in Political Science. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Greener J., Douglas F. & van Teijlingen E. (2010). More of the same? Conflicting perspectives of obesity causation and intervention amongst overweight people, health professionals and policy makers. Social Science and Medicine 70: 1042–9.
Greenleaf C., Chambliss H., Martin S.B. & Morrow J.R. (2006). Weight stereotypes and behavioral intentions toward thin and fat peers among White and Hispanic adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 39: 546–52.
Grendstad G., Selle P. & Thompson M. (2003). Cultural Theory as Political Science. London: Routledge.
Grimley Evans J. & Prior I.A.M. (1969). Indices of obesity derived from height and weight in two Polynesian populations. British Journal of Preventive Social Medicine 23: 56–9.
Groesz L.M., McCoy S., Carl J. et al. (2012). What is eating you? Stress and the drive to eat. Appetite 58: 717–21.
Gross J.L. & Rayner S. (1985). Measuring Culture: a Paradigm for the Analysis of Social Organization. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Grossman J. & MacKenzie F.J. (2005). The randomized controlled trial: gold standard, or merely standard? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48: 516–34.
Grossman M. & Mocan N. (2011). Economic Aspects of Obesity. National Bureau of Economic Research. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Grossmann I. & Varnum M.E.W. (2015). Social structure, infectious diseases, disasters, secularism, and cultural change in America. Psychological Science 26: 311–24.
Gruber J. & Frakes M. (2006). Does falling smoking lead to rising obesity? Journal of Health Economics 25: 183–97.
Grundy S.M. (1998). Multifactorial causation of obesity: implications for prevention. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67 (Suppl.): 563S–72S.
Guthman J. (2011). Weighing In: Obesity, Food Justice, and the Limits of Capitalism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Guthman J. (2013). Fatuous measures: the artifactual construction of the obesity epidemic. Critical Public Health 23: 263–73.
Guthman J. & du Puis M. (2006). Embodying neoliberalism: economy, culture, and the politics of fat. Environment and Planning D 24: 427–48.
Guyenet S.J. & Schwartz M.W. (2012). Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 97: 745–55.
Haase A., Steptoe A., Sallis J.F. & Wardle J. (2004). Leisure-time physical activity in university students from 23 countries: associations with health beliefs, risk awareness, and national economic development. Preventive Medicine 39: 182–90.
Hacker J.S., Rehm P. & Schlesinger M. (2013). The insecure American: economic experiences, financial worries, and policy attitudes. Perspectives on Politics 11: 2349.
Hacking I. (1983). Representing and Intervening. Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hall K.D. & Heymsfield S.B. (2009). Models use leptin and calculus to count calories. Cell Metabolism 9: 34.
Hall K.D., Heymsfield S.B., Kemnitz J.W. et al. (2012). Energy balance and its components: implications for body weight regulation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 95: 989–94.
Hall P.A. & Soskice D. (2001). Varieties of Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hall S.K., Cousins J.H. & Power T.G. (1991). Self-concept and perceptions of attractiveness and body size among Mexican-American mothers and daughters. International Journal of Obesity 15: 567–75.
Hamid T.K.A. (2009). Thinking in Circles about Obesity: Applying Systems Thinking to Weight Management. New York, NY: Springer.
Hammond R.A. (2009). Complex systems modeling for obesity research. Preventing Chronic Disease 6: A97.
Hancock A.M., Clark V.J., Qian Y. & Di Rienzo A. (2011). Population genetic analysis of the uncoupling proteins supports a role for UCP3 in human cold resistance. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28: 601–14.
Hannerz H., Albertsen K., Nielsen M.L., Tuchsen F. & Burr H. (2004). Occupational factors and 5-year weight change among men in a Danish national cohort. Health Psychology 23: 283–8.
Hansen F. & Christensen S.R. (2007). Emotions, Advertising and Consumer Choice. Frederiksberg, Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.
Hansson L.M., Karnehed N., Tynelius P. & Rasmussen F. (2009). Prejudice against obesity among 10-year-olds: a nationwide population-based study. Acta Paediatrica 98: 1176–82.
Harlow H.F. & Yudin H.C. (1933). Social behavior of primates. I. Social facilitation of feeding in the monkey and its relation to attitudes of ascendance and submission. Journal of Comparative Psychology 16: 171–85.
Harrington D.W. & Elliott S.J. (2009). Weighing the importance of neighbourhood: a multilevel exploration of the determinants of overweight and obesity. Social Science and Medicine 68: 593600.
Hartmann T. (2009). Clumsy floodplains and the law: towards a responsive land policy for extreme floods. Built Environment 35: 531–44.
Hartmann T. (2010). Reframing polyrational floodplains: land policy for large areas for temporary emergency retention. Nature and Culture 5: 1530.
Hartmann T. (2012). Wicked problems and clumsy solutions: planning as expectation management. Planning Theory 11: 242–56.
Hartmann T. & Spit T.J.M. (2012). Managing riverside property: Spatial water management in Germany from a Dutch perspective. In Hartmann T. & Needham B., eds., Planning by Law and Property Rights Reconsidered. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 97116.
Hartmann T. & Spit T.J.M. (2015). Dilemmas of involvement in land management – comparing an active (Dutch) and a passive (German) approach. Land Use Policy 42: 729–37.
Hasnain M., Victor W., Vieweg R. & Hollet T.B. (2012). Weight gain and glucose dysregulation with second-generation antipsychotics and antidepressants: a review for primary care physicians. Postgraduate Medicine 124: 154–67.
Haug M.R. (1977). Measurement in social stratification. Annual Review of Sociology 3: 5177.
Hawkes C. (2005). The role of foreign direct investment in the nutrition transition. Public Health Nutrition 8: 357–65.
Hawkes C. (2006). Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. Globalization and Health 2: 4.
Hayes-Roth F., Waterman D. & Lenat D. (1983). Building Expert Systems. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Haymes S., Vidal de Haymes M. & Miller R. (eds.) (2015). The Routledge Handbook of Poverty in the United States. London: Routledge.
Haynes A.S., Derrick G.E., Chapman S. et al. (2011). From “our world” to the “real world”: exploring the views and behaviour of policy-influential Australian public health researchers. Social Science and Medicine 72: 111.
Head B.W. (2008). Three lenses of evidence-based policy. Australian Journal of Public Administration 67: 111.
Healthy Together Geelong (2014). Greater Geelong Community Health Needs Assessment 2014. Geelong, VIC: Healthy Together Governance Group.
Healthy Together Geelong (2016). Geelong bucks the trend in obesity. (accessed 26 November 2016).
Heijmans B., Tobi E., Stein E. et al. (2008). Persistent epigenetic differences associated with prenatal exposure to famine in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 17046–9.
Helleiner E. (1994). States and the Reemergence of Global Finance. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Hemmingsson E. (2014). A new model of the role of psychological and emotional distress in promoting obesity: conceptual review with implications for treatment and prevention. Obesity Reviews 15: 769–79.
Hendrie G.A., Coveney J. & Cox D.N. (2012). Defining the complexity of childhood obesity and related behaviours within the family environment using structural equation modelling. Public Health Nutrition 15: 4857.
Her Majesty’s Government (1999). Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation. London: Her Majesty’s Government.
Herrera B.M., Keildson S. & Lindgren C.M. (2011). Genetics and epigenetics of obesity. Maturitas 69: 41–9.
Herrick C. (2009). Shifting blame/selling health: corporate social responsibility in the age of obesity. Sociology of Health and Illness 31: 5165.
Hess R.D. (1970). Social class and ethnic influences on socialization. In Mussen P.H., ed., Carmichael’s Manual of Child Psychology, 3rd edn., Vol. 2. New York, NY: Wiley, pp. 457557.
Hetherington M.M., Anderson A.S., Norton G.N.M. & Newson L. (2006). Situational effects on meal intake: a comparison of eating alone and eating with others. Physiology and Behavior 88: 498505.
Hill J.O., Peters J.C. & Wyatt H.R. (2007). The role of public policy in treating the epidemic of global obesity. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 81: 772–5.
Hill J.O., Wyatt H.R. & Peters J.C. (2012). Energy balance and obesity. Circulation 126: 126–32.
Hines P., Holweg M. & Rich N. (2004). Learning to evolve: a review of contemporary lean thinking. International Journal of Operations and Production Management 24: 9941011.
Hladik C.M.(1988). Seasonal variations in food supply for wild primates. In de Garine I. and Harrison G.A., eds., Coping with Uncertainty in Food Supply. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 125.
Hoek H.W. & van Hoeken D. (1996). Risk factors for eating disorders: differences in incidence rates in relation to urbanization and culture. European Psychiatry 11 (Suppl. 4): 220.
Hoelscher D.M., Kirk S., Ritchie L. & Cunningham-Sabo L. (2013). Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: interventions for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 113: 1375–94.
Hoff E., Laursen B. & Tardif T. (2002). Socioeconomic status and parenting. In Bornstein M.H., ed., Handbook of Parenting. Vol. 2. Biology and Ecology of Parenting. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, pp. 231–52.
Holm L. & Fruhbeck G. (2013). Executive Summary. Workshop on Social Sciences and Humanities’ Contribution to Tackle the Obesity Epidemic. Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen.
Holt D.B. (1998). Does cultural capital structure American consumption? Journal of Consumer Research 25: 125.
Hood L., Heath J.R., Phelps M.E. & Lin B. (2004). Systems biology and new technologies enable predictive and preventative medicine. Science 306: 640–3.
House of Commons Health Committee (2004). Obesity. Third Report of Session 2003–04. Vol. I. Report, Together with Formal Minutes. London: The Stationery Office.
Howe L.D., Tilling K., Galobardes B. et al. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in trajectories of adiposity across childhood. International Journal of Pediatriatric Obesity 6: e144–53.
Hruschka D.J. (2012). Do economic constraints on food choice make people fat? A critical review of two hypotheses for the poverty–obesity paradox. American Journal of Human Biology 24: 277–85.
Hu F.B. (2008). Obesity and mortality. In Hu F., ed., Obesity Epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 216–33.
Huang T., Drewnowski A., Kumanyika S. & Glass T. (2009). A systems-oriented multilevel framework for addressing obesity in the 21st century. Preventing Chronic Disease 6: A82.
Hudson J.I., Hiripi E., Pope H.G. Jr. & Kessler R.C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Biological Psychiatry 61: 348–58.
Huneault L., Mathieu M.-E. & Tremblay A. (2011). Globalization and modernization: an obesogenic combination. Obesity Reviews 12: e64–72.
Hurrelmann K., Rathmann K. & Richter M. (2011). Health inequalities and welfare state regimes. A research note. Journal of Public Health 19: 313.
Huss-Ashmore R., Schall J. & Hediger M. (1992). Health and Lifestyle Change. MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Vol. 9. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania.
Huxley R., Mendis S., Zheleznyakov E., Reddy S. & Chan J. (2010). Body mass index, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular risk – a review of the literature. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64: 1622.
Ideker T., Galitski T. & Hood L. (2001). A new approach to decoding life: systems biology. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 2: 343–72.
Ifland J.R., Preuss H.G., Marcus M.T. et al. (2009). Refined food addiction: a classic substance use disorder. Medical Hypotheses 72: 518–26.
Innes J.E. & Booher D.E. (2010). Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy. London: Routledge.
Ioannidis J.P.A. (2005). Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Medicine 2: e124.
Ismail M.N., Chee S., Nawawi H. et al. (2002). Obesity in Malaysia. Obesity Reviews 3: 203–8.
Jabs J. & Devine C.M. (2006). Time scarcity and food choices: an overview. Appetite 47: 196204.
Jack A. (2007). Obesity plan lacks foresight. Lancet 370: 1528–9.
Jacobs D. & Myers L. (2014). Union strength, neoliberalism, and inequality. Contingent political analyses of U.S. income differences since 1950. American Sociological Review 79: 752–74.
Jahns L., Siega-Riz A.M. & Popkin B.M. (2001). The increasing prevalence of snacking among US children from 1977 to 1996. Journal of Pediatrics 138: 493–8.
