Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 59
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Hofer, Jan and Hagemeyer, Birk 2018. Motivation and Action. p. 305.

    Busch, H. 2018. Motivation und Handeln. p. 245.

    Busch, Holger 2018. Motivation and Action. p. 335.

    Hofer, J. and Hagemeyer, B. 2018. Motivation und Handeln. p. 223.

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae 2017. Not Your Same Old Story: New Rules for Thematic Apperceptive Techniques (TATs). Journal of Personality Assessment, Vol. 99, Issue. 3, p. 238.

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae 2017. The Narrative Arc of TATs: Introduction to the JPA Special Section on Thematic Apperceptive Techniques. Journal of Personality Assessment, Vol. 99, Issue. 3, p. 225.

    Hofer, Jan Busch, Holger Raihala, Carolin Poláčková Šolcová, Iva and Tavel, Peter 2017. The Higher Your Implicit Affiliation-Intimacy Motive, the More Loneliness Can Turn You Into a Social Cynic: A Cross-Cultural Study. Journal of Personality, Vol. 85, Issue. 2, p. 179.

    Steinmann, Barbara Ötting, Sonja K. and Maier, Günter W. 2016. Need for Affiliation as a Motivational Add-On for Leadership Behaviors and Managerial Success. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7, Issue. ,

    Arnold, John and Clark, Mike 2016. Running the penultimate lap of the race: A multimethod analysis of growth, generativity, career orientation, and personality amongst men in mid/late career. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 89, Issue. 2, p. 308.

    Siefert, Caleb J. Stein, Michelle B. Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle Sinclair, Samuel Justin Haggerty, Greg and Blais, Mark A. 2016. Estimating the Effects of Thematic Apperception Test Card Content on SCORS–G Ratings: Replication With a Nonclinical Sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, Vol. 98, Issue. 6, p. 598.

    Schüler, Julia Brandstätter, Veronika Wegner, Mirko and Baumann, Nicola 2015. Testing the convergent and discriminant validity of three implicit motive measures: PSE, OMT, and MMG. Motivation and Emotion, Vol. 39, Issue. 6, p. 839.

    Valero, Domingo Nikitin, Jana and Freund, Alexandra M. 2015. The effect of age and time perspective on implicit motives. Motivation and Emotion, Vol. 39, Issue. 2, p. 175.

    Heser, Kathrin Banse, Rainer and Imhoff, Roland 2015. Affiliation or Power. Swiss Journal of Psychology, Vol. 74, Issue. 1, p. 37.

    Hofer, Jan Busch, Holger and Schneider, Carolin 2015. The Effect of Motive-Trait Interaction on Satisfaction of the Implicit Need for Affiliation Among German and Cameroonian Adults. Journal of Personality, Vol. 83, Issue. 2, p. 167.

    Steinmann, Barbara Dörr, Stefan L. Schultheiss, Oliver C. and Maier, Günter W. 2015. Implicit motives and leadership performance revisited: What constitutes the leadership motive pattern?. Motivation and Emotion, Vol. 39, Issue. 2, p. 167.

    Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle Hoda and Wilensky, Uri J. 2015. Patterns, Probabilities, and People: Making Sense of Quantitative Change in Complex Systems. Journal of the Learning Sciences, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 204.

    Gröpel, Peter Schoene, Lena and Wegner, Mirko 2015. Implizite und explizite Motive von Leistungs- und Freizeitsporttreibenden. Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie, Vol. 22, Issue. 1, p. 6.

    Gröpel, Peter and Kehr, Hugo M. 2014. Motivation and Self-Control: Implicit Motives Moderate the Exertion of Self-Control in Motive-Related Tasks. Journal of Personality, Vol. 82, Issue. 4, p. 317.

    Goldey, Katherine L. Avery, Lanice R. and van Anders, Sari M. 2014. Sexual Fantasies and Gender/Sex: A Multimethod Approach with Quantitative Content Analysis and Hormonal Responses. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 51, Issue. 8, p. 917.

    Newton, Nicky J. and Baltys, Izora H. 2014. Parent Status and Generativity within the Context of Race. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, Vol. 78, Issue. 2, p. 171.

  • Print publication year: 1992
  • Online publication date: October 2009

37 - Methodological considerations: steps in research employing content analysis systems


Research involving the analysis of verbal material for content and/or style involves the following steps: (1) deciding what type of verbal material (and subject population) to sample, (2) choosing a method for obtaining the material, (3) collecting the material, (4) learning a content analysis system, (5) learning how to measure intercoder agreement, (6) coding (scoring) the material, and (7) analyzing the data. This chapter presents information and recommendations regarding these steps in research.

Following this chapter, appendix I provides practice stories with “expert scoring” for a number of the scoring systems included in this book. Anyone who wishes to learn to use one of these systems should read the chapters on that system and the section in this chapter on scorer training and then follow the directions in appendix I for using the practice materials.


The nature of the verbal material to be obtained is determined by the following considerations: the type of variable to be measured (e.g., content or style, individual or group characteristic); the number of variables to be measured from the same sample of verbal material; and the time period to be dealt with (past or present).

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Motivation and Personality
  • Online ISBN: 9780511527937
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *