Skip to main content
The New Cambridge History of Islam
  • Volume 1: The Formation of the Islamic World, Sixth to Eleventh Centuries
  • Edited by Chase F. Robinson, The Graduate Center, The City University of New York

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The New Cambridge History of Islam
    • Volume 1: The Formation of the Islamic World, Sixth to Eleventh Centuries
    • Edited by Chase F. Robinson
    • Online ISBN: 9781139055932
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Volume One of The New Cambridge History of Islam, which surveys the political and cultural history of Islam from its Late Antique origins until the eleventh century, brings together contributions from leading scholars in the field. The book is divided into four parts. The first provides an overview of the physical and political geography of the Late Antique Middle East. The second charts the rise of Islam and the emergence of the Islamic political order under the Umayyad and the Abbasid caliphs of the seventh, eighth and ninth centuries, followed by the dissolution of the empire in the tenth and eleventh. 'Regionalism', the overlapping histories of the empire's provinces, is the focus of Part Three, while Part Four provides a cutting-edge discussion of the sources and controversies of early Islamic history, including a survey of numismatics, archaeology and material culture.

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
  • 1 - The resources of Late Antiquity
    pp 17-71
  • View abstract
    The late ancient world in the lands that were to be conquered by the first Muslim armies included a number of disparate regions, each offering a particular environment. Communications depended on landscape and climatic conditions, of course, but a series of major strategic routes connected these different cultural and geographical zones. Indeed, there is some evidence to suggest that road building and bridge building were on several occasions carried out using the skills of Roman captives during the third and fourth centuries. The city was one of the most important features of the late ancient landscape, both in respect of the social organisation of production and the ownership and control of resources in land and manpower. Cities and urban centres in the Sasanian world occupied a somewhat different role in the structure of the state, although they were similar in respect of some of their social and economic functions.
  • 2 - The late Roman/early Byzantine Near East
    pp 72-97
  • View abstract
    In many areas of the Near East the Late Roman period, in terms of population size, settlement density and levels of exploitation, marks a pre-modern high. The territorial expansion of Rome began in earnest in the second century BCE, and had its roots in the competitive aristocratic politics of the republic. The crisis of the mid-third century was surmounted, but it left emperors in no doubt that relations with the Persians had to be their first priority, and that major deployments anywhere other than the Persian front would depend on peace there. The Nabataean kingdom in what is now Jordan and northern Saudi Arabia was annexed in 106 to create the province of Arabia. The rise of Islam as it actually happened is comprehensible only in the context of the history of the Roman empire, a history that culminated in what James Howard-Johnston has evocatively dubbed the 'the last great war of Antiquity'.
  • 3 - The late Sasanian Near East
    pp 98-152
  • View abstract
    As opposed to the Arsacids, the Sasanians, like their Achaemenid 'ancestors', tell a great deal about their notions of government, their public appearances and their political aspirations in both the domestic and foreign spheres. All lands of the former Parthian empire, except for Armenia, came under Sasanian control during the reign of the founder of the dynasty, Ardashir. Yazdgerd III was made king by Rustam's aristocratic party, thus becoming the Sasanians' last ruler. It was a decidedly Iranian attitude that characterised the Sasanian image of the ruler and his qualities. The late Sasanian period was altogether a time of literary flowering, much of it commissioned or sponsored by the royal court. The Sasanian empire was also characterised by the magnitude and diversity of its religious groups and communities. Whereas the fourth century was characterised by numerous military conflicts between the superpowers Iran and Byzantium.
  • 4 - Pre-Islamic Arabia
    pp 153-170
  • View abstract
    The literary sources in Arabic dealing with pre-Islamic Arabia are copious, but rarely give direct answers to questions which are of interest to modern research. Arabian society was tribal and included nomadic, semi-nomadic and settled populations. The biography of Muhammad provides further evidence of the cooperation between the nomadic and settled populations. The Arab idol worshippers were polytheists, but they also believed in a High God called Allah whose house was in the Kaba and who had supremacy over their tribal deities. In Medina, which was in many ways different from Mecca, idols were associated with various levels of the tribal organization. The Byzantines and Sasanians conducted their Arabian affairs through their respective Arab buffer kingdoms, Ghassan and al-Hira. Caravan trade was often behind the cooperation between certain nomadic tribes and the Sasanians. In addition to trade, the entrepreneurial Qurashis invested in agriculture. Since conditions in Mecca itself were uninviting for agriculture, they looked for opportunities elsewhere.
  • 5 - The rise of Islam, 600–705
    pp 171-225
  • View abstract
    The first Islamic century began in 622 of the Common Era with the hijra, Muhammad's 'emigration' from Mecca to the town of Yathrib, which lies about 275 miles to the north. The hijra thus marked a new beginning for Muhammad and his followers. Things are less clear in Arabia than people would wish them to be, but monotheism had certainly gained a solid foothold well before Muhammad. Abraha's ill-fated expedition to the Hijaz is known only to the Quran, but it conforms to the pattern of his Arabian expansion, which is partially documented in a number of inscriptions. Muhammad died in early June 632 after a short illness. Civil war was thus about succession to the office of caliphate, which all Muslims acknowledged should be the ruling institution of the nascent state. In the second fitna and the early Marwanid period, Kharijites challenges Umayyad authority and effective power.
  • 6 - The empire in Syria, 705–763
    pp 226-268
  • View abstract
    Syria is usually where empires end, not where they begin. Like its Seleucid ancestor, the Marwanid experiment in Syria showed that a far-flung Middle Eastern empire was still possible without Iraq or Egypt to serve as its centre. Despite the tensions surrounding succession within the Marwanid family, the territorial expansion of the caliphate proceeded apace without any noticeable slowing until the eve of the third fitna. In keeping with the imperial vision established by the time of Abd al-Malik, Marwanid imperial designs were in theory limitless. For all that the Marwanid caliphs saw themselves as God's caliphs, from France to Farghana it was the Syrian tribal armies who were the real world conquerors. The Hijaz and Yemen were excluded from the superprovinces, no doubt because they lacked any active military fronts or waves of settlement. Nowhere can the aspirations of the Marwanid elites be better glimpsed than in the qusur built by caliphs and ashraf throughout the caliphate.
  • 7 - The empire in Iraq, 763–861
    pp 269-304
  • View abstract
    The Umayyad dynasty fell rapidly in the face of the Hashimite-Khurasani revolution in 132/750, the Abbasid dynasty's hold on power took until 145/762 to become firmly established. Baghdad was meant to be the fortress of the new dynasty in times of crisis, as well as a strategically situated city in times of peace in economic and political terms. Iraq was the wealthiest province of the empire, and had been undergoing a process of agricultural development since the Umayyad period. Al-Mahdi's decade-long reign was by all accounts a prosperous time for the caliphate. When the Abbasid succession passed on to Harun al-Rashid, it was finally the anticipated moment which different factions wanted. After achieving reconciliation with the Abbasid family and granting amnesty to former opponents in Baghdad, al-Mamun dispatched Abd Allah ibn Tahir on the mission of reunification. Just as al-Mamun's political achievements radically transformed the Abbasid government, his religious policies were equally new and daring.
  • 8 - The waning of empire, 861–945
    pp 305-359
  • View abstract
    On a winter night in Samarra in 247/861, the caliph Jaqfar al-Mutawakkil held a carousing session with some companions and courtiers. With Samarra and Baghdad absorbed by inner conflict in the 860s and trying to recover from it during the following decades, most of the empire fell apart. Having acted as chief commander for al-Muqtazz's side during the civil war of 865, he enjoyed the respect of the soldiers. Brett sees ninth-century Ismailism as part of a larger brew of oppositional trends, the 'sectarian milieu' which John Wansbrough described as the religious and doctrinal environment of early Islam. Al-Mutadid achieved a reputation and popularity that went beyond the army, and his reign constituted the high point of what is known as the 'Abbasid restoration'. The decline of Abbasid power was felt throughout the Islamic world. A powerless Abbasid caliphate was still indispensable to the Buyids for several reasons, including their need for formal legitimacy.