James W.P.T. (2004). Obesity: the worldwide epidemic. Clinics in Dermatology 22: 276–80.
Jang H. & Serra C. (2014). Nutrition, epigenetics, and diseases. Clinical Nutrition Research 3: 18.
Janssen I., Katzmarzyk P.T. & Ross R. (2004). Waist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity-related health risk. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79: 379–84.
Janz K.F., Levy S.M., Burns T.L. et al. (2002). Fatness, physical activity, and television viewing in children during the adiposity rebound period: the Iowa bone development study. Preventive Medicine 35: 563–71.
Jarosz D. & Pasztor M. (2007). An attempt at a history of meat in people’s Poland. Acta Poloniae Historica 95: 139–87.
Jebb S.A., Aveyard P.N. & Hawkes C. (2013). The evolution of policy and actions to tackle obesity in England. Obesity Reviews 14 (Suppl. 2): 4259.
Jelliffe D.B. (1966). The assessment of the nutritional status of the community (with special reference to field surveys in developing regions of the world). Monograph Series of the World Health Organization 53: 3271.
Jevons W.S. (1866). A brief account of a general mathematical theory of political economy. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 29: 282–87.
Jevons WS. (1871). The Theory of Political Economy. London: Macmillan.
Joffe B. & Zimmet P. (1998). The thrifty genotype in type 2 diabetes: an unfinished symphony moving to its finale? Endocrine 9: 139–41.
Johnson R. (2007). Post-hegemony? I don’t think so. Theory, Culture and Society 24: 95110.
Johnston F.E. (1998). The ecology of post-natal growth. In Ulijaszek S.J., Johnston F.E. & Preece M.A., eds., Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 315–9.
Johnston J. (2005). Rawls’s Kantian educational theory. Educational Theory 55: 201–18.
Johnston J. & Baumann S. (2007). Democracy versus distinction: a study of omnivorousness in gourmet food writing. American Journal of Sociology 113: 165204.
Jones A., Bentham G., Foster C., Hillsdon M. & Panter J. (2007). Foresight. Tackling Obesities: Future Choices – Obesogenic Environments – Evidence Review. London: Government Office for Science.
Jones G. & Ledger J. (1986). Expert systems in decision support: opportunities for the retailer. Retail and Distribution Management 14: 18–9.
Jones G. & Morgan N.J. (eds.) (1994). Adding Value: Brands and Marketing in Food and Drink. London: Routledge.
Jou C. (2014). The biology and genetics of obesity – a century of inquiries. New England Journal of Medicine 370: 1874–7.
Jou J. & Techakehakij W. (2012). International application of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation in obesity reduction: factors that may influence policy effectiveness in country-specific contexts. Health Policy 107: 8390.
Jutel A. (2005). Weighing health: the moral burden of obesity. Social Semiotics 15: 113–25.
Kahan S. & Zvenyach T. (2016). Obesity as a disease: current policies and implications for the future. Current Obesity Reports 5: 291–97.
Kahn H.S. & Williamson D.F. (1994). Abdominal obesity and mortality risk among men in nineteenth-century North America. International Journal of Obesity 18: 686–91.
Kahneman D. (2003). Maps of bounded rationality: psychology for behavioral economics. American Economic Review 93: 1449–75.
Kahneman D. & Tversky A. (1972). Subjective probability: a judgment of representativeness. Cognitive Psychology 3: 430–54.
Kalberg S. (1980). Max Weber’s types of rationality: cornerstones for the analysis of rationalization processes in history. American Journal of Sociology 85: 1145–79.
Kamadjeu R.M., Edwards R., Atanga J.S. et al. (2006). Anthropometry measures and prevalence of obesity in the urban adult population of Cameroon: an update from the Cameroon Burden of Diabetes Baseline Survey. BMC Public Health 6: 228.
Kanarek R.B. & Hirsch E. (1977). Dietary-induced overeating in experimental animals. Federation Proceedings 36: 154–58.
Kant I. (1785). Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals. Translated by Ellington J., 1993. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company.
Kant I. (1891). Principles of Politics. Translated by Hastie W.. Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark.
Kant I. (1997). Practical Philosophy. Translated and edited by McGregor M.J.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kantar Worldpanel (2013). Coca Cola leads global ranking of the most chosen brands. (accessed 15 January 2017).
Kanter R. & Caballero B. (2012). Global gender disparities in obesity: a review. Advances in Nutrition 3: 491–8.
Kaplan H., Hill K., Lancaster J. & Hurtado A.M. (2000). A theory of human life history evolution: diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology 9: 156–85.
Kapoor A.K. & Kaur J. (2012). Natural selection in a population group of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine 3: 71–7.
Kapoor A.K., Kshatriya G.K. & Kapoor S. (2003). Fertility and mortality differentials among the population groups of the Himalayas. Human Biology 75: 729–47.
Kassel J.D. & Unrod M. (2000). Smoking, anxiety, and attention: support for the role of nicotine in attentionally mediated anxiolysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 109: 161–6.
Keith S.W., Redden D.T., Katzmarzyk P.T. et al. (2006). Putative contributors to the secular increase in obesity: exploring the roads less travelled. International Journal of Obesity 30: 1585–94.
Keles A., Yavuz U. & Keles A. (2011). Expert system based on neuro-fuzzy rules for diagnosis breast cancer. Expert Systems with Applications 38: 5719–26.
Kelly P. (2003). Growing up as risky business? Risks, surveillance and the institutionalised mistrust of youth. Journal of Youth Studies 6: 165–80.
Kelly Y.J. & Watt R.G. (2005). Breast-feeding initiation and exclusive duration at 6 months by social class – results from the Millennium Cohort Study. Public Health Nutrition 8: 417–21.
Kennedy M. & Garcia E. (1994). Assessing linkages between body mass index and morbidity in adults: evidence from four developing countries. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48 (Suppl. 3): S90–6.
Keys A., Fidanza F., Karvonen M.J., Kimura N. & Taylor H.L. (1972). Indices of relative weight and obesity. Journal of Chronic Diseases 25: 329–43.
Khosla T. & Lowe C.R. (1967). Indices of obesity derived from body weight and height. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine 21: 122–28.
Kim G.W., Lin J.E., Valentino M.A., Colon-Gonzalez F. & Waldmann S.A. (2011). Regulation of appetite to treat obesity. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 4: 243–59.
Kim J.K., Samaranayake M. & Pradhan S. (2009). Epigenetic mechanisms in mammals. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 66: 596612.
Kim T.J., Wiggins L.L. & Wright J.R. (eds.) (1990). Expert Systems: Applications to Urban Planning. New York, NY: Springer.
King T., Kavanagh A.M., Jolley D., Turrell G. & Crawford D. (2006). Weight and place: a multilevel cross-sectional survey of area-level social disadvantage and overweight/obesity in Australia. International Journal of Obesity 30: 281–7.
Kingdon J.W. (1984). Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.
Kirk S.F.L., Penney T.L. & McHugh T.-L.F. (2009). Characterizing the obesogenic environment: the state of the evidence with directions for future research. Obesity Reviews 11: 109–17.
Kitano H. (2002). Systems biology: a brief overview. Science 295: 1662–4.
Klassen M.L., Jasper C.R. & Harris R.J. (1993). The role of physical appearance in managerial decisions. Journal of Business and Psychology 8: 181–98.
Klein M. & Dwyer J. 2008). Role of probiotics stakeholders in future research and policy on probiotics use in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases 46: S144–51.
Klesges R.C & Shumaker S.A. (1992). Understanding the relations between smoking and body weight and their importance to smoking cessation and relapse. Health Psychology 11 (Suppl.): 13.
Komlos J. & Lauderdale B. (2007). Underperformance in affluence: the remarkable relative decline in U.S. heights in the second half of the 20th century. Social Science Quarterly 88: 283305.
Kootte R.S., Vrieze A., Holleman F. et al. (2012). The therapeutic potential of manipulating gut microbiota in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 14: 112–20.
Korsgaard C.M. (1997). The normativity of instrumental reason. In Cullity G. & Gaut B., eds., Ethics and Practical Reason. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 215–54.
Koziel S., Ulijaszek S.J., Szklarska A. & Bielicki T. (2007). The effects of fatness and fat distribution on respiratory function. Annals of Human Biology 34: 123–31.
Krieger N., Williams D.R. & Moss N.E. (1997). Measuring social class in US public health research: concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annual Review of Public Health 18: 341–78.
Kringelbach M.L. (2015). The pleasure of food: underlying brain mechanisms of eating and other pleasures. Flavour 4: 20.
Kubiszewski I., Costanza R., Franco C. et al. (2013). Beyond GDP: measuring and achieving global genuine progress. Ecological Economics 93: 5768.
Kumanyika S., Jeffery R.W., Morabia A., Ritenbaugh C. & Antipatis V.J. (2002). Obesity prevention: the case for action. Public health approaches to the prevention of obesity. International Journal of Obesity 26: 425–36.
Kumar V.R., Chung C.Y.C. & Lindley C.A. (1994). Toward building an expert system for weather forecasting operations. Expert Systems with Applications 7: 373–81.
Kuo L.E., Czarnecka M., Kitlinska J.B. et al. (2008). Chronic stress, combined with a high-fat/high-sugar diet, shifts sympathetic signaling toward neuropeptide Y and leads to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Stress, Neurotransmitters, and Hormones: Neuroendocrine and Genetic Mechanisms 1148: 232–7.
Kuserow A. (2004). American Individualism: Child Rearing and Social Class in Three Neighborhoods. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kuzawa C.W. (1998). Adipose tissue in human infancy and childhood: an evolutionary perspective. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 41: 177209.
Kwa C. (2002). Romantic and baroque conceptions of complex wholes in the sciences. In Law J. & Mol A., eds., Complexities. Social Studies of Knowledge Practices. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, pp. 2352.
Ladyman J., Lambert J. & Wiesner K. (2013). What is a complex system? European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3: 3367.
Lakdawalla D. & Philipson T. (2002). The Growth of Obesity and Technological Change: a Theoretical and Empirical Examination. NBER Working Paper No. 8946. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Lakdawalla D., Philipson T. & Bhattacharya J. (2005). Welfare-enhancing technological change and the growth of obesity. American Economic Review 95: 253–7.
Lake J.K., Power C. & Cole T.J. (1997). Child to adult body mass index in the 1958 British birth cohort: associations with parental obesity. Archives of Disease in Childhood 77: 376–80.
Lambert P.M. (2009). Health versus fitness: competing themes in the origins and spread of agriculture? Current Anthropology 50: 603–8.
Lancet Editorial (2011). Malaria: control vs elimination vs eradication. Lancet 378: 1117.
Lancy D. (2008). The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Landecker H. (2011). Food as exposure: nutritional epigenetics and the new metabolism. BioSocieties 6: 167–94.
Landon J. & Graff H. (2012). What is the role of health-related food duties? National Heart Forum. (accessed 15 May 2017).
Lane P.R. & Milesi-Ferretti G.M. (2007). The external wealth of nations mark II: revised and extended estimates of foreign assets and liabilities, 1970–2004. Journal of International Economics 73: 223–50.
Lang T. & Heasman M. (2015). Food Wars. The Global Battle for Mouths, Minds and Markets. London: Earthscan Books.
Lang T. & Rayner G. (2005). Obesity: a growing issue for European policy? Journal of European Social Policy 15: 301–27.
Lang T. & Rayner G. (2007). Overcoming policy cacophony on obesity: an ecological public health framework for policymakers. Obesity Reviews 8 (Suppl. 1): 165–81.
Lang T. & Rayner G. (2014). Ecological public health: the 21st century’s big idea? An essay by Tim Lang and Geof Rayner. British Medical Journal 345: e5466.
Larnkjaer A., Schroder S.A., Schmidt I.M. et al. (2006). Secular change in adult stature has come to a halt in northern Europe and Italy. Acta Paediatrica 93: 754–55.
Lascoumes P. & le Gales P. (2007). Introduction: understanding public policy through its instruments – from the nature of instruments to the sociology of public policy instrumentation. Governance 20: 121.
