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    Mohammadkhani, Shahram Bahari, Ali and Akbarian FiroozAbadi, Mahsa 2017. Attachment Styles and Depression Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Rumination. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 23, Issue. 3, p. 320.

    Teismann, Tobias Hanning, Sven von Brachel, Ruth and Willutzki, Ulrike 2017. Kognitive Verhaltenstherapie depressiven Grübelns. p. 3.

    Van Petegem, Stijn Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J. Soenens, Bart Vansteenkiste, Maarten Brenning, Katrijn Mabbe, Elien Vanhalst, Janne and Zimmermann, Grégoire 2017. Does General Parenting Context Modify Adolescents' Appraisals and Coping with a Situation of Parental Regulation? The Case of Autonomy-Supportive Parenting. Journal of Child and Family Studies, Vol. 26, Issue. 9, p. 2623.

    Holmes, Emily A. Blackwell, Simon E. Burnett Heyes, Stephanie Renner, Fritz and Raes, Filip 2016. Mental Imagery in Depression: Phenomenology, Potential Mechanisms, and Treatment Implications. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 12, Issue. 1, p. 249.

    Craner, Julia R. Sigmon, Sandra T. and Martinson, Amber A. 2015. Self-focused attention in response to laboratory stressors among women with premenstrual disorders. Archives of Women's Mental Health, Vol. 18, Issue. 4, p. 595.

    Lee, Seonyoung and Kim, Won 2014. Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, and Validity of the Revised Korean Version of Ruminative Response Scale. Psychiatry Investigation, Vol. 11, Issue. 1, p. 59.

    Bos, Henny van Beusekom, Gabriël and Sandfort, Theo 2014. Sexual Attraction and Psychological Adjustment in Dutch Adolescents: Coping Style as a Mediator. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 43, Issue. 8, p. 1579.

    Sarisoy, Gökhan Pazvantoğlu, Ozan Özturan, Deniz Deniz Ay, Naile Dila Yilman, Tuba Mor, Sema Korkmaz, Işil Zabun Kaçar, Ömer Faruk and Gümüş, Kübra 2014. Metacognitive beliefs in unipolar and bipolar depression: A comparative study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 68, Issue. 4, p. 275.

    Caldwell, Warren McInnis, Opal A. McQuaid, Robyn J. Liu, Gele Stead, John D. Anisman, Hymie Hayley, Shawn and Hashimoto, Kenji 2013. The Role of the Val66Met Polymorphism of the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene in Coping Strategies Relevant to Depressive Symptoms. PLoS ONE, Vol. 8, Issue. 6, p. e65547.

    SALGUERO, JOSÉ M. EXTREMERA, NATALIO and FERNÁNDEZ-BERROCAL, PABLO 2013. A meta-mood model of rumination and depression: Preliminary test in a non-clinical population. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 54, Issue. 2, p. 166.

    Hong, Ryan Y. and Paunonen, Sampo V. 2011. Personality Vulnerabilities to Psychopathology: Relations Between Trait Structure and Affective-Cognitive Processes. Journal of Personality, Vol. 79, Issue. 3, p. 527.

    Broeren, Suzanne Muris, Peter Bouwmeester, Samantha van der Heijden, Kristiaan B. and Abee, Annemieke 2011. The Role of Repetitive Negative Thoughts in the Vulnerability for Emotional Problems in Non-Clinical Children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, Vol. 20, Issue. 2, p. 135.

    Muris, Peter Mayer, Birgit Reinders, Eva and Wesenhagen, Chériva 2011. Person-Related Protective and Vulnerability Factors of Psychopathology Symptoms in Non-Clinical Adolescents. Community Mental Health Journal, Vol. 47, Issue. 1, p. 47.

    Peled, Maya and Moretti, Marlene M. 2010. Ruminating on Rumination: are Rumination on Anger and Sadness Differentially Related to Aggression and Depressed Mood?. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, Vol. 32, Issue. 1, p. 108.

    Roelofs, Jeffrey Huibers, Marcus Peeters, Frenk Arntz, Arnoud and van Os, Jim 2010. Positive and Negative Beliefs About Depressive Rumination: A Psychometric Evaluation of Two Self-Report Scales and a Test of a Clinical Metacognitive Model of Rumination and Depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, Vol. 34, Issue. 2, p. 196.

    Rood, Lea Roelofs, Jeffrey Bögels, Susan M. and Alloy, Lauren B. 2010. Dimensions of Negative Thinking and the Relations with Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, Vol. 34, Issue. 4, p. 333.

    Muris, Peter Fokke, Maureen and Kwik, Daniëlle 2009. The Ruminative Response Style in Adolescents: An Examination of Its Specific Link to Symptoms of Depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, Vol. 33, Issue. 1, p. 21.

    Ertle, Andrea Joormann, Jutta Wahl, Karina and Kordon, Andreas 2009. Sagen dysfunktionale Kognitionen den Therapieerfolg voraus?. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, Vol. 38, Issue. 1, p. 44.

    Roelofs, Jeffrey Rood, Lea Meesters, Cor te Dorsthorst, Valérie Bögels, Susan Alloy, Lauren B. and Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan 2009. The influence of rumination and distraction on depressed and anxious mood: a prospective examination of the response styles theory in children and adolescents. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 18, Issue. 10, p. 635.

    Verstraeten, Katrien Vasey, Michael W. Raes, Filip and Bijttebier, Patricia 2009. Temperament and Risk for Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Mediation by Rumination and Moderation by Effortful Control. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 37, Issue. 3, p. 349.

  • Print publication year: 1998
  • Online publication date: September 2009

9 - Ruminative Coping with Depression



Most people have periods in which they become at least moderately depressed: they feel sad, they lose their motivation and interest in their usual activities, they slow down and are chronically fatigued, and so on. For most people, these periods last only a few days and their symptoms never become debilitating. For others, these periods last weeks or months, and their symptoms become worse with time. I suggest that the ways people initially try to regulate or cope with their symptoms of depression can affect the severity and duration of these symptoms. Specifically, people who have a ruminative style of responding to their initial symptoms of depression will have longer and more severe episodes of depressed mood than people who have more active, less ruminative response styles. A ruminative response style for depression is defined as the tendency to focus passively and repetitively on one's symptoms of depression and on the possible causes and consequences of those symptoms without taking action to relieve them. Ruminative responses to depression exacerbate and prolong periods of depression through at least three mechanisms. First, rumination enhances the negative effects of depressed mood on thinking, making depressive interpretations of events and negative memories more accessible and more likely to be used in ongoing deliberations about one's life. Second, rumination interferes with complex interpersonal problem-solving, in part because it enhances pessimistic, distorted thinking. Third, rumination inhibits people from engaging in everyday instrumental behaviors that could enhance their sense of control and lift their moods.

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Motivation and Self-Regulation across the Life Span
  • Online ISBN: 9780511527869
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