  • 9 - The late ʿAbbāsid pattern, 945–1050
    pp 360-394
  • View abstract
    The decline and fall of the Abbasid caliphate in the first half of the fourth/tenth century led to the emergence of a new political order. Many of the post-Abbasid regimes attempted to continue the old system and employ ghilman, with their salaries being paid out of the receipts of taxation. The Ghaznavids rulers followed the middle Abbasid practice of recruiting an army of Turkish ghilman and collecting taxes to pay them. Kurds had inhabited much of the area of the Zagros mountains and the uplands to the north of Mosul for many centuries before the coming of Islam. The Muslim world had come into being because lands from Central Asia to North Africa had been conquered by armies largely made up of Arab Bedouin tribesmen. The newly emerging Shiism was not formally the state religion of the Buyids. The new Sunnism was based on the ideas of the muhaddithun, first developed in the third/ninth centuries.
  • 10 - Arabia
    pp 395-447
  • View abstract
    In the Arabian peninsula, the second/eighth century independent and semi-independent polities appeared, and regions underwent cycles of unification and fragmentation. This chapter is divided into four sections: the Hijaz, the Yemen, Oman, and Central and Eastern Arabia. In the first section, an outline of the Hijazi history in the first/seventh and second/eighth centuries is provided; attention is also drawn to the rebellions and disorders in the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Next, the chapter focuses on the history of Yemen from the first/seventh to the end of the second/eighth century. Non-sectarian dynasties, religious activity, and sectarian states in Yemen are also discussed here. Oman from the first/seventh to the third/ninth century, and from the third/ninth to the fifth/eleventh century is the focus of the third section of the chapter. The final section deals with Central and Eastern Arabia from the first/seventh to the third/ninth century.
  • 11 - The Islamic east
    pp 448-505
  • View abstract
    The history of the conquest of the Islamic east, like that of other phases of the Muslim wars of expansion, is difficult to reconstruct and to interpret. The Arab conquests in what would become the Islamic east entailed a number of demographic, social, economic, political and cultural changes that would help determine the parameters for the development of this area. The administration of the fiscal apparatus depended heavily on the same class that had played that role in Sasanian times. Political economy, rather than fiscal administration, provides a better guide to distinguishing the various regions of the Islamic east and following their development. Following al-Mamun's accession to the caliphate and return to Baghdad, the history of the Islamic east becomes primarily that of largely autonomous, hereditary, regional dynasties, namely the Tahirids, Saffarids, Samanids and Ghaznavids. The Saffarids represented in almost every conceivable way the antithesis of the Tahirid version of regionalism.
  • 12 - Syria
    pp 506-540
  • View abstract
    The lands stretching from the Euphrates east and to the upper Tigris are both an extension of Syria and a separate entity. Roman rule was now only a dim memory, recalled in the ruins of its monuments and in the resurgence of Byzantine military power along Syria's northern borderlands. Syrians might soon come to feel that a relatively stable and tolerant Arab-Muslim government was no worse than the disruption and turmoil of the last decades of Byzantine rule. The symbolic impact of Muslim rule may have been even greater, for the new regime was no longer a Christian commonwealth, a providential vehicle of salvation. The first governor was Abd Allah ibn Ali, the powerful uncle of al-Saffah and al-Mansur who had led the victorious Abbasid armies into Syria. In the late third/ninth century Syria suddenly entered on an era of sustained turbulence, in common with many parts of the Islamic world.
  • 13 - Egypt
    pp 541-580
  • View abstract
    In Egypt the Arab conquest initiated a cultural transformation that left unchanged the constants of the country's history over the past three thousand years. The end of the Arab supremacy was complete when in 219/834 the Arabs were struck from the diwan, the list of those entitled to pay as members of the jund, despite their protest that it was theirs by right. The extirpation of the Tulunids brought the return of Egypt to provincial status with a recrudescence of provincial unrest, immediately manifested in the welcome at Fustat to one ibn al-Khalij, or al-Khaliji. Ibn Tughj had no difficulty in returning to Syria to secure its possession, and reconstitute the empire created by Ibn Tulun when he invaded Syria from Egypt. Like that of the Tulunids, that of the Ikhshidids was a ghulam state, in which the payment of the army was central to the administration. After the retreat from Alexandria in 324/936 the threat of Fatimid invasion receded.
  • 14 - The Iberian Peninsula and North Africa
    pp 581-622
  • View abstract
    The Arab conquests in North Africa began soon after the fall of Alexandria to the army commanded by Amr ibn al-As in 21/ 642. In classical times North Africa had become a vast frontier, which stood against the sporadic attacks of peripheral Berber tribes. The fading of caliphal administration in western North Africa allowed for the re-emergence of tribal leaders who, sources claim, profited from the ideological framework of Kharijism to consolidate their rule. The Umayyads changed the physiognomy of Cordoba by erecting new buildings and fostering its extraordinary expansion. Archaeology is also a good indicator of the unrelenting Islamisation of the Iberian Peninsula. The most serious rebellions against the rule of the Aghlabids in Ifriqiya were led by members of the Arab army. It is no coincidence that both Ifriqiya and al-Andalus witnessed the proclamation of two rival caliphates in the early fourth/tenth century.
  • 15 - Modern approaches to early Islamic history
    pp 623-647
  • View abstract
    Western writing on Islam, including early Islamic history, has roots reaching back to the medieval period. As far as early Islamic history is concerned, Western scholars of the Enlightenment began to consult key texts of the Islamic tradition itself in search of information. Contemporary scholars examines Islam's origins in depth mainly tend to follow the source-critical or tradition-critical school in their handling of the Islamic sources. Scholars of early Islamic history have shown increased interest in developing new approaches and methods, and in looking at such things as social history, gender relations, identity formation and economic history. Beyond the thorny problems posed by the heritage of the polemical tradition and by the deficiencies of the sources for early Islamic history, there exist other problems of perception and conceptualisation, as well as practical obstacles, that have affected Western approaches to early Islamic history.
  • 16 - Numismatics
    pp 648-663
  • View abstract
    After being widely neglected following the First World War the study and use of Islamic numismatic documents have again become a prospering academic subject, particularly in the 1990s. Islamic coinage of the middle Islamic period was quite different from the degenerated state of the classical coinage system. Money as a means of coordinating human decisions and economic exchange is a complex social invention. Islamic legal theory determined the value of money to be identical with the intrinsic value of the bullion. The Zubayrid governor had targeted the ideological, religious deficiencies of the Umayyad regime. The Ismaili Shiite Fatimids challenged the Abbasid claim of universal rulership both ideologically and militarily, and thus their coinage named only the Fatimid caliph. After their conquest of Egypt their coins presented a visual distinction to the classical late Abbasid coinage, moving towards a design consisting mainly of rings of concentric inscriptions.
  • 17 - Archaeology and material culture
    pp 664-682
  • View abstract
    A recurrent concern in the archaeological study of early Islam is the degree to which the physical record exhibits significant continuity with the centuries prior to 1/622. This chapter first summarises the earliest evidence for a distinctive Muslim identity in the archaeological record. The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem marks a watershed in Islamic material culture, as among other things, it also provides evidence of a new sense of artistic ambition among the Muslim elite. Next, the chapter assesses changes in the countryside with particular emphasis on the elite country residences (qusur) of Greater Syria and the evolution of complex irrigation systems in different parts of the Islamic world. Then, it discusses the changes in the urban environment from the Late Antique period to the creation of new cities in Syria and Iraq during the early Abbasid caliphate. Finally, the chapter addresses changes in international trade from the Late Antique period to around 390/1000.
K. Abdi , ‘Archaeological research in the Islamabad plain, central western Zagros mountains: Preliminary results from the first season, summer 1998’, Iran, 37 (1999)