Latour B. (2004). Why has critique run out of steam? Critical Inquiry 30: 225–48.
Latour B. & Woolgar S. (1986). Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Lau C., Ambalavanan N., Chakraborty H., Wingate M.S. & Carlo W.A. (2013). Extremely low birth weight and infant mortality rates in the United States. Pediatrics 131: 855–60.
Laurier D., Guiget M., Chau N.P. et al. (1992). Prevalence of obesity: a comparative survey in France, the United Kingdom and the United States. International Journal of Obesity 16: 565–72.
Law J. (2004a). And if the global were small and noncoherent? Method, complexity, and the baroque. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 22: 1326.
Law J. (2004b). After Method: Mess in Social Science Research. London: Routledge.
Lawn P.A. (2003). A theoretical foundation to support the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW), Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), and other related indexes. Ecological Economics 44: 105–18.
Lawrence R.G. (2004). Framing obesity: the evolution of news discourse on a public health issue. Politics 9: 5675.
Lawton C.L., Burley V.L., Wales J.K. & Blundell J.E. (1993). Dietary fat and appetite control in obese subjects: weak effects on satiation and satiety. International Journal of Obesity 17: 409–16.
Lee C.M.Y., Huxley R.R., Wildman R.P. & Woodward M. (2008). Indices of abdominal obesity are better discriminators of cardiovascular risk factors than BMI: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 61: 646–53.
Lee G.A., Crawford G.W., Liu L. & Xingcan C. (2007). Plants and people from the early Neolithic to Shang periods in North China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104: 1087–92.
Leibel R.L. (2008). Molecular physiology of weight regulation in mice and humans. International Journal of Obesity 32: S98–108.
Lenski G. & Nolan P.D. (1984). Trajectories of development: a test of ecological evolutionary theory. Social Forces 63: 123.
Leonard W.R. & Ulijaszek S.J. (2002). Energetics and evolution: an emerging research domain. American Journal of Human Biology 14: 547–50.
Lerner J.S., Gonzalez R.M., Small D.A. & Fischhoff B. (2003). Effects of fear and anger on perceived risks of terrorism: a national field experiment. Psychological Science 14: 144–50.
Lev-Ran A. (2001). Human obesity: an evolutionary approach to understanding our bulging waistline. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 17: 347–62.
Levin K., Cashore B., Bernstein S. & Auld G. (2012). Overcoming the tragedy of super wicked problems: constraining our future selves to ameliorate global climate change. Policy Sciences 45: 123–52.
Levy D.T., Mabry P.L., Wang Y.C. et al. (2011). Simulation models of obesity: a review of the literature and implications for research and policy. Obesity Reviews 12: 378–94.
Lexchin J., Djulbegovic B. & Clark O. (2003). Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review. British Medical Journal 326: 1167–70.
Ley R.E., Bäckhed F., Turnbaugh P. et al. (2005). Obesity alters gut microbial ecology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102: 11070–5.
Li G., Chen X., Jang Y. et al. (2002). Obesity, coronary heart disease risk factors and diabetes in Chinese: an approach to the criteria of obesity in the Chinese population. Obesity Reviews 3: 167–72.
Li L., Law C., Conte R.L. et al. (2009). Intergenerational influences on childhood body mass index: the effect of parental body mass index trajectories. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89: 551–7.
Lindberg L., Ek A., Nyman J. et al. (2015). Low grandparental social support combined with low parental socioeconomic status is closely associated with obesity in preschool-aged children: a pilot study. Pediatric Obesity 11: 313–6.
Lindgren C.M., Heid I.M., Randall J.C. et al. (2009). Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution. PLoS Genetics 5: e1000508.
Lissner L., Visscher T.L., Rissanen A. & Heitmann B.L. (2013). Prevention and Public Health Task Force of European Association for the Study of Obesity. Monitoring the obesity epidemic into the 21st century – weighing the evidence. Obesity Facts 6: 561–5.
Liu Y., Tong G., Tong W., Lu L. & Qin X. (2011). Can body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio predict the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects? BMC Public Health 11: 35.
Llewellyn C., van Jaarsveld C., Boniface D., Carnell S. & Wardle J. (2008). Eating rate is a heritable phenotype related to weight in children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88: 1560–6.
Lloyd L.J., Langley-Evans S.C. & McMullen S. (2010). Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review. International Journal of Obesity 34: 1828.
Lloyd L.J., Langley-Evans S.C. & McMullen S. (2012). Childhood obesity and risk of the adult metabolic syndrome: a systematic review. International Journal of Obesity 36: 111.
Lobstein T., Baur L. & Uauy R. (2004). Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Obesity Reviews 5 (Suppl. 1): 485.
Lodge M. & Wegrich K. (2014). Rational Tools of Government in a World of Bounded Rationality. Discussion Paper No. 75. London: London School of Economics.
Lodge M. & Wegrich K. (2016). The rationality paradox of nudge: rational tools of government in a world of bounded rationality. Law and Policy 38: 250–67.
Lopez R.P. (2007). Neighborhood risk factors for obesity. Obesity 15: 2111–9.
Loughlin J. (2000). Regional autonomy and state paradigm shifts in Western Europe. Regional and Federal Studies 10: 1034.
Lovejoy J.C., Sainsbury A. & Stock Conference 2008 Working Group (2009). Sex differences in obesity and the regulation of energy homeostasis. Obesity Reviews 10: 154–67.
Lowe M.R. & Butryn M.L. (2007). Hedonic hunger: a new dimension of appetite? Physiology and Behavior 91: 432–9.
Lowe M.R., Miller-Kovach K. & Phelan S. (2001). Weight-loss maintenance in overweight individuals one to five years following successful completion of a commercial weight loss program. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 25: 325–31.
Lubchenco L.O., Searls D.T. & Brazie J.V. (1972). Neonatal mortality rate: relationship to birth weight and gestational age. Journal of Pediatrics 81: 814–22.
Ludwig D.S., Peterson K.E. & Gortmaker S.L. (2001). Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 357: 505–8.
Luger G. & Stubblefield W. (2004). Artificial Intelligence: Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving, 5th edn. Reading, MA: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company.
Lukka A. & Lukka M. (1988). Expert systems: a role in transportation planning. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Materials Management 18: 38.
Lumey L., Terry M., Delgado-Cruzata L. et al. (2012). Adult global DNA methylation in relation to pre-natal nutrition. International Journal of Epidemiology 41: 116–23.
Lundborg P., Bolin K., Hojgard S. & Lindgren B. (2006). Obesity and occupational attainment among the 50+ of Europe. In Bolin K. & Cawley J., eds., The Economics of Obesity. Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research, Vol. 17. Bingley, West Yorkshire: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 219–51.
Lundborg P., Nystedt P. & Rooth D.A. (2014). Body size, skills, and income: evidence from 150,000 teenage siblings. Demography 51: 1573–96.
Lupton D. (1996). Food, the Body and the Self. London: Sage Publications.
Macadam S. & Dettwyler K. (eds.) (1995). Breastfeeding: Biocultural Perspectives. Chicago, IL: Aldine Transaction.
MacDiarmid J.I., Vail A., Cade J.E. & Blundell J.E. (1998). The sugar–fat relationship revisited: differences in consumption between men and women of varying BMI. International Journal of Obesity 22: 1053–61.
Macht M. (2008). How emotions affect eating: a five-way model. Appetite 50: 111.
Mackett R. & Edwards M. (1996). An expert system to advise on urban public transport technologies. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 20: 261–73.
Maher J.M., Fraser S. & Lindsay J. (2010). Between provisioning and consuming? Children, mothers and childhood obesity. Health Sociology Review 19: 304–16.
Maio G.R., Haddock G.G. & Jarman H.L. (2007). Social psychological factors in tackling obesity. Obesity Reviews 8 (Suppl. 1): 123–5.
Malik M. & Bakir A. (2007). Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in the United Arab Emirates. Obesity Reviews 8: 1520.
Malik V.S., Schulze M.B. & Hu F.B. (2006). Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84: 274–88.
Malik V.S., Willett W.C. & Hu F.B. (2013). Global obesity: trends, risk factors and policy implications. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 9: 1327.
Mamadouh V. (1999). Grid-group cultural theory: an introduction. GeoJournal 47: 395409.
Manktelow K.I. & Over D.E. (eds.) (1993). Rationality: Psychological and Philosophical Perspectives. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis/Routledge.
Marmot M.G. (2004). Status Syndrome: How Your Social Standing Directly Affects Your Health and Life Expectancy. London: Bloomsbury.
Marmot M.G., Allen J., Goldblatt P. et al. (2010). Fair Society, Healthy Lives. Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England Post-2010. The Marmot Review. London: Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England Post-2010.
Marshall G., Rose D., Newby H. & Vogle C. (1988). Social Class in Modern Britain. London: Routledge.
Martens E.A., Lemmens S.G. & Westerterp-Plantenga M.S. (2013). Protein leverage affects energy intake of high-protein diets in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 97: 8693.
Martínez-Cordero C., Kuzawa C.W., Sloboda D.M. et al. (2012). Testing the protein leverage hypothesis in a free-living human population. Appetite 59: 312–5.
Matan A. & Newman P. (2016). People Cities: The Life and Legacy of Jan Gehl. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Mathers C.D. & Loncar D. (2006). Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Medicine 3: e442.
Maybury-Lewis D. (1960). The analysis of dual organization: a methodological critique. Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia 116: 1744.
Mayer J. (1955). Regulation of energy intake and the body weight: the glucostatic theory and the lipostatic hypothesis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 63: 1543.
Mazzocchi M., Traill W.B. & Shogren J.F. (2009). Fat Economics: Nutrition, Health, and Economic Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McCarthy H.D., Ellis S.M. & Cole T.J. (2003). Central overweight and obesity in British youth aged 11–16 years: cross sectional surveys of waist circumference. British Medical Journal 326: 624.
McCrady S.K. & Levine J.A. (2009). Sedentariness at work: how much do we really sit? Obesity 17: 2103–5.
McCullough M.B. & Hardin J.A. (eds.) (2013). Reconstructing Obesity: The Meaning of Measures and the Measure of Meanings. Oxford: Berghahn Books.
McGartland M.R. & Hendrickson C.T. (1985). Expert systems for construction project monitoring. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 111: 293307.
McGarvey S.T. (1991). Obesity in Samoans and a perspective on its etiology in Polynesians. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53: 1586S.
McGarvey S.T. & Baker P. (1979). The effects of modernization on Samoan blood pressure. Human Biology 51: 461–79.
McGee D.L. (2005). Body mass index and mortality: a meta-analysis based on person-level data from twenty-six observational studies. Annals of Epidemiology 15: 8797.
McGuire M.T., Wing R.R., Klem M.L., Lang W. & Hill J.O. (1999). What predicts weight regain in a group of successful weight losers? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67: 177–85.
McKinion J.M. & Lemmon H.E. (1985). Symbolic Computers and AI Tools for a Cotton Expert System. ASAE Tech Paper 85-5520. St Joseph, MI: American Society for Agricultural Engineers.
McLaren L. (2007). Socioeconomic status and obesity. Epidemiologic Reviews 29: 2948.
McLennan A. & Ulijaszek S.J. (2015). An anthropological insight into the Pacific island diabetes crisis and its clinical implications. Diabetes Management 5: 143–5.
McLennan A. Ulijaszek S.J. & Eli K. (2014). Social aspects of dietary sugars. In Goran M., Tappy L. & Le K.-A., eds., Dietary Sugars and Health. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 111.
McMillen M., MacLaughlin S.M., Muhlhausler B.S. et al. (2008). Developmental origins of adult health and disease: the role of periconceptional and foetal nutrition. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology 102: 82–9.
McPherson K., Marsh T. & Brown M. (2007). Foresight. Tackling Obesities: Future Choices – Modelling Future Trends in Obesity and the Impact on Health. London: Government Office for Science.
Mechanick J.I., Garber A.J., Handelsman Y. & Garvey W.T. (2012). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists’ position statement on obesity and obesity medicine. Endocrine Practice 18: 642–8.
