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The New Cambridge Modern History
  • Volume 9: War and Peace in an Age of Upheaval, 1793–1830
  • Edited by C. W. Crawley

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    The New Cambridge Modern History
    • Volume 9: War and Peace in an Age of Upheaval, 1793–1830
    • Edited by C. W. Crawley
    • Online ISBN: 9781139055857
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476
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Book description

The ninth volume of the The New Cambridge Modern History begins with the outbreak of war on the execution of Louis XVI, bridges the watershed of 1815 and closes, for the most part, with the avoidance of war on the abdication of Charles X. It was a period of wars and revolutions when Europe was preoccupied with France, and the role of war itself shaped the direction of change and determined its extent.

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Page 1 of 2


  • CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION
    pp 1-30
    • By C. W. Crawley, Emeritus and Honorary Fellow of Trinity Hall and formerly Lecturer in History in the University of Cambridge
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.002
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In spite of recent efforts to test sweeping assertions by detailed sampling, many central questions about the age of wars and revolutions in Europe during 1793 to 1830 are still not precisely answered. All over Europe, agriculture still predominated, overwhelmingly in the south and east and much of the centre. The age of farm machinery was not yet, and the pattern of life in the country was everywhere traditional. The Napoleonic period were years of fulfilment for administrators, whether soldiers or civilians, whether new men enjoying the 'carriere ouverte aux talents' or men to whom more prosaic careers would have been open under the old regime. The doctrine of immobility was partly imposed on the Confederation by the presidency of Austria. This was not uncongenial to Metternich in constitutional matters, resourceful and pliant though he was in diplomacy and administration.
  • CHAPTER II - ECONOMIC CHANGE IN ENGLAND AND EUROPE, 1780–1830
    pp 31-59
    • By R. M. Hartwell, Fellow of Nuffield College and Reader in recent Social and Economic History in the University of Oxford
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In 1830, the European economy was predominantly agricultural. Even in England, where in 1760 agriculture accounted for 35 per cent in 1800 and 25 per cent in 1830. Within Britain (and to a lesser extent in Europe) the increasing use of coal was the most powerful stimulus to improved communications. While the consumption of coal was small, it was transported in small quantities by pack animal and cart, and in larger quantities by river and sea. Freedom of enterprise was only one characteristic of a social environment in Britain that was more favourable to economic change than elsewhere: an environment in which there was political stability and social mobility, the general acceptance of a secular and individualist philosophy. In direction of trade, both before 1780 and after 1830, Britain was oriented predominantly towards America and Europe: generally over this period Europe provided one-third of British imports and a market for more than 40 per cent of her exports.
  • A - ARMIES
    pp 60-76
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The wars of the eighteenth century were wars of kings not of peoples. Wars of this kind were affairs of the State, an autocratic State, and entirely separated from the interests of the people. The contemporary armies of the Great Powers were, as they had been generally throughout the eighteenth century, much alike in discipline, training, equipment and general fitness for service. Prussia was the most important country, outside France, where in this period the process of social and political emancipation was accompanied by the military conscription of national man-power. If war, looked at from the point of view of man-power, had changed its character, this was far from true of the weapons those men used. Unlike Napoleon, the Prussian reformers saw the harm caused by purely personal leadership, and hence sought to perpetuate the lessons of experience in a permanent organisation. This was the success of Prussian arms in the nineteenth century.
  • B - NAVIES
    pp 76-90
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    France declared war on Britain in February 1793, without a navy worthy of the name. The most violent critic of the old navy was Jeanbon Saint-Andre, a demagogue who had but slight acquaintance with the sea. British sea officers were distinguished between the commissioned and warrant, the latter being divided between civilians such as the surgeon, purser and chaplain, and those promoted from petty officer, such as master, gunner, boatswain and carpenter. 'The People' (as the seamen were called) either volunteered, attracted by the generous bounties offered in wartime, or were impressed by the Impress Service which in 1793 superseded the old method of sporadic gangs. Britain emerged from the twenty years of naval war on a world scale with unchallenged superiority at sea. Though conquests such as Java were restored in the interests of future peace, a chain of bases now secured the route to the East: Ascension, St Helena, the Cape, Mauritius and Ceylon.
  • CHAPTER IV - REVOLUTIONARY INFLUENCES AND CONSERVATISM IN LITERATURE AND THOUGHT
    pp 91-117
    • By H. G. Schenk, Fellow of Wolfson College and Senior Lecturer in European Economic and Social History in the University of Oxford
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    An aspect of the faith in progress was the hope that the French Revolution would usher in the longed-for Age of Reason. Although anti-rationalist doctrines were by now visibly gaining ground, the adoration of rationalism in politics, was still very much en vogue. The idea of equality once conceived could not fail to lead to the demand for equal treatment and equal opportunity for the sexes. Shortly before the Revolution, Olympe de Gouges, illegitimate daughter of a poet and herself a minor playwright, published her novel, Prince Philosophe, in which she pleaded that women be granted equality in education. In other directions too the principle of equality was extended as a result of the Revolution. The conception of common citizenship made it impossible to maintain the disabilities of the Jews. The upsurge of cultural patriotism was connected with the romantic quest for freedom of expression. The political doctrine of nationalism was, however, more complex in its origins.
  • CHAPTER V - SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    pp 118-145
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In the generation between the Revolutions of 1793 and 1830, the community of science and technology outgrew the posture of the Enlightenment and assumed the stance of the nineteenth century. Positivism in scientific thinking was a proper creation of the Revolution, but rather of its consciousness and action, whether directed left or right. France endowed herself almost at a stroke with a modern set of scientific institutions. Their educational form, and the quality of the men who taught and studied there, made her the scientific schoolmistress of Europe. Scientific Britain, down to 1830, presents quite another prospect, her science traversing the belated last chapter of her old regime. There were notable achievements always in the practical, empirical and individualistic, not to say idiosyncratic, style. By 1830, the cotton mills of Manchester had reached enormity as well as immensity. However, except here and there in France, none of this had gone beyond the stage of pilot plants outside of Britain.
  • CHAPTER VI - RELIGION: CHURCH AND STATE IN EUROPE AND THE AMERICAS
    pp 146-178
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    By the end of 1793, the split between Church and Revolution in France, opened wide by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, now seemed unbridgeable. Before 1795, the Revolution had threatened the existence of the Roman Church in France and Belgium. Yet in July 1801, Revolution compounded with Papacy in the signing of the French Concordat. There were signs by 1815 of a religious awakening in many parts of Europe. Doctrinally, most of the religious reaction flowed in strongly traditional channels. Yet there were several important attempts to reinterpret Christianity to the European intellectual elite, which had largely lapsed from the faith. In the last years of the eighteenth century the revivalist tradition in North America blazed up into another Great Awakening. Some of its first major outbreaks took place in the colleges of the Eastern seaboard, notably at Yale. In South America, the revolutions against the Spanish government had seldom taken an anti-Catholic or even a properly anticlerical form.
  • CHAPTER VII - EDUCATION, AND PUBLIC OPINION
    pp 179-208
    • By John Roach, Professor of Education in the University of Sheffield and Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Public opinion first became a major force in Europe in the period of the French Revolution and of the Restoration. Education, which in its origins had been the concern of the Church, was becoming more a concern of the State. In this period, the press became the most important expression of the public opinion which was everywhere growing up. At the beginning of the period the true censorship lay in the fact that the newspapers had not yet reached financial independence. In the early years of the Restoration the law was hostile to any free expression of opinion. In October 1814 a law had been passed which decreed that no newspapers or other publications were to appear without royal sanction. The search for freedom and self-development was for Heinrich Pestalozzi and for Robert Owen primarily concerned with the education of the people. In secondary and higher education the same goal was pursued by German thinkers, particularly Wilhelm von Humboldt.