H. M. Cullen and P. B. de Menocal , ‘North Atlantic influence on Tigris–Euphrates stream-flow’, International Journal of Climatology, 20 (2000)

T. Daryaee , ‘The effect of the Arab-Muslim conquest on the administrative division of Sasanian Persis/Fārs’, Iran, 41 (2003) –204

J.-M. Fiey , ‘Vers la réhabilitation de l’Histoire de Karka d’Beit Sloh’, Analecta Bollandiana, 82 (1964)

D. Kennet , ‘The decline of eastern Arabia in the Sasanian period’, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 18 (2007) –122.

G. W. Heck , ‘Gold mining in Arabia and the rise of the Islamic state’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 42 (1999)

G. Herrmann , K. Kurbansakhatov et al. (eds.), ‘The International Merv Project: Preliminary report on the fifth season (1996)’, Iran, 35 (1997) –33

G. Herrmann , K. Kurbansakhatov and J. Simpson (eds.), ‘The International Merv Project: Preliminary report on the eighth year (1999)’, Iran, 38 (2000) –5

Y. Hirschfeld , ‘Farms and villages in Byzantine Palestine’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 51 (1997)

M. D. Jones , C. Neil Roberts , M. J. Leng and M. Türkeş , ‘A high-resolution late Holocene lake isotope record from Turkey and links to North Atlantic and monsoon climate’, Geology, 34 (May 2006)

H. Kennedy and J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz , ‘Antioch and the villages of northern Syria in the 5th and 7th centuries: Trends and problems’, Nottingham Medieval Studies, 32 (1988)

A. Moghaddam and N. Miri , ‘Archaeological research in the Mianab Plain of lowland Susiana, south-western Iran’, Iran, 41 (2003) –5

U. Baruch , ‘The late Holocene vegetation history of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee)’, Palaeorient, 12 (1986), 37–48.

J. Behnam , ‘Population’, in W. B. Fisher (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. I: The land of Iran, Cambridge, 1968 –85.

H. Bobek , ‘Vegetation’, in W. B. Fisher (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. I: The land of Iran, Cambridge, 1968 –93.

H. Bowen-Jones , ‘Agriculture’, in W. B. Fisher (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. I: The land of Iran, Cambridge, 1968 –98.

P. Sarris , ‘The origins of the manorial economy: New insights from late Antiquity’, English Historical Review, 119 (2004)

C. Brunner , ‘Geographical and administrative divisions: Settlements and economy’, in E. Yarshater (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. III: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian periods, Cambridge, 1983, 747–77.

K. Schippmann , Die iranischen Feuerheiligtümer (Berlin, 1971)

L. Conrad , ‘Epidemic disease in central Syria in the late sixth century: Some new insights from the verse of Ḥassān ibn Thābit’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 18 (1994), 12–58.

F. R. Trombley , ‘War and society in rural Syria c. 502–613 AD: Observations on the demography’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 21 (1997), esp., 168, 182ff

T. Williams , K. Kurbansakhatov et al., ‘The ancient Merv project, Turkmenistan: Preliminary report on the second season (2002)’, Iran, 41 (2003).

J. F. Drinkwater , The Alamanni and Rome 213–496 (Oxford, 2007) –9

F. A. Hassan , Demographic archaeology, London, 1981.

R. B. Mason , ‘Early medieval Iraqi lustre-painted and associated wares: Typology in a multidisciplinary study’, Iraq, 59 (1997), 15–61.

Philip Curtin , Cross-cultural trade in world history (Cambridge, 1984), p. 107

R. N. Frye , ‘Ṭarxūn-Türxǖn and Central Asian history’, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 14 (1951), p.

P. Brown , ‘The holy man in Late Antiquity’, Journal of Roman Studies, 61 (1971) –101

S. H. Griffith , ‘The monks of Palestine and the growth of Christian literature in Arabic’, Muslim World, 78 (1988), p.

E. Yarshater , ‘Iranian national history’, in E. Yarshater (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. III: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian periods, Cambridge, 1983, part 1, 359–477.

C. Ando , Imperial ideology and provincial loyalty in the Roman Empire, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2000.

M. H. Dodgeon , and S. N. C. Lieu (eds.), The Roman eastern frontier and the Persian wars, part 1: AD 226–363: A documentary history, London and New York, 1991.

J. Howard-Johnston , ‘Heraclius’ Persian campaigns and the revival of the east Roman empire, 622–630’, War in History, 6 (1999) –44.

M. C. A. Macdonald , ‘Nomads and the Hawran in the late Hellenistic and Roman periods: A reassessment of the epigraphic evidence’, Syria, 70 (1993), 303–413.