Mele R. & Rawling P. (2004). Introduction. Aspects of rationality. In Mele A.R. & Rawling P., eds., The Oxford Handbook of Rationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 313.
Meloni M. (2013). Biology without biologism: social theory in a postgenomic age. Sociology 48: 731–46.
Meloni M. (2014). How biology became social and what it means for social theory. Sociological Review 62: 593614.
Meyer W. (1990). Expert Systems in Factory Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Milanovic B. (2016). Global Inequality: A New Approach for the Age of Globalization. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Milio N. (1981). Promoting health through structural change: analysis of the origins and implementation of Norway’s farm-food-nutrition policy. Social Science and Medicine 15A: 721–34.
Mintz S. (1985). Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. New York, NY: Viking.
Mitchell S.D. (2009). Unsimple Truths: Science, Complexity and Policy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Mizuno T.M., Makimura H. & Mobbs C.V. (2003). The physiological function of the agouti-related peptide gene: the control of weight and metabolic rate. Annals of Medicine 35: 425–33.
Mohebati L., Lobstein T., Millstone E. & Jacobs M. (2007). Policy options for responding to the growing challenge from obesity in the United Kingdom. European Journal of Public Health 8: 109–15.
Mokdad A.H., Ford E.S., Bowman B.A. et al. (2003). Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. Journal of the American Medical Association 289: 76–9.
Mol A. (2009). Good taste: the embodied normativity of the consumer-citizen. Journal of Cultural Economics 2: 269–83.
Molarius A. (2003). The contribution of lifestyle factors to socioeconomic differences in obesity in men and women – a population-based study in Sweden. European Journal of Epidemiology 18: 227–34.
Molarius A., Seidell J.C., Sans S., Tuomilehto J. & Kuulasmaa K. (2000). Educational level, relative body weight, and changes in their association over 10 years: an international perspective from the WHO MONICA Project. American Journal of Public Health 90: 1260–8.
Monaghan L. (2005). Discussion piece: a critical take on the obesity debate. Social Theory and Health 3: 302–14.
Monbiot G. (2015). Slim chance. (accessed 25 August 2016).
Moncrieff J. (2006). Psychiatric drug promotion and the politics of neoliberalism. British Journal of Psychiatry 188: 301–2.
Monteiro C.A., Mondini L., Medeiros de Souza A.L. & Popkin B.M. (1995). The nutrition transition in Brazil. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49: 105–13.
Monteiro C.A., Cannon G., Moubarac J.C. et al. (2015). Dietary guidelines to nourish humanity and the planet in the twenty-first century. A blueprint from Brazil. Public Health Nutrition 18: 2311–22.
Monteiro P.O.A., Victora C.G., Barros F.C. & Monteiro L.M.A. (2003). Birth size, early childhood growth, and adolescent obesity in a Brazilian birth cohort. International Journal of Obesity 27: 1274–82.
Morowitz H.J. (1991). The Thermodynamics of Pizza: Essays on Science in Everyday Life. Newark, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Morris S.D. (1999). Reforming the nation: Mexican nationalism in context. Journal of Latin American Studies 31: 363–97.
Moschis G.P. & Churchill G.A. (1979). An analysis of the adolescent consumer. Journal of Marketing 43: 40–8.
Muhlhausler B.S., Gugusheff J.R., Ong Z.Y. & Vithayathil M. (2013). Nutritional approaches to breaking the intergenerational cycle of obesity. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 91: 421–8.
Mulgan G. (1997). Connexity: How to Live in a Connected World. London: Chatto and Windus.
Muller M.J., Bosy-Westphal A. & Heymsfield S.B. (2010). Is there evidence for a set point that regulates human body weight? F1000 Medicine Reports 2: 59.
Munster E., Ruger H., Ochsmann E., Letzel S. & Toschke A.M. (2009). Over-indebtedness as a marker of socioeconomic status and its association with obesity: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 9: 286.
Murgatroyd C. & Spengler D. (2011). Epigenetics of early child development. Frontiers in Psychiatry 2: 16.
Murtagh L. & Ludwig D.S. (2011). State intervention in life-threatening childhood obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association 306: 206–7.
Must A., Spadano J., Coakley M.S. et al. (1999). The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association 282: 1523–9.
Nagel T. (1997). The Last Word. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Nathan S.A., Develin E., Grove N. & Zwi A.B. (2005). An Australian childhood obesity summit: the role of data and evidence in ‘public’ policy making. Australia and New Zealand Health Policy 2: 17.
National Audit Office (2001). Tackling Obesity in England. London: The Stationery Office.
National Obesity Observatory (2012). Fast food outlets by local authority. Relationship between density of fast food outlets and deprivation in England. (accessed 11 May 2017).
Navarrete A., van Schaik C.P. & Isler K. (2011). Energetics and the evolution of human brain size. Nature 480: 91–3.
Navarro V. (2007). Neoliberalism, Globalization, and Inequalities: Consequences for Health and Quality of Life. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing.
Nedergaard J., Bengtsson T. & Cannon B. (2007). Unexpected evidence for active brown adipose tissue in adult humans. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism 293: E444–52.
Neel J. (1962). Diabetes mellitus: a “thrifty” genotype rendered detrimental by “progress”? American Journal of Human Genetics 14: 353–62.
Neel J.V., Weder A.B. & Julius S. (1998). Type II diabetes, essential hypertension, and obesity as “syndromes of impaired genetic homeostasis”: the “thrifty genotype” hypothesis enters the 21st century. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 42: 4474.
Nestle M. (2002). Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.
Nestle M. & Jacobsen M.F. (2000). Halting the obesity epidemic: a public health policy approach. Public Health Reports 115: 1224.
Ng M., Fleming T., Robinson M. et al. (2014). Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 384: 766–81.
Nicholls D.G. & Locke R.M. (1984). Thermogenic mechanisms in brown fat. Physiological Reviews 64: 65102.
Nichols M.S., de Silva-Sanigorski A.M., Cleary J.E. et al. (2011). Decreasing trends in overweight and obesity among an Australian population of preschool children. International Journal of Obesity 35: 916–24.
Nicholson J.K. & Lindon J.C. (2008). Systems biology: metabonomics. Nature 455: 1054–56.
Norgan N.G. (1994). Population differences in body composition in relation to the body mass index. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48 (Suppl. 3): S10–27.
Norton G.N., Anderson A.S. & Hetherington M.M. (2006). Volume and variety: relative effects on food intake. Physiology and Behavior 87: 714–22.
Novak N.L. & Brownell K.D. (2011). Taxation as prevention and as a treatment for obesity: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages. Current Pharmaceutical Design 17: 1218–22.
Novak N.L. & Brownell K.D. (2012). Role of policy and government in the obesity epidemic. Circulation 126: 2345–52.
Nuffield Council on Bioethics (2007). Public Health: Ethical Issues. London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics.
Oakes J.M. & Rossi P.H. (2003). The measurement of SES in health research: current practice and steps toward a new approach. Social Science and Medicine 56: 769–84.
Ochs E. & Izquierdo C. (2009). Responsibility in childhood: three developmental trajectories. Ethos 37: 391413.
Offer A. (2016). Obesity and welfare regimes. In Komlos J. & Kelly I.R., eds., The Oxford Handbook of Economics and Human Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Offer A., Pechey R. & Ulijaszek S.J. (2010). Obesity under affluence varies by welfare regimes: the effect of fast food, insecurity, and inequality. Economics and Human Biology 8: 297308.
Offer A., Pechey R. & Ulijaszek S.J. (eds.) (2012). Insecurity, Inequality and Obesity. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Ogden C.L. & Carroll M.D. (2010). Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960–1962 through 2007–2008. Centers of Disease Control: NCHS Health and Stats. (accessed 11 May 2017).
Ogden C.L., Carroll M.D., Curtin L.R. et al. (2006). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. Journal of the American Medical Association 295: 1549–55.
Ogden C.L., Carroll M.D., Fryar C.D. & Flegal K.M. (2015). Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2011–2014. NCHS Data Brief No. 219. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Oken E. & Gillman M.W. (2003). Fetal origins of obesity. Obesity Research 11: 496506.
Olds T., Maher C., Zumin S., Peneau S. et al. (2011). Evidence that the prevalence of overweight is plateauing: data from nine countries. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity 6: 342–60.
Oliver A. (2011). Is nudge an effective public health strategy to tackle obesity? Yes. British Medical Journal 342: d2168.
Olshansky S.J., Passaro D.J., Hershow R.C., et al. (2005). A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. New England Journal of Medicine 352: 1138–45.
O’Rourke K. & Williamson J.G. (1999). Globalization and History: The Evolution of a Nineteenth-Century Atlantic Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Oswald A.J. & Powdthavee N. (2007). Obesity, unhappiness, and the challenge of affluence: Theory and evidence. Economic Journal 117: F441–54.
Ouellet V., Labbe S.M., Blondin D.P. et al. (2012). Brown adipose tissue oxidative metabolism contributes to energy expenditure during acute cold exposure in humans. Journal of Clinical Investigation 122: 545–52.
Ozbilgin M. & Tatli A. (2011). Mapping out the field of equality and diversity: rise of individualism and voluntarism. Human Relations 64: 1229–53.
Padez C., Mourao I., Moreira P. & Rosado V. (2005). Prevalence and risk factors for overweight and obesity in Portuguese children. Acta Paediatrica 94: 1550–7.
Paeratakul S., Ferdinand M.N., Champagne C.M., Ryan D.H. & Bray G.A. (2003). Fast-food consumption among US adults and children: dietary and nutrient intake profile. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103: 1332–8.
Pagan J.A. & Davila A. (1997). Obesity, occupational attainment, and earnings. Social Science Quarterly 78: 756–70.
Palsson B.O. (2015). Systems Biology: Constraint-based Reconstruction and Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pandza H. & Masic I. (1999). Expert systems in medicine. Medical Archives 53 (Suppl. 3): 25–7.
Panjwani C. & Caraher M. (2014). The public health responsibility deal: brokering a deal for public health, but on whose terms? Health Policy 114: 163–73.
Papp K. & Alcorn J. (2013). Right scale, resilient watersheds: managing complexity through nodal networks. Minding Nature 6: 3547.
Paquette M.-C. & Raine K. (2004). Sociocultural context of women’s body image. Social Science and Medicine 59: 1047–58.
Parkin D. and Ulijaszek S.J. (eds.) (2007). Holistic Anthropology: Convergence and Emergence. Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Parsons T.J., Power C., Logan S. & Summerbell C.D. (1999). Childhood predictors of adult obesity: a systematic review. International Journal of Obesity 23 (Suppl. 8): S1–107.
Parsons W. (2002). From muddling through to muddling up – evidence based policy making and the modernization of British government. Public Policy and Administration 17: 4360.
Pasco J.A., Nicholson G.C., Brennan S.L. & Kotowicz M.A. (2012). Prevalence of obesity and the relationship between the body mass index and body fat: cross-sectional, population-based data. PLoS One 7: e29580.
Pechlaner G. & Otero G. (2010). The neoliberal food regime: neoregulation and the new division of labor in North America. Rural Sociology 75: 179208.
Pennington A.W. (1953). A reorientation on obesity. New England Journal of Medicine 248: 959–64.
Philipson T.J. & Posner R.A. (1999). The Long-run Growth in Obesity as a Function of Technological Change. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 7423. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Philipson T.J. & Posner R.A. (2008). Is the Obesity Epidemic a Public Health Problem? National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 14010. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Pickett K., Kelly S., Brunner E., Lobstein T. & Wilkinson R.G. (2005). Wider income gaps, wider waistbands? An ecological study of obesity and income inequality. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 59: 670–4.
Pidd M. (2004). Systems Modelling: Theory and Practice. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
Pinkhasov R.M., Wong J., Kashanian J. et al. (2010). Are men shortchanged on health? Perspective on health care utilization and health risk behavior in men and women in the United States. International Journal of Clinical Practice 64: 475–87.
Piperno D.R. & Flannery K.V. (2001). The earliest archaeological maize (Zea mays L.) from highland Mexico: new accelerator mass spectrometry dates and their implications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98: 2101–3.
