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  • Cited by 2
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: December 2011

21 - The growing need for alternative clinical trial designs for multiple sclerosis

from Section II - Clinical trial methodology


Double inversion recovery (DIR) is an inversion recovery sequence which applies two consecutive inversion pulses leading to a simultaneous attenuation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and white matter which improves the contrast between gray and white matter. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are able to detect and to quantify primary and secondary gray matter abnormalities and provide further insights into disease progression and contribution of these changes to clinical outcome measures. Proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is frequently used for the evaluation of normal appearing brain tissue in multiple sclerosis (MS). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) assesses the random movement of water molecules within the brain tissue. Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging is based on a magnetization interaction between free water protons and protons bound to macromolecular structures. T1- and T2-relaxation time (RT) measurements allow the assessment and quantification of white matter and gray matter damage in various neurodegenerative and neuro-inflammatory diseases.


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