N. Pollard , Soldiers, cities, and civilians in Roman Syria, Ann Arbor, 2000.

M. Whittow , The making of Orthodox Byzantium, 600–1025, Basingstoke, 1996.

C. J. Wickham Framing the early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400–800, Oxford, 2005.

A. Baumstark , Geschichte der syrischen Literatur mit Ausschluβ der christlich-palästinensischen Texte, Bonn, 1922; repr. 1968.

R. C. Blockley Subsidies and diplomacy: Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity’, Phoenix, 39 (1985), 62–74.

A. Cameron , ‘Agathias on the Sassanians’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 23–4 (1969–70) –150.

J. Cribb , ‘Numismatic evidence for Kushano-Sasanian chronology’, Studia Iranica, 19 (1990), 151–93.

T. Daryaee Mind, body, and the cosmos: Chess and backgammon in ancient Persia’, Iranian Studies, 35 (2002), 281–312.

F. M. Donner , ‘The background to Islam’, in M. Maas (ed.), The Cambridge companion to the age of Justinian, Cambridge, 2005, 510–33.

R. N. Frye The political history of Iran under the Sasanians’, in E. Yarshater (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. III: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian periods, Cambridge, 1983, part 2 –80.

I. Gardner , and S. N. C. Lieu (eds.), Manichaean texts from the Roman empire, Cambridge, 2004.

N. G. Garsoian , ‘Byzantium and the Sasanians’, in E. Yarshater (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. III: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian periods, Cambridge, 1983, part 1 –92.

P. Gignoux Une nouvelle collection de documents en pehlevi cursif du début du septième siècle de notre ère’, Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (1991), 683–700.

J. F. Haldon , Byzantium in the seventh century: The transformation of a culture, Cambridge, 1990.

P. O. Harper , ‘Sasanian silver’, in J. Boardman , I. E. S. Edwards , E. Sollberger and N. G. L. Hammond (eds.), The Cambridge ancient history, vol. III, part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and other states of the Near East, from the eighth to the sixth centuries BC, Cambridge, 1983 –29.

H. Humbach , ‘Herrscher, Gott und Gottessohn in Iran und in angrenzenden Ländern’, in D. Zeller (ed.), Menschwerdung Gottes: Vergöttlichung von Herrschern, Fribourg and Göttingen, 1988, 89–114.

J. Kellens , ‘L’idéologie religieuse des inscriptions achéménides’, Journal Asiatique, 290 (2002), 417–64.

J. Wiesehöfer , ‘From Achaemenid imperial order to Sasanian diplomacy: War, peace and reconciliation in pre-Islamic Iran’, in K. Raaflaub (ed.), War and peace in the ancient world, Oxford, 2007, 121–40.

Mohammed Maraqten , ‘Writing materials in pre-Islamic Arabia’, Journal of Semitic Studies, 43 (1998), 287–310.

A. Beeston , ‘Kingship in ancient South Arabia’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 15 (1972), 256–68.

M. Cook , ‘Magian cheese: An archaic problem in Islamic law’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 47 (1984), 449–67.

P. Crone , ‘Quraysh and the Roman army: Making sense of the Meccan leather trade’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 70 (2007), 63–88.

F. M. Donner , ‘The formation of the Islamic state’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 106 (1986), 283–96.

A. Elad , ‘The southern Golan in the early Muslim period: The significance of two newly discovered milestones of ʿAbd al-Malik’, Der Islam, 76 (1999), 33–88.

C. Foss ,‘Syria in transition, AD 550–750: An archaeological approach’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 51 (1997), 189–269.

J. Gascou , ‘De Byzance à l’Islam: Les impôts en Egypte après la conquête arabe’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 26 (1983), 97–109.

L. Halevi , ‘The paradox of Islamization: Tombstone inscriptions, Qurʾānic recitations, and the problem of religious change’, History of Religions, 44 (2004), 120–52.

G. R. Hawting , The idea of idolatry and the emergence of Islam: From polemic to history, Cambridge, 1999.

G. W. Heck , ‘“Arabia without spices”: An alternate hypothesis’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 123 (2003), 547–76.

S. Heidemann , ‘The merger of two currency zones in early Islam: The Byzantine and Sasanian impact on the circulation in former Byzantine Syria and northern Mesopotamia’, Iran, 36 (1998), 95–112.

R. Hoyland ,‘Writing the biography of the Prophet Muhammad: Problems and solutions’, History Compass, 5 (2007), 581–602.

M. J. Kister , ‘On the papyrus of Wahb b. Munabbih’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 37 (1974), 545–71.

M. Lecker ,‘Judaism among Kinda and the ridda of Kinda’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 115 (1995), 635–50.

M. G. Morony , ‘Economic boundaries? Late Antiquity and early Islam’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 47 (2004) –94.

C. Robin , ‘Du paganisme au monothéisme’, in C. Robin (ed.), L’Arabie antique de Karib’īl à Mahomet: Nouvelles données sur l’histoire des arabes grâces aux inscriptions, Aix-en-Provence, 1991 –55.

C. F. Robinson , ‘Neck-sealing in early Islam’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 48 (2005) –41.

G. Schoeler , Charakter und Authentie der muslimischen Überlieferung über das Leben Mohammeds, Berlin, 1996.

D. Whitehouse , and A. Williamson , ‘Sasanian maritime trade’, Iran, 11 (1973), 29–49.

H. I. Bell , ‘The administration of Egypt under the Umayyad khalifs’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 28 (1928), 278–86.

Pierre Guichard , ‘Les Arabes ont bien envahi l’Espagne: Les structures sociales de l’Espagne musulmane’, Annales, 29 (1974), 1483–513.

M. A. Shaban , Islamic history: A new interpretation, 2 vols., Cambridge, 1971–6; vol. I: AD 600–750 (AH 132), Cambridge, 1971.

William F. Tucker Rebels and gnostics: al-Mugīra Ibn Saʿīd and the Mugīriyya’, Arabica, 22 (1975) –47.

J. M. Abun-Nasr , A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period, Cambridge, 1987.

Roger Collins , Early Medieval Spain: Unity in diversity, 400–1000, New York, 1983.

Tayeb El-Hibri , ‘Coinage reform under the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Maʾmūn’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 36 (1993), 58–83.

J. Bacharach , ‘The career of Muḥammad ibn Ṭughj al-Ikhshīd’, Speculum, 50 (1975), 586–612.

Thierry Bianquis , ‘Autonomous Egypt from Ibn Ṭūlūn to Kāfūr, 868–969’, in Carl F. Petry (ed.), The Cambridge history of Egypt, vol. I: Islamic Egypt, 640–1517, Cambridge, 1998, 86–119.

C. E. Bosworth , ‘The Ṭāhirids and Ṣaffārids’, in R. N. Frye (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. IV: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge, 1975 –135.