Platte P., Herbert C., Pauli P. & Breslin P.A.S. (2013). Oral perceptions of fat and taste stimuli are modulated by affect and mood induction. PLoS One 8: e65006
Pollock N. (1995). Social fattening patterns in the Pacific: the positive side of obesity: a Nauru case study. In de Garine I. & Pollock N., eds., Social Aspects of Obesity and Fatness. New York, NY: Gordon and Breach, pp. 87110.
Popkin B.M. (1999). Urbanization, lifestyle changes and the nutrition transition. World Development 27: 1905–16.
Popkin B.M. (2001). The nutrition transition and obesity in the developing world. Journal of Nutrition 131: 871S–3S.
Popkin B.M. (2002). Part II. What is unique about the experience in lower- and middle income less-industrialised countries compared with the very-high income industrialised countries? The shift in stages of the nutrition transition in the developing world differs from past experiences! Public Health Nutrition 5: 205–14.
Popkin B.M. (2004). The nutrition transition: an overview of world patterns of change. Nutrition Reviews 62: S140–3.
Popkin B.M. (2009). The World is Fat: The Fads, Trends, Policies, and Products that are Fattening the Human Race. New York, NY: Avery.
Popkin B.M. & Doak C.M. (1998). The obesity epidemic is a worldwide phenomenon. Nutrition Reviews 56: 106–14.
Popkin B.M. & Hawkes C. (2016). Sweetening of the global diet, particularly beverages: patterns, trends, and policy responses. Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology 4: 174–86.
Popkin B.M., Richards M.K. & Monteiro C.A. (1996). Stunting is associated with overweight in children of four nations that are undergoing the nutrition transition. Journal of Nutrition 126: 3009–16.
Popovich P.M., Everton W.J., Campbell K.L. et al. (1997). Criteria used to judge obese persons in the workplace. Perceptual and Motor Skills 85: 859–66.
Prader A., Tanner J.M. & von Harnack G.A. (1963). Catch-up growth following illness or starvation: an example of developmental canalization in man. Journal of Pediatrics 62: 646–59.
Prakash D.S.R.S. & Sudhakar G. (2011). Natural selection intensity in Settibalija, a Mendelian human population from South India. Journal of Anthropology 7: 111–5.
Prasad E., Rogoff K., Wei S.-J. & Kose M.A. (2005). Effects of financial globalisation on developing countries: some empirical evidence. In Tseng W. & Cowen D., eds., India’s and China’s Recent Experience with Reform and Growth. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, pp. 201–28.
Prentice A.M. & Jebb S.A. (1995). Obesity in Britain: gluttony or sloth? British Medical Journal 311: 437–9.
Prentice A.M. & Jebb S.A. (2003). Fast foods, energy density and obesity: a possible mechanistic link. Obesity Reviews 4: 187–94.
Prentice A.M., Hennig B.J. & Fulford A.J. (2008). Evolutionary origins of the obesity epidemic: natural selection of thrifty genes or genetic drift following predation release? International Journal of Obesity 32, 1607–10.
Prior I. & Tasman-Jones C. (1981). New Zealand Maori and Pacific Polynesians. In Trowell H.C. & Burkitt D.P., eds., Western Diseases: Their Emergence and Prevention. London: Edward Arnold, pp. 227–67.
Prospective Studies Collaboration (2009). Body mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet 373: 1083–96.
Public Health England (2015a). Changes in Children’s Body Mass Index between 2006/07 and 2013/14: National Child Measurement Programme. London: Public Health England.
Public Health England (2015b). Sugar Reduction: The Evidence for Action. London: Public Health England.
Public Health England (2016). PHE Obesity. (accessed 11 May 2017).
Puhl R. & Brownell K.D. (2001). Bias, discrimination, and obesity. Obesity Research 9: 788805.
Puhl R.M. & Brownell K.D. (2003). Psychosocial origins of obesity stigma: toward changing a powerful and pervasive bias. Obesity Reviews 4: 213–27.
Puhl R.M. & Heuer C.A. (2009). The stigma of obesity: a review and update. Obesity 17: 941–64.
Puhl R.M. & Latner J.D. (2007). Stigma, obesity, and the health of the nation’s children. Psychological Bulletin 133: 557–80.
Quinn D., Schindler M. & Toyoda A.M. (2011). Assessing measures of financial openness and integration. IMF Economic Review 59: 488522.
Raberg M., Kumar B., Holmboe-Ottesen G. & Wandel M. (2010). Overweight and weight dissatisfaction related to socio-economic position, integration and dietary indicators among South Asian immigrants in Oslo. Public Health Nutrition 13: 695703.
Rabin B.A., Boehmer T.K. & Brownson R.C. (2007). Cross-national comparison of environmental and policy correlates of obesity in Europe. European Journal of Public Health 17: 5361.
Rada P., Avena N.M. & Hoebel B.G. (2005). Daily bingeing on sugar repeatedly releases dopamine in the accumbens shell. Neuroscience 134: 737–44.
Rail G., Holmes D. & Murray S. (2010). The politics of evidence on ‘domestic terrorists’: obesity discourses and their effects. Social Theory and Health 8: 259–79.
Rao M.P. & Miller D.M. (2004). Expert systems applications for productivity analysis. Industrial Management and Data Systems 104: 776–85.
Rashad I. & Grossman M. (2004). The economics of obesity. Public Interest 156: 104–12.
Rasmussen N. (2008). America’s first amphetamine epidemic 1929–1971. American Journal of Public Health 98: 974–85.
Rasmussen N. (2015). Stigma and the addiction paradigm for obesity: lessons from 1950s America. Addiction 110: 217–25.
Ravelli G.P. & Belmont L. (1979). Obesity in nineteen-year-old men: family size and birth order associations. American Journal of Epidemiology 109: 6670.
Ravelli G.P., Stein Z.A. & Susser M.W. (1976). Obesity in young men after famine exposure in utero and early infancy. New England Journal of Medicine 295: 349–53.
Raymond C.A. (1986). Biology, culture, dietary changes conspire to increase incidence of obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association 256: 2157–8.
Rayner G. & Lang T. (2011). Is nudge an effective public health strategy to tackle obesity? No. British Medical Journal 342: d2177.
Rayner S. (2014). Wicked problems. Environmental Scientist 23: 46.
Razer M., Friedmann V.J. & Warshofsky B. (2013). Schools as agents of social exclusion and inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education 17: 1152–70.
Reardon T. & Berdegué J. (2002). The rapid rise of supermarkets in Latin America: challenges and opportunities for development. Development Policy Review 20: 371–88.
Reidpath D., Burns C., Garrard J., Mahoney M. & Townsend M. (2002). An ecological study of the relationship between social and environmental determinants of obesity. Health and Place 8: 141–5.
Reilly J.J. & Kelly J. (2011). Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systematic review. International Journal of Obesity 35: 891–8.
Reilly J.J., Armstrong J., Dorosty A.R. et al. (2005). Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study. British Medical Journal 330: 1357.
Reis J.P., Macera C.A., Araneta M.R. et al. (2009). Comparison of overall obesity and body fat distribution in predicting risk of mortality. Obesity 17: 1232–9.
Reynolds R.M., Jacobsen G.H. & Drake A.J. (2013). What is the evidence in humans that DNA methylation changes link events in utero and later life disease? Clinical Endocrinology 78: 814–22.
Rich E. (2011). ‘I see her being obesed!’: public pedagogy, reality media and the obesity crisis. Health 15: 321.
Rich E., Monaghan L. & Aphramor L. (eds.) (2011). Debating Obesity: Critical Perspectives. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Ritchey T. (2012). Outline for a morphology of modelling methods contribution to a general theory of modelling. Acta Morphologica Generalis 1: 120.
Rittel H.W.J. & Webber M.M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences 4: 155–69.
Rivera J.A., Barquera S., Campirano F. et al. (2002). Epidemiological and nutritional transition in Mexico: rapid increase of non-communicable chronic diseases and obesity. Public Health Nutrition 5: 111.
Rivera J.A., Barquera S., González-Cossío T., Olaiz G. & Sepúlveda J. (2004). Nutrition transition in Mexico and in other Latin American countries. Nutrition Reviews 62: S149–57.
Roberto C.A., Swinburn B., Hawkes C. et al. (2015). Patchy progress on obesity prevention: emerging examples, entrenched barriers, and new thinking. Lancet 385: 13–9.
Rodionov S.N. & Martin J.H. (1999). An expert system-based approach to prediction of year-to-year climatic variations in the North Atlantic region. International Journal of Climatology 19: 951–74.
Roehling M.V., Roehling P.V. & Pichler S. (2007). The relationship between body weight and perceived weight-related employment discrimination: the role of sex and race. Journal of Vocational Behavior 71: 300–18.
Rokholm B., Baker J.L. & Sorensen T.I.A. (2010). The levelling off of the obesity epidemic since the year 1999 – a review of evidence and perspectives. Obesity Reviews 11: 835–46.
Rokholm B., Andersen C.S. & Sorensen T. (2011). Developmental origins of obesity – genetic and epigenetic determinants. Open Obesity Journal 3: 2733.
Rolland-Cachera M.F., Deheeger M., Bellisle F. et al. (1984). Adiposity rebound in children: a simple indicator for predicting obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 39: 129–35.
Rolland-Cachera M.F., Deheeger M., Maillot M. & Bellisle F. (2006). Early adiposity rebound: causes and consequences for obesity in children and adults. International Journal of Obesity 30: S11–17.
Room G. (2015). Complexity, power and policy. In Geyer R. & Cairney P., eds., Handbook on Complexity and Public Policy. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 1931.
Rönn T., Volkov P., Davegårdh C. et al. (2013). A six months exercise intervention influences the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human adipose tissue. PLoS Genetics 9: e1003572.
Rooney B.L., Mathiason M.A. & Schauberger C.W. (2011). Predictors of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood in a birth cohort. Maternal and Child Health Journal 15: 1166–75.
Rose N. (1999). The Power of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rose N. (2013). The human sciences in a biological age. Theory, Culture and Society 30: 334.
Rosenbaum M. & Leibel R.L. (1998). The physiology of body weight regulation: relevance to the etiology of obesity in children. Pediatrics 101: 525–39.
Roskam A.-J.R., Kunst A.E., van Oyen H. et al. (2010). Comparative appraisal of educational inequalities in overweight and obesity among adults in 19 European countries. International Journal of Epidemiology 39: 392404.
Rosser J., Rosser M V. & Ahmed E. (2000). Income inequality and the informal economy in transition economies. Journal of Comparative Economics 28: 156–71.
Rothwell N.J. & Stock M.J. (1981). Regulation of energy balance. Annual Review of Nutrition 1: 235–56.
Royal College of Physicians (1983). Obesity: Report of the Royal College of Physicians. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians 17: 158.
Ruhm C.J. (2010). Understanding Overeating and Obesity. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 16149. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Rull J.A., Aguilar-Salinas C.A., Rojas R. et al. (2005). Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes in Mexico. Archives of Medical Research 36: 188–96.
Rundle A., Diez-Roux A.V., Freeman L.M. et al. (2007). The urban built environment and obesity in New York City: a multilevel analysis. American Journal of Health Promotion 21 (Suppl.): 326–34.
Sabanayagam C., Shankar A., Wong T.Y., Saw S.M. & Foster P.J. (2007). Socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity in an adult Chinese population in Singapore. Journal of Epidemiology, 17, 161–8.
Sacks G., Swinburn B.A. & Lawrence M.A. (2008). A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity. Australia and New Zealand Health Policy 5: 13.
Saguy A.C. (2006). French women don’t get fat? French news reporting on obesity. Health at Every Size 19: 219–34.
Saguy A.C. & Almeling R. (2014). Making the ‘obesity epidemic’: the role of science and the news media. In Eli K. & Ulijaszek S., eds., Obesity, Eating Disorders and the Media. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 107–23.
Saito M., Okamatsu-Ogura Y., Watanabe K. et al. (2009). High incidence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in healthy adult humans. Diabetes 58: 1526–31.