  • A - THE VISUAL ARTS
    pp 209-228
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The outstanding artistic event of the last quarter of the eighteenth century was the appearance of David's Oath of the Horatii. In this picture, the severely monumental style which had died with Nicholas Poussin was so powerfully revived that it dominated French art for a whole generation. Theodore Gericault was one of those artists born with an easy command of the innovations of their predecessors. Everything that the Napoleonic and revolutionary schools could teach, he amplified with his creative imagination. In England, history painting had claimed some attention from most leading painters, almost every artist of repute in 1790 was first and foremost a portrait painter. The solitary genius of William Blake, poet, engraver, visionary and thinker, evolved the challenge to scientific materialism expressed in his early lyric verses and his later symbolic and prophetic books. Darkness and melancholy pervade the designs and tragic personal history of Asmus Jakob Carstens, and mark him out as a forerunner of romanticism.
  • B - MUSIC
    pp 228-249
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Between the years 1790 and 1830, the art of music experienced a significant shift of emphasis from the disciplined forms of the Age of Reason to patterns of considerably greater freedom and individuality, even eccentricity. In constructing the main body of his first movements Joseph Haydn eventually decided upon the type of sonata form that had been favoured by Christian Bach and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The symphony in E flat begins a new era in the music of Ludwig van Beethoven. The opening notes generate one of the composer's most tautly constructed movements. The development of modern art song is beholden to German leadership in the same way that the history of opera is the glory of Italy. The new secular non-operatic songs, performed by professionals in a concert hall, for the benefit of a paying public, constituted a quite different category from the folk and love songs of an immemorial age.
  • CHAPTER IX - THE BALANCE OF POWER DURING THE WARS, 1793–1814
    pp 250-274
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    From the early years of that century, when the War of the Spanish Succession finally checked the ascendancy France had gained under Louis XIV, until the final decade when the victories of the revolutionary armies again made France a threat, the balance of power in Europe was not seriously disturbed. The British colonial acquisitions on other continents did not unsettle the balance of power within Europe itself. If the French had been ruled by a less apathetic monarch than Louis XVI, if the ministers had been less distracted by the domestic crisis, France might have secured reciprocal compensations for the gains made by Russia, Prussia and Austria in the 1780's. By the summer of 1813 a Fourth Coalition, including Britain, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Spain and Portugal had formed against Napoleon. With Napoleon's withdrawal across the Rhine at the close of 1813 his allies abandoned him and his empire collapsed.
  • CHAPTER X - THE INTERNAL HISTORY OF FRANCE DURING THE WARS, 1793–1814
    pp 275-306
    • By Jacques Godechot, Professor of History in the University of Toulouse Le Mirail and Honorary Dean of the Faculty of Letters
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The first of the many victories of the armies of the Revolution marked for Europe the start of a twenty-year war, only interrupted from 1802 to 1804 by two years of precarious peace. For France, this meant the beginning of a new regime. Dictatorship allowed Napoleon to fight his wars for eleven years without having to worry much about French opinion. On the Continent, war was interrupted by truces (some quite long ones), but it never ceased at sea or in the colonies. The future of France was then settled by the Treaty of Paris. She retained the boundaries of 1792. But the country retained the essentials of the 'conquests of the Revolution', which had been achieved precisely in 1792. These include abolition of the feudal system, redistribution of the land after the sale of clerical and emigres' property, economic liberalism, secularisation of the civil registers, educational and administrative reorganisation.
  • CHAPTER XI - THE NAPOLEONIC ADVENTURE
    pp 307-336
    • By Felix Markham, Fellow of Hertford College and Lecturer in Modem History in the University of Oxford
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The mists of St Helena, the site of Napoleon's last victory, and the legend, still obscure him. This chapter presents him as the product of his age and also the moulder of it, and analyses the interaction between his personality and the forces, moral and material, at work in Europe. Napoleon's Italian campaigns of 1796-7, twelve victories in a year, seemed almost miraculous. In his first campaign, which is the model of all his later campaigns, Napoleon had in his hands the instrument with which the new theories could be translated into fact. Reminiscing at St Helena, Napoleon ridiculed 'maxims' of war. The conception of the Waterloo campaign was as brilliant as ever, but it was ruined by errors in execution. In contrast with 1814, Napoleon now had a veteran army composed of released prisoners of war. Both his strength and his weakness lay in the attempt to harness explosive pohtical forces which he could not comprehend or control.