Michael Brett , ‘The Mīm, the ʿAyn, and the making of Ismāʿīlism’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 57 (1994), 24–39; repr. in Michael Brett, Ibn Khaldūn and the medieval Maghrib, Aldershot, 1999.

H. Busse , ‘Das Hofbudget des Chalifen al-Muʿtaḍid billāh’, Islam, 43 (1967), 11–36.

W. Madelung , ‘The minor dynasties of northern Iran’, in R. N. Frye (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. IV: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge, 1975, 198–249.

R. P. Mottahedeh , ‘The ʿAbbāsid caliphate in Iran’, in R. N. Frye (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. IV: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge, 1975, 57–89.

Jürgen Paul , ‘The histories of Samarqand’, Studia Iranica, 22 (1993), 69–92.

Tsugitaka Sato , ‘The iqṭāʿ system of Iraq under the Buwayhids’, Orient, 18 (1982), 83–105.

C. Cahen , ‘Mouvements populaires et autonomisme urban dans l’Asie musulmane du moyen âge’, Arabica, 5 (1958), 225–50; 6 (1959), 25–56, 223–65.

W. Madelung , ‘The assumption of the title shāhānshāh by the Būyids and “the reign of the Daylam (dawlat al-Daylam)”’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 28, (1969), 168–83.

G. Makdisi , ‘Notes on Ḥilla and the Mazyadids in medieval Islam’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 74 (1954), 249–62.

D. Waines , ‘The third-century internal crisis of the ʿAbbasids’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 20 (1977), 282–306.

R. B. Serjeant , ‘Materials for South Arabian history’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 13 (1950), 281–307, 581–601.

B. S. Amoretti , ‘Sects and heresies’, in R. N. Frye (ed.), Cambridge history of Iran, vol. IV: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge, 1975 –519.

W. Bartold , An historical geography of Iran, trans. S. Soucek , Princeton, 1984.

Khalid Yahya Blankinship , ‘The tribal factor in the ʿAbbāsid revolution: The betrayal of the Imam Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 108 (1988), 589–603.

C. E. Bosworth , ‘An early Arabic mirror for princes: Ṭāhir Dhū ’l-Yamīnain’s epistle to his son ʿAbdallāh (206/821)’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 29(1970), 25–41.

C. E. Bosworth , ‘The heritage of rulership in early Islamic Iran and the search for dynastic connections with the past’, Iran, 11 (1973), 51–62.

C. E. Bosworth , ‘The rulers of Chaghāniyān in early Islamic times’, Iran, 19 (1981), 1–20.

Richard Bulliett , Conversion to Islam in the medieval period: An essay in quantitative history, Cambridge, MA, 1979.

D. C. Dennett , Conversion and the poll-tax in early Islam, Cambridge, MA, 1950.

R. N. Frye , (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. IV: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge, 1975.

R. N. Frye , ‘The Samanids’, in R. N. Frye (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. IV: The period from the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge, 1975, 136–61.

Peter B. Golden , ‘The Karakhanids and early Islam’, in D. Sinor (ed.), The Cambridge history of early Inner Asia, Cambridge, 1990, 343–70.

Ann K. S. Lambton , ‘An account of the Tārīkhi Qumm’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 12 (1948), 586–96.

W. Madelung , ‘Abū Isḥāq al-Ṣabī on the Alids of Tabaristān and Gīlān’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 26 (1967), 15–57.

W. Madelung , ‘The early Murjiʾa in Khurāsān and Transoxiana and the spread of Ḥanafism’, Der Islam, 59 (1982), 32–9.

M. Morony , ‘The effects of the Muslim conquest on the Persian population of Iraq’, Iran, 14 (1976), 41–59.

Parvaneh Pourshariati , ‘Local historiography in medieval Iran and the Tarikh Bayhaq’, Journal of Iranian Studies, 33 (2000), 133–64.

Chase F. Robinson , ‘The conquest of Khūzistān: A historiographical reassessment’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 67 (2004), 14–39.

Claude Cahen , ‘Fiscalité, propriété, antagonismes sociaux en Haute-Mésopotamie au temps des premiers ʿAbbāsides, d’après Denys de Tell Mahré’, Arabica, 1 (1954), 136–52.

Walter E. Kaegi , Byzantium and the early Islamic conquests, Cambridge, 1992.

Caspar J. Kraemer , Excavations at Nessana, vol. III: Non-literary papyri, Princeton, 1958.

C. F. Robinson , Empire and elites after the Muslim conquest: The transformation of northern Mesopotamia, Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization, Cambridge, 2000.

K. N. Chaudhuri , Trade and civilisation in the Indian Ocean, Cambridge, 1985.

W. E. Kaegi , ‘Egypt on the eve of the Muslim conquest’, in C. F. Petry (ed.), The Cambridge history of Egypt, vol. I: Islamic Egypt, 640–1517, Cambridge, 1998 –61.

Hugh Kennedy Egypt as a province in the Islamic caliphate, 641–868’, in C. F. Petry (ed.), The Cambridge history of Egypt, vol. I: Islamic Egypt, 640–1517, Cambridge, 1998 –85.

T. Sato , ‘Irrigation in rural Egypt from the 12th to the 14th centuries’, Orient, 8 (1972), 81–92.

T. Wilfong , ‘The non-Muslim communities: Christian communities’, in C. F. Petry (ed.), The Cambridge history of Egypt, vol. I: Islamic Egypt, 640–1517, Cambridge, 1998 –97.

Michael Cook , ‘An early Islamic apocalyptic chronicle’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 52 (1993), 25–9.

Gerald R. Hawting , ‘The rise of Islam’, in Youssef M. Choueiri (ed.), A companion to the history of the Middle East, Oxford, 2005 –27.

Gautier Juynboll , Muslim tradition, Cambridge, 1983.

Zachary Lockman , Contending visions of the Middle East: The history and politics of Orientalism, Cambridge, 2004.

A. L. Tibawi , ‘On the Orientalists again’, Muslim World, 70 (1980), 56–61.

Michael L. Bates , ‘The function of Fāṭimid and Ayyūbid glass weights’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 24 (1981), 63–92.

Robert Brunschvig , ‘Conceptions monétaires chez les juristes musulmanes (VIIIe–XIIIe siècles)’, Arabica, 14 (1967), 113–43.

Marcus Phillips , ‘Currency in seventh-century Syria as a historical source’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 28 (2004), 13–31.

Touraj Daryaee , ‘The Persian Gulf trade in Late Antiquity’, Journal of World History, 14, 1 (March 2003), 1–16.

Jeremy Johns , ‘Archaeology and the history of early Islam: The first seventy years’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 46 (2003) –36.

H. Kennedy , ‘From polis to madina: Urban change in Late Antique and early Islamic Syria’, Past and Present, 106 (1985), 3–27.