Saltonstall R. (1993). Healthy bodies, social bodies. Men’s and women’s concepts and practices of health in everyday life. Social Science and Medicine 36: 714.
Samuels R. & Stich S. (2004). Rationality and psychology. In Mele A.R. & Rawling P., eds., The Oxford Handbook of Rationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 279300.
Sanabria E. & Yates-Doerr E. (2015). Alimentary uncertainties: from contested evidence to policy. BioSocieties 10: 117–24.
Sargent J.D. & Blanchflower D.G. (1994). Obesity and stature in adolescence and earnings in young adulthood: analysis of a British birth cohort. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 148: 681–7.
Sassatelli R. & Scott A. (2001). Novel food, new markets and trust regimes: responses to the erosion of consumers’ confidence in Austria, Italy and the UK. European Societies 3: 213–44.
Savage M. (2000). Class Analysis and Social Transformation. Buckingham, Buckinghamshire: Open University Press.
Schmidhuber J. & Shetty P. (2005). The nutrition transition to 2030. Why developing countries are likely to bear the major burden. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section C – Food Economics 2: 150–66.
Schmidt I.M., Jorgensen M.H. & Michaelsen K.F. (1995). Heights of conscripts in Europe: is postneonatal mortality a predictor? Annals of Human Biology 22: 5767.
Schmidt Morgen C., Rokholm B., Brixval C.S. et al. (2013). Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in Danish, children and adolescents – are we still on a plateau? PLoS One 8: e69860.
Schneider H.J., Friedrich N., Klotsche J. et al. (2010). The predictive value of different measures of obesity for incident cardiovascular events and mortality. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 95: 1777–85.
Schoeller D (1990). How accurate is self-reported dietary energy intake? Nutrition Reviews 48: 373–9.
Schrecker T. & Bambra C. (2015). How Politics Makes Us Sick. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Schrecker T., Labonte R. & de Vogli R. (2008). Globalization and health: the need for a global vision. Lancet 372: 1670–6.
Schultz K.F., Altman D.G., Moher D. and the CONSORT Group (2010). CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. BMC Medicine 8: 18.
Schutz Y. (1995). Macronutrients and energy balance in obesity. Metabolism 44: 711.
Schwarz M. & Thompson M. (1990). Divided We Stand: Re-Defining Politics, Technology and Social Choice. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Schwartz M.B. & Puhl R. (2003). Childhood obesity: a societal problem to solve. Obesity Reviews 4: 5771.
Sclafani A. (1984). Animal models of obesity: classification and characterization. International Journal of Obesity 8: 491508.
Seale P., Kajimura S., Yang W. et al. (2007). Transcriptional control of brown fat determination by PRDM16. Cell Metabolism 6: 3854.
Sellayah D., Cagampang F.R. & Cox R.D. (2014). On the evolutionary origins of obesity: a new hypothesis. Endocrinology 155: 1573–88.
Serdula M.K., Mokdad A.H., Williamson D.F. et al. (1999). Prevalence of attempting weight loss and strategies for controlling weight. Journal of the American Medical Association 282: 1353–8.
Serretti A. & Mandelli L. (2010). Antidepressants and body weight: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 71: 1259–72.
Shafir E. & LeBoeuf R.A. (2002). Rationality. Annual Review of Psychology 53: 491517.
Shah N.P. (2007). Functional cultures and health benefits. International Dairy Journal 17: 1262–77.
Share M. & Strain M. (2008). Making schools and young people responsible: a critical analysis of Ireland’s obesity strategy. Health and Social Care in the Community 16: 234–43.
Sharma L.L., Teret S.P. & Brownell K.D. (2010). The food industry and self-regulation: standards to promote success and to avoid public health failures. American Journal of Public Health 100: 240–6.
Shen T., Habicht J.P. & Chang Y. (1996). Effect of economic reforms on child growth in urban and rural areas of China. New England Journal of Medicine 335: 400–6.
Shetty P.S. & James W.P.T. (1994). Body Mass Index. A Measure of Chronic Energy Deficiency in Adults. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 56. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.
Shill J., Mavoa H., Allender S. et al. (2012). Government regulation to promote healthy food environments – a view from inside state governments. Obesity Reviews 13: 162173.
Shove E. (2010). Beyond the ABC: climate change policy and theories of social change. Environment and Planning A 42: 1273–85.
Shrewsbury V. & Wardle J. (2008). Socioeconomic status and adiposity in childhood: a systematic review of cross-sectional studies 1990–2005. Obesity 16: 275–84.
Shugart H.A. (2014). Heavy viewing: emergent frames in contemporary news coverage of obesity. In Eli K. & Ulijaszek S., eds., Obesity, Eating Disorders and the Media. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 141–68.
Shugart H. (2016). Heavy: The Obesity Crisis in Cultural Context. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Simon H.A. (1955). A behavioral model of rational choice. Quarterly Journal of Economics 69: 99118.
Simon H.A. (1956). Rational choice and the structure of the environment. Psychological Review 60: 129–38.
Simon H.A. (1962). The architecture of complexity. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 106: 467–82.
Simpson S.J. & Raubenheimer D. (2005). Obesity: the protein leverage hypothesis. Obesity Reviews 6: 133–42.
Simpson S.J., Raubenheimer D., Charleston M.A. & Clissold F.J. (2010). Modelling nutritional interactions: from individuals to communities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25: 5360.
Singh G.K., Siahpush M. & Kogan M.D. (2010). Rising social inequalities in US childhood obesity, 2003–2007. Annals of Epidemiology 20: 4052.
Sinha R. & Jastreboff A.M. (2013). Stress as a common risk factor for obesity and addiction. Biological Psychiatry 73: 827–35.
Skogen J.C. & Overland S. (2012). The fetal origins of adult disease: a narrative review of the epidemiological literature. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 3: 59.
Sleddens E.F.C., Gerards S.M.P.L., Thijs C. et al. (2011). General parenting, childhood overweight and obesity-inducing behaviors: a review. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity 6: e12–27.
Sloboda D.M., Beedle A.S., Cupido C.L., Gluckman P.D. & Vickers M.H. (2009). Impaired perinatal growth and longevity: a life history perspective. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research 2009: 608740.
Smil V. (2008). Energy in Nature and Society: General Energetics of Complex Systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Smith B.D. (1997). The initial domestication of Cucurbita pepo in the Americas 10,000 years ago. Science 276: 932–4.
Smith C. (1998). The Science of Energy – a Cultural History of Energy Physics in Victorian Britain. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Smith M.E. (1984). The Aztlan migrations of the Nahuatl chronicles: myth or history? Ethnohistory 31: 153–86.
Snodgrass J.J., Leonard W.R., Sorensen M.V. et al. (2006). The emergence of obesity among indigenous Siberians. Journal of Physiological Anthropology 25: 7584.
Sobal J. (1991). Obesity and socioeconomic status: a framework for examining relationships between physical and social variables. Medical Anthropology 13: 231–47.
Sobal J. & Stunkard A.J. (1989). Socioeconomic status and obesity: a review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin 105: 260–75.
Sorensen T.I.A., Rokholm B. & Ajslev T.A. (2012). The history of the obesity epidemic in Denmark. In. Offer A., Pechey R. & Ulijaszek S.J., eds., Insecurity, Inequality and Obesity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 161–78.
Spahlholz J., Baer N., König H.-H., Riedel-Heller S.G. & Luck-Sikorski C. (2016). Obesity and discrimination – a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Obesity Reviews 17: 4355.
Speakman J.R. (2006). The genetics of obesity: five fundamental problems with the famine hypothesis. In Fantuzzi G. & Mazzone T., eds., Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease. New York, NY: Humana Press, pp. 221–36.
Speakman J.R. (2007). A nonadaptive scenario explaining the genetic predisposition to obesity: the “predation release” hypothesis. Cell Metabolism 6: 512.
Speakman J.R. (2008). Thrifty genes for obesity, an attractive but flawed idea, and an alternative perspective: the ‘drifty gene’ hypothesis. International Journal of Obesity 32: 1611–7.
Speakman J.R. (2013). Evolutionary perspectives on the obesity epidemic: adaptive, maladaptive, and neutral viewpoints. Annual Review of Nutrition 33: 289317.
Speakman J., Hambly C., Mitchell S. & Król E. (2007). Animal models of obesity. Obesity Reviews 8 (Suppl. 1): 5561.
Stamatakis E., Wardle J. & Cole T.J. (2010). Childhood obesity and overweight prevalence in England: evidence for growing socio-economic disparities. International Journal of Obesity 34: 41–7.
Steckel R.H. (1995). Stature and the standard of living. Journal of Economic Literature 33: 1903–40.
Steckel R.H. (1998). Stature and the standard of living. In Komlos J. & Cuff T., eds., Classics in Anthropometric History. St Katharinen, Neuwied: Scripta Mercaturae Verlag, pp. 63114.
Stephenson G. & Hepburn J.A. (1955). Plan for the Metropolitan Region, Perth and Fremantle, Western Australia: A Report Prepared for the Government of Western Australia. Perth, WA: Government Printing Office.
Stern D., Piernas C., Barquera S., Rivera J.A. & Popkin B.M. (2014). Caloric beverages were major sources of energy among children and adults in Mexico, 1999–2012. Journal of Nutrition 144: 949–56.
Stevens A. (2011). Telling policy stories: an ethnographic study of the use of evidence in policy-making in the UK. Journal of Social Policy 40: 237–55.
Stevens G.A., Singh G.M., Lu Y. et al. (2012). National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences. Population Health Metrics 10: 22.
Story M., Kaphingst K.M., Robinson-O’Brien R. & Glanz K. (2008). Creating healthy food and eating environments: policy and environmental approaches. Annual Review of Public Health 29: 253–72.
Strickland S.S. & Ulijaszek S.J. (1994). Body mass index and illness in Sarawak. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48 (Suppl. 3): S98–108.
Striegel-Moore R.H. & Franko D.L. (2004). Body image issues among girls and women. In Cash T.F. & Pruzinsky T., eds., Body Image: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press, pp. 183–91.
Strine T.W., Mokdad A.H., Balluz L.S. et al. (2008). Depression and anxiety in the United States: findings from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Psychiatric Services 59: 1383–90.
Stubbs R.J. & Whybrow S. (2004). Energy density, diet composition and palatability: influences on overall food energy intake in humans. Physiology and Behavior 81: 755–64.
Stubbs R.J., Ferres S. & Horgan G. (2000). Energy density of foods: effects on energy intake. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 40: 481515.
Stunkard A.J. (1959). Eating patterns and obesity. Psychological Bulletin 33: 284–94.
Sugarman J. (2015). Neoliberalism and psychological ethics. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 35: 103–16.
Sui D.Z. (2003). Musings on the fat city: are obesity and urban forms linked? Urban Geography 24: 7584.
Sunder M. & Woitek U. (2005). Boom, bust, and the human body: further evidence on the relationship between height and business cycles. Economics and Human Biology 3: 450–66.
Swan G. & Carmelli D. (1995). Characteristics associated with excessive weight gain after smoking cessation in men. American Journal of Public Health 85: 73–7.
Swank D. (2004). The Spread of Neoliberalism: U.S. Economic Power and the Diffusion of Market-oriented Tax Policy. Harvard University Center for European Studies Working Paper No. 120. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Center for European Studies.
Swinburn B., Sacks G. & Ravussin E. (2009). Increased food energy supply is more than sufficient to explain the US epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90: 1453–6.
Swinburn B., Kraak V., Rutter H. et al. (2015). Strengthening of accountability systems to create healthy food environments and reduce global obesity. Lancet 385: 2534–45.
Swinburn B.A., Egger G. & Raza F. (1999a). Dissecting obesogenic environments: the development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Preventive Medicine 29: 563–70.
Swinburn B.A., Ley S.J., Carmichael M.H.E. & Plank L.D. (1999b). Body size and composition of Polynesians. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 23: 1178–83.
Swinburn B.A., Gill T. & Kumanyika S. (2005). Obesity prevention: a proposed framework for translating evidence into action. Obesity Reviews 6: 2333.