  • CHAPTER XII - FRENCH POLITICS, 1814–471
    pp 337-366
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter deals with the French politics during the period 1814-1847. A new constitution, known as the Constitutional Charter, was proclaimed on 4 June 1814 which provided the framework of the French State up to the revolution of 1848. In 1814, the Restoration came about in such a way that there were neither victors nor vanquished. However later, the exasperated royalists were to insist on reprisals against those whose treason had brought on the disasters of 1815. Louis XVIII was able to experiment with a middle-of-the-road government from 1816-1820, during which the political forces in the country, as in parliament, were divided among several tendencies. A proposal put forward by Thiers and others of the opposition at the beginning of the 1847 session provided for the lowering of the tax-qualification to 100 francs, and the granting of the right to vote to various classes of the people, simply by virtue of their professions or their jobs.
  • CHAPTER XIII - GERMAN CONSTITUTIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, 1795–1830
    pp 367-394
    • By W. H. Bruford, Formerly Fellow ofSt John's College and Emeritus Schröder Professor of German in the University of Cambridge
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter deals with German constitutional and social development during the period 1795-1830. During this period, Germany began to take shape as a national state. In central Germany, and in the west and south-west, estates were mostly made up of small and scattered units, so that it had long been usual to commute peasants' services for money payments. As senior president of the provincial Chambers in Westphalia from 1796 to 1804, Freiherr vom Stein had tried to develop what little survived there of the older constitution of the provincial estates. Later, he was allowed to allot to Beyme duties which he considered suitable for him, until finally Beyme became President of the Kammergericht in June 1807. Meanwhile at least a provisional solution of the constitutional problem had been found. After the sufferings and deprivations of the war years, there was naturally everywhere in Germany a longing for peace and quietness, clearly reflected in the literature of the so-called Biedermeier period.
  • CHAPTER XIV - THE AUSTRIAN MONARCHY, 1792–1847
    pp 395-411
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.017
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter deals with Austrian monarchy during the period 1792-1847. Francis who ascended the throne in 1792 and occupied it for forty-three years, believed that believed that government should be the expression of the monarch's will. Francis's system became more systematic, and as the years went by, he acquired greater experience and more taste for the business of governing, and as the appropriate institutions and services took shape under his hand. After the Treaty of Schonbrunn, a crisis seemed inevitable. Invasion, defeat and cruel territorial mutilation, each grievous in itself, had also combined to bring to a head the one internal process on which Francis had been unable to impose a standstill. In the heart of the monarchy, the struggle for the restoration of provincial self-government, against centralised bureaucratic despotism, was led by the Estates of Bohemia. By the turn of 1847-8 many social classes and nationalities in the monarchy was chafing under the system and demanding change.
  • CHAPTER XV - ITALY, 1793–1830
    pp 412-438
    • By J. M. Roberts, Fellow and Tutor of Merton College and Lecturer in Modem History in the University of Oxford
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.018
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter deals with the history of Italy during the period 1793-1830. In 1796, the Settecento ended and the Revolution came to the Italian peninsula; the modern history of Italy begins with the presence of the French army. The next great change came at the collapse of the Napoleonic system. Prior to the collapse, the whole peninsula had been subjected to common governmental and political influences for the first time in centuries. Post-1814, although all the restored regimes had to take account of Austrian predominance, the peninsula was again fragmented. 1830 did not change this state of affairs. Eighteenth-century Italy was a bundle of societies in which small privileged classes enjoying wealth and power resisted the encroachments which monarchs and bureaucrats made in the interests of general well-being. The invasion of 1796 ended the Guerre des Alpes and the revolution entered Italy. Bonaparte did more than alter the diplomatic situation there: he destroyed the coalition and transformed the European scene.