Elias Khamis , ‘Two wall mosaic inscriptions from the Umayyad market place in Bet Shean/Baysān’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 64 (2001), 159–76.

P. Crone , Roman, provincial and Islamic law: The origins of the patronate, Cambridge, 1987.

W. Graham , ‘Traditionalism in Islam: An essay in interpretation’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 23 (1993), 495–522.

H. Motzki , ‘The role of non-Arab converts in the development of early Islamic law’, Islamic Law and Society, 6 (1999), 293–317.

C. E. Bosworth ,‘The Ṭāhirids and Arabic culture’, Journal of Semitic Studies, 14 (1969) –79.

S. S. Agha , ‘A viewpoint on the Murjiʾa in the Umayyad period: Evolution through application’, Journal of Islamic Studies, 8 (1997) –42.

Saleh Said Agha , ‘Abū Muslim’s conquest of Khurāsān’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 120 (2000), 333–47.

Saleh Said Agha , ‘The Arab population in Hurāsān during the Umayyad period’, Arabica, 46 (1999) –29.

K. Athamina , ‘Abraham in Islamic perspective: Reflections on the development of monotheism in pre-Islamic Arabia’, Der Islam, 81 (2004) –205.

Jere L. Bacharach , ‘Marwānid building activities: Speculations on patronage’, Muqarnas, 13 (1996), 27–44.

Paul Balog , ‘Fāṭimid glass jetons: Token currency or coin-weights?’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 24 (1981) –109.

J. Beauchamp , F. Briquel-Chatonnet and C. Robin , ‘La persécution des chrétiens de Nagran et la chronologie Himyarite’, Aram, 11–12 (1999–2000), 15–83.

A. H. Becker , Fear of God and the beginning of wisdom: The School of Nisibis and the development of scholastic culture in Late Antique Mesopotamia, Philadelphia, 2006.

C. H. Becker , ‘Studien zur Omajjadengeschichte. A) ʿOmar II’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, 15 (1900) –36.

H. Berg , ‘Islamic origins reconsidered: John Wansbrough and the study of early Islam’, Method and Theory in the Study of Religion, 9 (1997), 3–22.

Irit Bligh-Abramski , ‘Evolution vs. revolution: Umayyad elements in the ʿAbbāsid regime 133/750–320/932’, Der Islam, 65 (1988) –43.

Michael Bonner , Jihad in Islamic history: Doctrines and practices, Princeton, 2006.

C. E. Bosworth ,‘Ṣanawbarī’s elegy on the pilgrims slain in the Carmathian attack on Mecca (317/930): A literary-historical study’, Arabica, 19, 3 (1972) –39.

C. E. Bosworth , ‘Military organization under the Buyids of Persia and Iraq’, Oriens, 18–19 (1965–6) –67.

C. E. Bosworth , ‘The armies of the Ṣaffārids’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 31 (1968) –54.

C. E. Bosworth , ‘Dailamīs in Central Iran: The Kākūyids of Jibāl and Yazd’, Iran, 8 (1970) –95.

C. E. Bosworth , ‘The development of Persian culture under the early Ghaznavids’, Iran, 6 (1968) –44.

C. E. Bosworth , ‘The rise of the Karāmiyya in Khurasan’, Muslim World, 50 (1960) –14.

C. E. *Bosworth , ‘The Ṭāhirids and Persian literature’, Iran, 7 (1969), pp. 103–6.

A. K. Bowman , P. Garnsey and A. Cameron (eds.), The Cambridge ancient history, vol. XII: The crisis of empire, AD 193–337, 2nd edn, Cambridge, 2005.

M. Brett , ‘ʿAbbasids, Fatimids and Seljuqs’, in David Luscombe and Jonathan Riley-Smith (eds.), The new Cambridge medieval history, vol. IV, Cambridge, 2004, 675–720.

M. Brett , ‘The way of the peasant’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 47 (1984), 44–56.

E. W. Brooks , ‘The Arabs in Asia Minor 641–750, from Arabic sources’, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 18 (1898), 182–208.

M. Canard , ‘Le riz dans le Proche Orient aux premiers siècles d’Islam’, Arabica, 6 (1959) –31.

Paul Cobb , ‘al-Mutawakkil’s Damascus: A new ʿAbbāsid capital?’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 58 (1999) –57.

L. I. Conrad , ‘Abraha and Muḥammad: Some observations apropos of chronology and literary topoi in the early Arabic historical tradition’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 50 (1987) –40.

M. Cook , ‘The opponents of the writing of tradition in early Islam’, Arabica, 44 (1997) –530.

Michael Cooperson , Classical Arabic biography: The heirs of the Prophet in the age of al-Maʾmūn, Cambridge, 2000.

D. Cortese , and S. Calderini , Women and the Fatimids in the world of Islam, Edinburgh, 2006.

P. Crone , ‘The first-century concept of hiğra’, Arabica, 41 (1994) –87.

Patricia Crone Were the Qays and Yemen of the Umayyad period political parties?’, Der Islam, 71 (1994) –57.

Patricia Crone , ‘The ʿAbbāsid Abnāʾ and Sāsānid cavalrymen’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, ser. 3, 8 (1998) –19.

Patricia Crone , Slaves on horses: The evolution of the Islamic polity, Cambridge, 1980.

Elton Daniel , ‘The “Ahl al-Taqādum” and the problem of the constituency of the Abbasid revolution in the Merv Oasis’, Journal of Islamic Studies, 7 (1996) –79.

Elton Daniel , ‘The anonymous history of the Abbasid family and its place in Islamic historiography’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 14 (1982), 419–34.

T. Daryaee National history or Keyanid history? The nature of Sasanid Zoroastrian historiographyIranian Studies, 28 (1995) –41.

Touraj Daryaee , ‘Apocalypse now: Zoroastrian reflections on the early Islamic centuries’, Medieval Encounters, 4 (1998) –202.

J. Menasce , ‘Zoroastrian Pahlavi writings’, in E. Yarshater (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. III: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian periods, Cambridge, 1983, part 2 –95.

X. Planhol , ‘Geography of settlement’, in W. B. Fisher (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. I: The land of Iran, Cambridge, 1968, 409–67.

Vincent Déroches , ‘Polémique anti-judaique et émergence de l’Islam (7e–8e siècles)’, Revue des études byzantines, 57 (1999), 141–61.

J. W. Drijvers , and D. Hunt (eds.), The late Roman world and its historian: Interpreting Ammianus Marcellinus, London and New York, 1999.

T. El-Hibri , ‘The Mecca Protocol of 802: A plan for division or succession?International Journal of Middle East Studies, 24 (1992), 461–80.

T. El-Hibri , Reinterpreting Islamic historiography: Hārūn al-Rashīd and the narrative of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate, Cambridge, 1999.