Swinburn B.A., Sacks G., Hall K.D. et al. (2011). The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. Lancet 378, 804–14.
Szyf M. (2015). Nongenetic inheritance and transgenerational epigenetics. Trends in Molecular Medicine 21: 134–44.
Tandler P.J., Butcher J.A., Tao H. & Harrington P.d.B. (1995). Analysis of plastic recycling products by expert systems. Analytica Chimica Acta 312: 231–44.
Tanner J.M. (1981). A History of the Study of Human Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tanner J.M. (1987). Growth as a mirror of the condition of society: secular trends and class distinctions. Acta Paediatrica Japonica 29: 96103.
Tartaglia L.A., Dembski M., Weng X. et al. (1995). Identification and expression cloning of a leptin receptor, OB-R. Cell 83: 1263–71.
Tausch A. (2012). A globalization-oriented perspective on health, inequality and socio-economic development. International Journal of Health Planning and Management 27: 233.
Taylor J. (2003). Foresight Cognitive Systems Project. London: Office of Science and Technology, Her Majesty’s Government.
Taylor P.J. (2012). Extraordinary cities: early ‘city-ness’ and the origins of agriculture and states. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 36: 415–47.
Teegarden S.L. & Bale T.L. (2007). Decreases in dietary preference produce increased emotionality and risk for dietary relapse. Biological Psychiatry 61: 1021–9.
Telch C.F. & Agras W.S. (1994). Obesity, binge eating and psychopathology: are they related? International Journal of Eating Disorders 15: 5361.
Tencati A. & Zsolnai L. (2009). The collaborative enterprise. Journal of Business Ethics 85: 367–76.
Thaler R.H. (2015). Misbehaving. The Making of Behavioral Economics. New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Company.
Thaler R.H. & Sunstein C.R. (2008). Nudge. Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Thomas D.M., Bouchard C., Church T. et al. (2012). Why do individuals not lose more weight from an exercise intervention at a defined dose? An energy balance analysis. Obesity Reviews 13: 835–47.
Thomas R.B. (1997). Wandering toward the edge of adaptability: adjustments of Andean people to change. In Ulijaszek S.J. & Huss-Ashmore R.A., eds., Human Adaptability: Past, Present and Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 183232.
Thompson A.L. (2012). Developmental origins of obesity: early feeding environments, infant growth, and the intestinal microbiome. American Journal of Human Biology 24: 350–60.
Thompson M., Ellis R.J. & Wildavsky A.B. (1990). Cultural Theory. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Thow A. & Hawkes C. (2009). The implications of trade liberalization for diet and health: a case study from Central America. Globalization and Health 5: 5.
Thow A.-M., Jan S., Leeder S. & Swinburn B. (2010). The effect of fiscal policy on diet, obesity and chronic disease: a systematic review. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 88: 609–14.
Throsby K. (2007). “How could you let yourself get like that?”: stories of the origins of obesity in accounts of weight loss surgery. Social Science and Medicine 65: 1561–71.
Throsby K. (2012). ‘I’d kill anyone who tried to take my band away’: obesity surgery, critical fat politics and the ‘problem’ of patient demand. Somatechnics 2: 107–26.
Tolman C.W. (1964). Social facilitation of feeding behaviour in the domestic chick. Animal Behavior 12: 245–51.
Toussaint O. & Schneider E.D. (1998). The thermodynamics and evolution of complexity in biological systems. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 120: 39.
Trentmann F. (2007). Citizenship and consumption. Journal of Consumer Culture 7: 147–58.
Triandis H.C. (1995). Individualism and Collectivism (New Directions in Social Psychology). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Triandis H.C. (2001). Individualism-collectivism and personality. Journal of Personality 69: 907924.
Trowbridge F.L., Marks J.S., Deromana G.L. et al. (1987). Body composition of Peruvian children with short stature and high weight-for-height. 2. Implications for the interpretation of weight-for-height as an indicator of nutritional status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46: 411–8.
Trowell H. (1975). Obesity in the Western world. Plant Foods for Man 1: 157–65.
Tsai F. & Coyle W.J. (2009). The microbiome and obesity: is obesity linked to our gut flora? Current Gastroenterology Reports 11: 307–13.
Tseng Y.-H., Cypess A.M. & Kahn C.R. (2010). Cellular bioenergetics as a target for obesity therapy. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 9: 465–82.
Turnbaugh P.J., Hamady M., Yatsunenko T. et al. (2009). A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Nature 457: 480–84.
Turok I. (2009). The distinctive city: pitfalls in the pursuit of differential advantage. Environment and Planning A 41: 1330.
Twenge J.M. (2000). The age of anxiety? Birth cohort change in anxiety and neuroticism, 1952–1993. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79: 1007–21.
Ulijaszek S.J. (1990). Nutritional status and susceptibility to infectious disease. In Harrison G.A. & Waterlow J.C., eds., Diet and Disease. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 137–54.
Ulijaszek S.J. (1991). Human dietary change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 334: 271–9.
Ulijaszek S.J. (1992). Energetics methods in biological anthropology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 35: 215–42.
Ulijaszek S.J. (1993). Evidence for a secular trend in heights and weights of adults in Papua New Guinea. Annals of Human Biology 20: 349–55.
Ulijaszek S.J. (1995). Human Energetics in Biological Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ulijaszek S.J. (1996a). Energetics, adaptation, and adaptability. American Journal of Human Biology 8: 169–82.
Ulijaszek S.J. (1996b). Relationships between undernutrition, infection, and growth and development. Human Evolution 11: 233–48.
Ulijaszek S.J. (1999). Physical activity, lifestyle and health of urban populations. In Schell L.M. & Ulijaszek S.J., eds., Urbanism, Health and Human Biology in Industrialised Countries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 250–79.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2000). Nutrition, infection, and child growth in Papua New Guinea. Collegium Antropologicum 24: 423–9.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2001a). Increasing body size and obesity among Cook Islanders between 1966 and 1996. Annals of Human Biology 28: 363–73.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2001b). Body mass index and physical activity levels of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 52: 453–61.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2001c). Socioeconomic status, body size and physical activity of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands. Annals of Human Biology 28: 554–63.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2001d). Ethnic differences in patterns of human growth in stature. In Martorell R. & Haschke F., eds., Nutrition and Growth. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp. 120.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2001e). Secular trends in growth and the narrowing of ethnic differences in stature. Nutrition Bulletin, 26, 4351.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2002a). Human eating behaviour in an evolutionary ecological context. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61: 517–26.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2002b). Modernization and the diet of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 41: 203–28.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2003). Trends in body size, diet and food availability in the Cook Islands in the second half of the twentieth century. Economics and Human Biology 1: 123–37.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2006). The International Growth Reference for Children and Adolescents project: environmental influences on preadolescent and adolescent growth in weight and height. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 27 (Suppl.): S279–94.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2007a). Frameworks of population obesity and the use of cultural consensus modeling in the study of environments contributing to obesity. Economics and Human Biology 5: 443–57.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2007b). Obesity: a disorder of convenience. Obesity Reviews 8 (Suppl. 1): 183–7.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2008). Seven models of population obesity. Angiology 59 (Suppl.): 34S–8S.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2010). Variation in human growth patterns due to environmental factors. In Muehlenbein M.P., ed., Human Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 396404.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2012). Socio-economic status, forms of capital and obesity. Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer 43: 37.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2014). Obesity, government and the media. In Eli K. & Ulijaszek S., eds., Obesity, Eating Disorders and the Media. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 125–40.
Ulijaszek S.J. (2015). With the benefit of Foresight: obesity, complexity and joined-up government. BioSocieties 10: 213–28.
Ulijaszek S.J. & Bryant E.J. (2016). Binge eating, disinhibition and obesity. In Alvergne A., Jenkinson C. & Faurie C., eds., Evolutionary Thinking in Medicine: From Research to Policy and Practice. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 105–17.
Ulijaszek S.J. & Koziel S. (2007). Nutrition transition and dietary energy availability in Eastern Europe after the collapse of communism. Economics and Human Biology 5: 359–69.
Ulijaszek S.J. & Lofink H. (2006). Obesity in biocultural perspective. Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 337–60.
Ulijaszek S.J. & McLennan A.K. (2016). Framing obesity in UK policy from the Blair years, 1997–2015: persistent individualistic approaches despite overwhelming evidence of societal and economic factors, and the need for collective responsibility. Obesity Reviews 17: 397411.
Ulijaszek S.J. & Strickland S.S. (1993). Nutritional Anthropology: Prospects and Perspectives in Human Nutrition. London: Smith-Gordon and Company.
Ulijaszek S.J., Hyndman D.C., Lourie J.A. & Pumuye A. (1987). Mining, modernisation and dietary change among the Wopkaimin of Papua New Guinea. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 20: 148–56.
Ulijaszek S.J., Mann N. & Elton S. (2012). Evolving Human Nutrition. Implications for Public Health. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ulijaszek S.J., Graff H. & McLennan A.K. (2016a). Conceptualizing ecobiosocial interactions: lessons from obesity. In Singer M., ed., A Companion to the Anthropology of Environmental Health. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 85100.
Ulijaszek S.J., Pentecost M., Marcus C. et al. (2016b). Inequality and childhood overweight and obesity: a commentary. Pediatric Obesity 12: 195202.
Uller T. (2008). Developmental plasticity and the evolution of parental effects. Trends in Molecular Medicine 23: 432–8.
UNAIDS (2013). Global Report. UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013. Geneva: UNAIDS.
UNAIDS (2016). UNAIDS/WHO Policy on HIV testing. (accessed 5 July 2016).
Unerman J. & O’Dwyer B. (2007). The business case for regulation of corporate social responsibility and accountability. Accounting Forum 31: 332–53.
United Nations Development Program (2016). Human Development Index (HDI). (accessed 14 July 2016).
United Nations Development Programme (2006). Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and the Global Water Crisis. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
United Nations Statistical Office (1980). Towards More Effective Measurement of Levels of Living, and Review of Work of the United Nations Statistical Office (UNSO) Related to Statistics of Levels of Living. LSMS Working Paper No. 4. Washington, DC: World Bank.
United States Anxiety Disorder Industry (2016). 2016 Market Research Report. Puyallup, WA: QY Research Groups.
US Department of Health and Human Services (2000). Healthy People 2000. Final Review. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
US Department of Health and Human Services (2001). The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General.
US Department of Health and Human Services (2010). The Surgeon General’s Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation 2010. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General.
Valavanis I. & Kosmopoulos D. (2010). Multiclass defect detection and classification in weld radiographic images using geometric and texture features. Expert Systems with Applications 37: 7606–14.
Vallgarda S., Nielsen M.E.J., Harlev M. & Sandoe P. (2015). Backward-and forward-looking responsibility for obesity: policies from WHO, the EU and England. European Journal of Public Health 25: 845–8.
van Boom W., Garde A. & Akseli O. (eds.) (2014). The European Unfair Commercial Practices Directive – Impact, Enforcement Strategies and National Legal Systems. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing.
van der Lans A.A.J.J., Hoeks J., Brans B. et al. (2013). Cold acclimation recruits human brown fat and increases nonshivering thermogenesis. Journal of Clinical Investigation 123: 33953403.
van Dijk S.J., Molloy P.L., Varinli H. et al. (2015). Epigenetics and human obesity. International Journal of Obesity 39: 8597.
Vandegrift D. & Yoked T. (2004). Obesity rates, income, and suburban sprawl: an analysis of US states. Health and Place 10: 221–9.
Vandenbroeck P., Goossens J. & Clemens M. (2007a). Tackling Obesities: Future Choices – Building the Obesity System Map. London: Government Office for Science.
Vandenbroeck P., Goossens J. & Clemens M. (2007b). Tackling Obesities: Future Choices – Obesity System Atlas. London: Government Office for Science.
Vazquez G., Duval S., Jacobs D.R. & Silventoinen K. (2007). Comparison of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio in predicting incident diabetes: a meta-analysis. Epidemiologic Reviews 29: 115128.
Veblen T. (1994). The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.