  • CHAPTER XVI - SPAIN AND PORTUGAL, 1793 TO c. 1840
    pp 439-461
    • By Raymand Carr, Warden of St Antony's College and formerly Professor of the History of Latin America in the University of Oxford
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.019
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter deals with the history of Spain and Portugal during the period 1793-1840. Confronted with the problem of regenerating society in decline, Iberian liberalism professed conflicting ideals. In neither country could liberalism draw its strength from a strong industrial and merchant class, but the absence of such a class has been made to explain too readily the weaknesses of Iberian liberalism. For the feebleness of Spanish and Portuguese foreign policy 1789-1808, the blame has been laid on the return in Portugal to the system of court piety, and in Spain on the rule of the queen's favourite, Godoy. In Portugal, the liberal revolt of 1808 had come to nothing; in Spain, the liberal experiment ended with Ferdinand VII's return in 1814. Ferdinand's hesitations about overthrowing the constitution ended once he was assured of military backing. Divided and bankrupt as it was, liberalism defeated Carlism and Miguelism. Not the ultimate failure but the early triumphs of Carlism are astonishing.
  • A - THE LOW COUNTRIES
    pp 462-480
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.020
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Low Countries did not remain unperturbed by the political unrest which affected Europe at the end of the eighteenth century. Both halves of them were involved in the 1780's in reform movements. At the very beginning, the 'Patriot' movement was split into two wings: a conservative one whose sole aim was to revest the plenitude of authority in the patrician oligarchy, and a democratic one which intended a limited progressive reform of power. In Austrian Netherlands, Joseph II, took advantage of the prosperity brought about by the hostilities between Britain, France and the Dutch, carried on with a flow of reforms. Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck, a moderate Patriot in the 1780's, became head of the state in April 1805 with the revived title of Grand Pensionary and practically dictatorial powers. These gave him the opportunity to bring in administrative and financial reforms, which was to change Holland into a modern state.
  • B - THE SCANDINAVIA
    pp 480-494
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.021
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In the generation before the French Revolution the two Scandinavian kingdoms, Denmark and Sweden, and their appendages continued to enjoy the relative calm and prosperity which had followed the end of the Great Northern War in 1721. The main result of the Swedish-Russian war was a change in the Swedish constitution. This chapter traces the internal development of the Scandinavian countries on the eve of the revolutionary age. In Denmark, the general result of all measures was to consolidate the position of the absolutist monarchy. In Sweden, the only definite limits left to the authority of Gustavus III were that he could not continue a tax beyond a date fixed by the Estates in granting it or declare war except in defence. The Scandinavian countries were big exporters. Sweden exported about 50,000 tons of bar iron a year. Danish corn, the timber of southern Norway, Swedish copper, and other naval stores, were also profitable in time of war.
  • CHAPTER XVIII - RUSSIA, 1798–1825
    pp 495-524
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.022
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter deals with the history of Russia during the period 1798-1825. In European Russia over 90 per cent of the population must in 1800 have been agrarian and well over half this percentage were serfs attached to the land and bodily owned by individual nobles. Both the state peasant and the privately owned peasant provided conscript cannon-fodder and both paid poll tax, which nevertheless produced nearly two-fifths of the ordinary revenue in 1805. The growth of internal and external trade hardly affected the agrarian poverty of Russia; the thin layer of beneficiaries consisted of the merchant class (kupechestvo), the highest of the three urban classes. The cases of N. I. Novikov and A. N. Radishchev were symptomatic of Russian conditions, in so many ways contradictory, at the end of Catherine's reign, but not of a political movement. Separating them from the Decembrist revolt was Alexander's entire era of abortive reform.
  • CHAPTER XIX - THE NEAR EAST AND THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, 1798–1830
    pp 525-551
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.023
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter deals with the history of the Near East and the Ottoman Empire during the period 1798-1830. Very few people in Europe knew much about the Near East, and that still fewer ever visited those countries; up to 1789, books about Turkey mostly describe a strange world. The British government had shown little interest in Egypt up to 1798. The French conquest, anticipated by nobody in authority except Dundas and some of his 'London-Indian' advisers, changed all that; the activities of the French savants in Egypt were widely heralded. If Muhammad Ali gave a certain coherence to the story of Egypt, the fortunes of war left their mark, more capriciously, on almost every region of the Levant. The Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia contained a large number of wealthy boyars (titled landowners). Their culture and that of the higher orthodox clergy, including the monasteries, had become mainly Greek since the seventeenth century.