Emel Esin , ‘Ṭarkhan Nīzak or Ṭarkhan Tīrek? An enquiry concerning the prince of Bādhghīs …’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 97 (1977), 323–32.

F. R. Trombley , and J. W. Watt (eds.), The chronicle of Pseudo-Joshua the Stylite, Translated Texts for Historians 32, Liverpool, 2000.

W. B. Fisher (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. I: The land of Iran, Cambridge, 1968.

C. Foss , ‘The Persian Near East (602–630 AD)’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 3rd series, 13 (2003) –70.

Clive Foss , ‘The coinage of the first century of Islam’, Journal of Roman Archaeology, 16 (2003), 748–60.

Y. Friedmann , Tolerance and coercion in Islam: Interfaith relations in the Muslim tradition, Cambridge, 2003.

R. N. Frye , ‘The role of Abū Muslim in the ʿAbbasid revolt’, Muslim World, 37 (1947) –38.

R. N. Frye , ‘Die Wiedergeburt Persiens um die Jahrtausandwande’, Der Islam, 35 (1960) –51.

S. Gelichi , and M. Milanese , ‘The transformation of the ancient towns in central Tunisia during the Islamic period: The example of Uchi Maius’, al-Masaq: Islam and the medieval Mediterranean, 14 (2002) –45.

D. Genequand , ‘Some thoughts on Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi, its dam, its monastery and the Ghassanids’, Levant, 38 (2006) –83.

E. Gerland , ‘Die persischen Feldzüge des Kaisers Herakleios’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 3 (1894) –73.

H. A. R. Gibb , ‘Arab–Byzantine relations under the Umayyad caliphate’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 12 (1958) –33.

H. A. R. Gibb Chinese records of the Arabs in Central Asia’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 2 (1922), 613–22.

P. Gran , ‘Political economy as a paradigm for the study of Islamic history’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 11 (1980), 511–26.

G. Greatrex , ‘Byzantium and the east in the sixth century’, in M. Maas (ed.), The Cambridge companion to the age of Justinian, Cambridge, 2005 –509.

P. Grierson , ‘The monetary reforms of ʿAbd al-Malik: Their metrological basis and their financial repercussions’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 3 (1960) –64.

D. Gutas , Greek thought, Arabic culture: The Graeco-Arabic translation movement in Baghdad and early ʿAbbāsid society (2nd–4th/8th–10th centuries), London and New York, 1998.

G. R. Hawting ,‘The significance of the slogan lā ḥukma illā lillāh and the references to the ḥudūd in the traditions about the fitna and the murder of ʿUthmān’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 41 (1978) –63.

Stefan Heidemann , ‘The development of the representation of the early Islamic empire and its religion on coin imagery’, in Angelika Neuwirth, Nicolai Sinai and Michael Marx (eds.), The Qurʾan in context: Historical and literary investigations into the Qurʾanic milieu, Leiden, 2009 –95.

Stefan Heidemann , ‘The history of the industrial and commercial area of ʿAbbāsid al-Raqqa, called al-Raqqa al-Muḥtariqa’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 69, 1 (2006) –52.

M. Hendy , Studies in the Byzantine monetary economy, c. 350–1450, Cambridge, 1985.

Robert Hillenbrand , ‘La dolce vita in early Islamic Syria: The evidence of later Umayyad palaces’, Art History, 5 (1982) –35.

M. Hinds ,‘Kūfan political alignments and their background in the mid-seventh century AD’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 2 (1971), 346–67.

M. Hinds , ‘The first Arab conquests of Fārs’, Iran, 22 (1984) –53.

Robert Hoyland , ‘New documentary texts and the early Islamic state’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 69, 3 (2006), 395–416.

D. Huff Recherches archéologiques à Takht-i Suleiman’, Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (1978) –89.

A. S. Issar , Climate changes during the Holocene and their impact on hydrological systems, Cambridge, 2003.

J. Johns , Arabic administration in Norman Sicily: The royal dīwān, Cambridge, 2002.

Steven C. Judd , ‘Ghaylān al-Dimashqī: The isolation of a heretic in Islamic heresiography’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 31 (1999), 161–84.

A. Kaldellis , Procopius of Caesarea: Tyranny, history, and philosophy at the end of Antiquity, Philadelphia, 2004.

R. L. Kalmin , Jewish Babylonia between Persia and Roman Palestine: Decoding the literary record, Oxford, 2006.

Yury Karev , ‘La politique d’Abū Muslim dans le Māwarāʾannahr: Nouvelles données textuelles et archéologiques’, Der Islam, 79 (2002) –46.

Hugh Kennedy , ‘Central government and provincial elites in the early ʿAbbāsid caliphate’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 44 (1981), 26–38.

Hugh Kennedy , ‘The decline and fall of the first Muslim empire’, Der Islam, 81 (2004) –30; repr. in H. Kennedy , The Byzantine and Islamic Near East, Aldershot, 2006, XIV.

Hugh Kennedy , The armies of the caliphs: Military and society in the early Islamic state, London and New York, 2001.

D. Kennet Sasanian pottery in southeastern Iran and eastern Arabia’, Iran, 40 (2002) –62.

Richard Kimber , ‘The succession to the caliph Mūsā al-Hādī’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 121, 3 (2001) –48.

G. R. D. King , ‘Islam, iconoclasm, and the declaration of doctrine’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 48 (1985) –77.

M. J. Kister , ‘“A booth like the booth of Moses..”: A study of an early ḥadīth’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 25 (1962) –5.

E. Landau-Tasseron , ‘Zaydī imams as restorers of religion: Iḥyāʾ and tajdīd in Zaydī literature’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 49 (1990) –63.

Ella Landau-Tasseron , ‘Sayf ibn ʿUmar in medieval and modern scholarship’, Der Islam, 67 (1990) –26.

Jacob Lassner , ‘Abu Muslim al-Khurāsānī: The emergence of a secret agent from Khurāsān, Iraq, or was it Isfahān?’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 104 (1984) –75.

A. D. Lee Information and frontiers: Roman foreign relations in Late Antiquity, Cambridge, 1993.

Anna Leone , ‘Late Antique North Africa: Production and changing use of buildings in urban areas’, al-Masāq, 15, 1 (March, 2003), 21–33.

E. Lévi-Provençal Un nouveau récit de la conquête de l’Afrique du nord par les Arabes’, Arabica, 1 (1954), 17–43.

J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz , ‘Late Antiquity and the concept of decline’, Nottingham Medieval Studies, 45 (2001) –11.

S. N. C. Lieu Manichaeism in Mesopotamia and the Roman east, 2nd edn, Leiden, 1999.

C. S. Lightfoot , ‘Trajan’s Parthian war and the fourth-century perspective’, Journal of Roman Studies, 80 (1990) –26.

A. Luther , Die syrische Chronik des Josua Stylites, Untersuchungen zur antiken Literatur und Geschichte 49, Berlin and New York, 1997.