Veenendaal M.V., Painter R.C., de Rooij S.R. et al. (2013). Transgenerational effects of prenatal exposure to the 1944–45 Dutch famine. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 120: 548–53.
Venator J. & Reeves R.V. (2015). Weight and social mobility: taking the long view on childhood obesity. Brookings Institute Social Mobility Paper. (accessed 26 April 2016).
Verloigne M., van Lippevelde W., Maes L., Brug J. & de Bourdeaudhuij I. (2012). Family- and school-based correlates of energy balance-related behaviours in 10–12-year-old children: a systematic review within the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. Public Health Nutrition 15: 1380–95.
Vickers M.H. (2014). Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease. Nutrients 6: 2165–78.
Vickers M.H., Cupido C.L. & Gluckman P.D. (2007). Developmental programming of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review 18: 123.
Vignerova J., Humenıkova L., Brabec M. et al. (2007). Long-term changes in body weight, BMI, and adiposity rebound among children and adolescents in the Czech Republic. Economics and Human Biology 5: 409–25.
Vikhlyaev A.A. (2005). Science on the tap, not on the top. International Journal of Technology and Globalisation 1: 145–61.
Viner R.M., Roche E., Maguire S.A. & Nicholls D.E. (2010). Childhood protection and obesity: framework for practice. British Medical Journal 341: c3074.
Visscher T.L. & Seidell J.C. (2001). The public health impact of obesity. Annual Review of Public Health 22: 355–75.
Visscher T.L., Seidell J.C., Molarius A. et al. (2001). A comparison of body mass index, waist–hip ratio and waist circumference as predictors of all-cause mortality among the elderly: the Rotterdam study. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 25: 1730–5.
Visscher T.L., Heitmann B.L., Rissanen A., Lahti-Koski M. & Lissner L. (2015). A break in the obesity epidemic? Explained by biases or misinterpretation of the data? International Journal of Obesity 39: 189–98.
Wabitsch M., Moss A. & Kromeyer-Hauschild K. (2014). Unexpected plateauing of childhood obesity rates in developed countries. BMC Medicine 12: 17.
Wacquant L. (2009). Punishing the Poor. The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Wade T.J. & Cooper M. (1999). Sex differences in the links between attractiveness, self-esteem and the body. Personality and Individual Differences 27: 1047–56.
Walker A. (1981). South African black, Indian and coloured populations. In Trowell H.C. & Burkitt D.P., eds., Western Diseases: Their Emergence and Prevention. London: Edward Arnold, pp. 285318.
Wallace D.C. (2010). Bioenergetics, the origins of complexity, and the ascent of man. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107 (Suppl. 2): 8947–53.
Walley A.J., Asher J.E. & Froguel P. (2009). The genetic contribution to non-syndromic human obesity. Nature Reviews Genetics 10: 431–42.
Wang D., Liu X., Zhou Y. et al. (2012). Individual variation and longitudinal pattern of genome-wide DNA methylation from birth to the first two years of life. Epigenetics 7: 594605.
Wang G. & Dietz W.H. (2002). Economic burden of obesity in youths aged 6 to 17 years: 1979–1999. Pediatrics 109: E81.
Wang Y.C., McPherson K., Marsh T., Gortmaker S.L. & Brown M. (2011). Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK. Lancet 378: 815–25.
Wansink B., Cheney M.M. & Chan N. (2003). Exploring comfort food preferences across age and gender. Physiology and Behavior 79: 739–47.
Wardle J. & Griffith J. (2001). Socio-economic status and weight control practices in British adults. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 55: 185–90.
Wardle J., Waller J. & Jarvis M.J. (2002). Sex differences in the association of socioeconomic status with obesity. American Journal of Public Health 92: 12991304.
Wardle J., Haase A.M., Steptoe A., et al. (2004). Gender differences in food choice: the contribution of health beliefs and dieting. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 27: 107–16.
Warin M., Zivkovic T., Moore V. & Davies M. (2012). Mothers as smoking guns: fetal overnutrition and the reproduction of obesity. Feminism and Psychology 22: 360–75.
Warin M., Moore V., Davies M. & Ulijaszek S.J. (2015). Epigenetics and obesity: the reproduction of habitus through intracellular and social environments. Body and Society 22: 5378.
Warren E. & Tyagi A.W. (2003). The Two-income Trap: Why Families Went Broke When Mothers Went to Work. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Waterlow J.C. (1988). Observations on the natural history of stunting. In Waterlow J.C., ed., Linear Growth Retardation in Less Developed Countries. New York, NY: Raven Press, pp. 112.
Waters T. & Waters D. (2015). Weber’s Rationalism and Modern Society: New Translations on Politics, Bureaucracy, and Social Stratification. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan
Watson J.D. & Crick F.H.C. (1953). The structure of DNA. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 18: 123–31.
Webber J. (2003). Energy balance in obesity. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62: 539–43.
Weber M. (1946). Politics as a vocation. In Gerth H.H. & Mills C.W., eds., Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp. 77128.
Weber M. (1978). Economy and Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Webster E., Lambert R. & Bezuidenhout A. (2008). Grounding Globalization. Labour in the Age of Insecurity. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Wedel J.R., Shore C., Feldman G. & Lathrop S. (2005). Toward an anthropology of public policy. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 600: 3051.
Weigly E.S. (1984). Average? Ideal? Desirable? A brief overview of weight tables in the United States. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 84: 417–23.
Weirich P. (2004). Economic rationality. In Mele A.R. & Rawling P., eds., The Oxford Handbook of Rationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 380–98.
Wells J.C.K. (2010). The Evolutionary Biology of Human Body Fatness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wells J.C.K., Marphatia A.A., Cole T.J. & McCoy D. (2012). Associations of economic and gender inequality with global obesity prevalence: understanding the female excess. Social Science and Medicine 75: 482–90.
Wen C.P., Cheng T.Y.D., Tsai S.P. et al. (2009). Are Asians at greater mortality risks for being overweight than Caucasians? Redefining obesity for Asians. Public Health Nutrition: 12: 497506.
Wen W. (2010). An intelligent traffic management expert system with RFID technology. Expert Systems with Applications 37: 3024–35.
Whitaker R.C. (2004). Predicting preschooler obesity at birth: the role of maternal obesity in early pregnancy. Pediatrics 114: e29–36.
White T.D., Asfaw B., Beyene Y. et al. (2009). Ardipithecus ramidus and the paleobiology of early hominids. Science 326: 6486.
Widmaier E.P. (1999). Why Geese Don’t Get Obese (and We Do): How Evolution’s Strategies for Survival Affect Our Everyday Lives. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company.
Winter J.E., MacInnis R.J., Wattanapenpaiboon N. & Nowson C.A. (2014). BMI and all-cause mortality in older adults: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 99: 875–90.
Weissner P. & Schiefenhovel W. (eds.)(1996). Food and the Status Quest. Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Wilcoxon A.J. & Russell I.T. (1983). Birthweight and perinatal mortality: II. On weight-specific mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology 12: 319–25.
Wildavsky A.B., Ellis R.J. & Thompson M. (1997). Culture Matters: Essays in Honor of Aaron Wildavsky. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Wilkinson R.G. & Pickett K. (2009). The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better. London: Allen Lane.
Wimsatt W.C. (1994). The ontology of complex systems: levels of organization, perspectives, and causal thickets. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20: 207–74.
Wing R.R. & Phelan S. (2005). Long-term weight loss maintenance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82: 222S–5S.
Winterhalder B. & Kennett D.J. (2009). Four neglected concepts with a role to play in explaining the origins of agriculture. Current Anthropology 50: 645–8.
Wisman J.D. & Capehart H.W. (2012). Creative destruction, economic and security, stress, and epidemic obesity. In Offer A., Pechey R. & Ulijaszek S.J., eds., Insecurity, Inequality and Obesity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 553.
Witt A.A. & Lowe M.R. (2014). Hedonic hunger and binge eating among women with eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders 47: 273–80.
Wolf A.M. & Colditz G.A. (1998). Current estimates of the economic cost of obesity in the United States. Obesity Research 6: 97106.
Woolgar S. & Neyland D. (2013). Mundane Governance: Ontology and Accountability. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
World Bank (2016a). GDP per capita, PPP (current international $). World Bank, International Comparison Program database. (accessed 9 November 2016).
World Bank (2016b). Cause of death, by communicable diseases and maternal, prenatal and nutrition conditions (% of total). (acccessed 15 January 2016).
World Bank (2016c). Fertility rates, total (births per woman). (accessed 15 September 2016).
World Health Organization (2000). Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization (2006). European Charter on Counteracting Obesity. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization (2009a). Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization (2009b). 2008–2013 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization (2011). Waist Circumference and Waist–Hip Ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization (2014). Ten Facts About Obesity. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization (2015a). Global database on body mass index. (accessed 15 December 2015).
World Health Organization (2015b). Global and regional food consumption patterns and trends. (accessed 15 December 2015).
World Health Organization (2015c). World Malaria Report 2015. (accessed 21 December 2015).
World Health Organization (2016a) Malaria. Diagnostic testing. (accessed 5 July 2016).
World Health Organization (2016b). Consideration of the Evidence on Childhood Obesity for the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity. Report of the Ad hoc Working Group on Science and Evidence for Ending Childhood Obesity. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization Expert Consultation (2004). Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 363: 157–63.
World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/United Nations University (2001). Human Energy Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation, Rome, Italy, 17–24 October 2001. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Obesity Federation (2017). World map of obesity. (accessed 12 May 2017).
Worrall J. (1989). Structural realism: the best of both worlds? Dialectica 43: 99124.
Wright S.M. & Aronne L.J. (2012). Causes of obesity. Abdominal Radiology 37: 730–2.
Wu T., Gao X., Chen M. & van Dam R.M. (2009). Long-term effectiveness of diet-plus-exercise interventions vs. diet-only interventions for weight loss: a meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews 10: 313–23.
Xu F., Yin X.M., Zhang M. et al. (2005). Family average income and body mass index above the healthy weight range among urban and rural residents in regional Mainland China. Public Health Nutrition 8: 4751.
Yajnik C.S. & Deshmukh U.S. (2008). Maternal nutrition, intrauterine programming and consequential risks in the offspring. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 9: 203.
Yang J., Manolio T.A., Pasquale L.R. et al. (2011). Genome partitioning of genetic variation for complex traits using common SNPs. Nature Genetics 43: 519–25.
Yates-Doerr E. (2013). The mismeasure of obesity. In McCullough M.B. & Hardin J.A., eds., Reconstructing Obesity: The Meaning of Measures and the Measure of Meanings. Oxford: Berghahn Books, pp. 4970.
Yeo G.S.H. & Heisler L.K. (2012). Unraveling the brain regulation of appetite: lessons from genetics. Nature Neuroscience 15: 1343–9.
Yoshizawa R. (2012). The Barker hypothesis and obesity: connections for transdisciplinarity and social justice. Social Theory and Health 10: 348–67.
Yu Y., Hui P.C.-L. & Choi T.-M. (2012). An empirical study of intelligent expert systems on forecasting of fashion color trend. Expert Systems with Applications 39: 4383–9.
Zeeck A., Stelzer N., Linser H.W., Joos A. & Hartmann A. (2011). Emotion and eating in binge eating disorder and obesity. European Eating Disorders Review 19: 426–37.
Zemel M.B., Kim J.H., Woychik R.P. et al. (1995). Agouti regulation of intracellular calcium: role in the insulin resistance of viable yellow mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 92: 4733–7.
Zhang Y., Proenca R., Maffei M. et al. (1994). Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature 372: 425–32.
Zhou B.-F. (2002). Predictive values of body mass index and waist circumference for risk factors of certain related diseases in Chinese adults – study on optimal cut-off points of body mass index and waist circumference in Chinese adults. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 15: 8395.
Zivkovic T., Warin M., Moore V., Ward P. & Jones M. (2015). The sweetness of care: biographies, bodies and place. In Abbots E.-J., Lavis A. & Attala L., eds., Careless Eating: Bodies, Food and Care. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 109126.