  • CHAPTER XX - EUROPE'S RELATIONS WITH SOUTH AND SOUTH-EAST Asia
    pp 552-571
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.024
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter deals with the Europe's contact with South Asia and South-East Asia during the late-eighteenth century and early nineteenth century. The major concern of the English East India Company was the establishment of its authority as the paramount power in India. The Indian ideas had seemed to Warren Hastings and his colleagues to be worthy of study. The translations and researches undertaken by Sir William Jones, Charles Wilkins and the other pioneers of the Asiatic Society of Bengal seemed to arouse interest in Germany. Among the factors governing British expansion, fear of a revival of French power in India was most apparent under Richard Colley Wellesley. In his influential History of British India James Mill criticised the oriental scholars who had praised India's cultural achievements, and instead, laid stress upon social, moral and intellectual defects to show how badly India (and by reflection England) needed Benthamite reforms.
  • CHAPTER XXI - EUROPE'S ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL RELATIONS WITH TROPICAL AFRICA
    pp 572-590
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.025
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter deals with the Europe's contact with tropical Africa. For the greater part of the eighteenth century, effective European interests in Africa had been strategic and commercial, and thus involving no need to know the interiors of Africa. Until about 1825, Britain chose to regard the problems occasioned by this unwanted inheritance of involvement in the South African interior essentially in a military light, her prime concern being Cape Town. The French too retained an interest in East Africa, and had developed the Mascarene Islands with sugar plantations. Almost the whole of the existing relationship between Europeans and Africans on the west coast was conditioned by slave trade. The formal advance of European power into tropical Africa was small. However, in both East and West Africa, and, in a different way, in South Africa also, a dominant external influence had been created by the advance of British merchants, missionaries, explorers and consuls.
  • CHAPTER XXII - THE UNITED STATES AND THE OLD WORLD, 1794–1828
    pp 591-611
    • By F. Thistlethwaite, Vice-Chancellor of the University of East Anglia and formerly Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.026
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter deals with the history of United States during the period 1794-1828. America was republic which separated church from state, which denied the morality of empire, of dynastic aggrandisement, of Old World nationalism. The settlement of the lands between the Appalachians and the Mississippi was the dominant influence shaping the fortunes of the young Republic, setting the terms for her resumed relations with Europe. The West needed what the old tobacco-planting South had enjoyed: a low-cost staple with a sale in European markets. By such means, this undeveloped area could obtain the profits of specialisation and the benefits of integration with the advanced economies of Europe. When American economic power at last forced Britain to recognise the virtues of Atlantic free trade, other voices in the United States were advocating a conflicting policy such as increasing import tariffs on textiles. Foreign affairs sharpened the issues between the parties and underlined deep temperamental contrasts between planting and mercantile communities.
  • CHAPTER XXIII - THE EMANCIPATION OF LATIN AMERICA
    pp 612-638
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521045476.027
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The flight of the house of Braganza from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro in November 1807 began the process which culminated, fourteen years later, in the almost bloodless secession of Brazil from Portugal. The Napoleonic invasions of Portugal and Spain precipitated, the dissolutions of the Portuese and Spanish Empires in America. Except in Mexico, the revolutions which broke out in 1810 were political revolutions. They aimed, not at the re-organisation of society, but at the redistribution of authority, from Spaniards to Creoles. The economic organisation of Spanish America, like its administrative organisation, lay in ruins. The wars of independence were civil wars. Creoles fought Spaniards, but Spanish Americans also fought each other. No outside Power came to the formal assistance of the mainland colonies of Spain in their long struggle for independence, as France and Spain had come to the aid of the mainland colonies of England.

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