W. Madelung , Der Imam al-Qāsim ibn Ibrāhīm und die Glaubenslehre der Zaiditen, Berlin, 1965.

Wilferd Madelung , ‘Fatimiden und Bahrainqarmaten’, Der Islam, 34 (1959) –88.

Herbert Mason , ‘The role of the Azdite Muhallibid family in Marw’s anti-Umayyad power struggle’, Arabica, 14 (1967) –207.

Christopher Melchert , ‘Religious policies of the caliphs from al-Mutawakkil to al-Muqtadir, AH 232–295/AD 847–908’, Islamic Law and Society, 3 (1996) –42.

Michael G. Morony , ‘Continuity and change in the administrative geography of late Sasanian and early Islamic al-ʿIrāq’, Iran, 20 (1982) –49.

Roy Mottahedeh , ‘The Shuʿūbiyya controversy and the social history of early Islamic Iran’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 7(1976), 161–82.

John Nawas , ‘A reexamination of three current explanations for al-Maʾmūn’s introduction of the miḥna’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 26 (1994), 615–29.

Yehuda D. Nevo , ‘The origins of the Muslim descriptions of the jāhilī Meccan sanctuary’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 49 (1990) –44.

Thomas Noonan , ‘The ʿAbbāsid mint output’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 29 (1986) –64.

Andrew Oddy , ‘Whither Arab-Byzantine numismatics? A review of fifty years’ research’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 28 (2004) –52.

A. Palmer , S. Brock and R. Hoyland , The seventh century in the West-Syrian chronicles, Liverpool, 1993.

A. Perikhanian , ‘Iranian society and law’, in E. Yarshater (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. III: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian periods, Cambridge, 1983, part 2 –80.

F. E. Peters , ‘The quest for the historical Muhammad’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 23 (1991), 291–315.

D. T. Potts , ‘Gundeshapur and the Gondeisos’, Iranica Antiqua, 24 (1989) –35.

Parvaneh Pourshariati , ‘Local histories of Khurasan and the pattern of Arab settlement’, Studia Iranica, 27 (1998) –81.

S. M. N. Priestman , ‘The Williamson Collection project: Sasanian and Islamic survey ceramics from southern Iran, current research’, Iran, 40 (2002) –7, 41 (2003), 345–8.

Procopius , History of the wars, ed. and trans. H. B. Dewing , 5 vols., Cambridge, MA, 1914–28.

L. Richter-Bernburg , ‘Linguistic Shuʿūbīya and early Neo-Persian prose’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 94 (1974) –64.

B. Rubin , Das Zeitalter Iustinians, vol. I, Berlin, 1960.

Z. Rubin , ‘Res Gestae Divi Saporis: Greek and Middle Iranian in a document of Sasanian anti-Roman propaganda’, in J. N. Adams , M. Janse and S. Swain (eds.), Bilingualism in ancient society: Language contact and the written text, Oxford, 2002 –97.

Gregor Schoeler , ‘Die Frage der schriftlichen oder mündlichen Überlieferung der Wissenschaften in frühen Islam’, Der Islam, 62 (1985) –30.

P. Sijpesteijn , ‘New rule over old structures: Egypt after the Muslim conquest’, in H. Crawford (ed.), Regime change in the ancient Near East and Egypt, from Sargon of Agade to Saddam Hussein, Proceedings of the British Academy 136, London, 2007 –200.

P. O. Skjærvø , ‘L’inscription d’Abnūn et l’imperfait moyen-perse, Studia Iranica, 21 (1992), 153–60.

S. Smith , ‘Events in Arabia in the 6th century AD’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 16 (1954) –68.

D. Sourdel , and J. Sourdel-Thomine , ‘Trois actes de vente damascains du début du IVe/Xe siècle’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 8 (1965), 164–85.

R. W. Southern , Western views of Islam in the Middle Ages, Cambridge, MA, 1962.

D. Stathakopoulos , ‘The Justinianic plague revisited’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 24 (2000) –76.

S. M. Stern , ‘The early missionaries in north-west Persia and in Khurāsān and Transoxania’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 23 (1960) –90.

Strabo , Geography, ed. and trans. H. L. Jones , 8 vols., Cambridge, MA, 1917–32.

W. Sundermann , ‘Studien zur kirchengeschichtlichen Literatur der iranischen Manichäer I/II’, Altorientalische Forschungen, 13 (1986) –92, 239–317.

W. Sundermann , ‘Studien zur kirchengeschichtlichen Literatur der iranischen Manichäer III’, Altorientalische Forschungen, 14 (1987) –107.

K. Tanabe , ‘Iconography of the royal-hunt bas-reliefs at Taq-i Bustan’, Orient (Tokyo), 19 (1983) –16.

A. L. Tibawi , ‘English-speaking Orientalists: A critique of their approach to Islam and Arab nationalism’, Muslim World, 53 (1963) –204, 298–313.

William F. Tucker , ‘Bayān ibn Samʿān and the Bayāniyya: Shīʿite extremists of Umayyad Iraq’, Muslim World, 65 (1975), 241–53.

S. Tyler-Smith , ‘Calendars and coronations: The literary and numismatic evidence for the accession of Khusrau II’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 28 (2004) –65.

Avram L. Udovitch , Partnership and profit in medieval Islam, Princeton, 1970.

J. Ess , Theologie und Gesellschaft im 2. und 3. Jahrhundert Hidschra: Eine Geschichte des religiösen Denkens im frühen Islam, 6 vols., Berlin, 1991–7.

Marilyn Robinson Waldman , ‘New approaches to “biblical” materials in the Qurʾān’, Muslim World, 75 (1985) –16.

C. Wendell , ‘Baghdad: Imago Mundi and other foundation lore’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 2 (1971), 99–128.

M. Whittow , ‘Ruling the late Roman and early Byzantine city: A continuous history’, Past and Present, 129 (1990) –29.

G. Widengren , ‘Sources of Parthian and Sasanian history’, in E. Yarshater (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. III: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian periods, Cambridge, 1983, part 2 –83.

J. C. Wilkinson , ‘The Ibāḍī imāma’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 39, 3 (1976) –51.

T. Williams , K. Kurbansakhatov et al., ‘The ancient Merv project, Turkmenistan: Preliminary report on the first season (2001)’, Iran, 40 (2002), 15–41.

G. Wolf , Becoming Roman: The origins of provincial civilization in Gaul, Cambridge, 1998.

D. Wood , ‘The 60 martyrs of Gaza and the martyrdom of Bishop Sophronius of Jerusalem’, Aram, 15 (2003), 129–50.

E. M. Wright , ‘Bābak of Badhdh and al-Afshīn’, Muslim World, 38 (1948), 43–59, 124–131.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 6799 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 7524 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.