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    Garber, Peter 2008. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 1.

    Edwards, Richard 1999. Govierno de Christo and Tyrania de Satanas : The Differences between Parts I and II of Francisco de Quevedo's Política de Dios. Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, Vol. 76, Issue. 5, p. 605.

    SCHMITT, HANS O. 1979. MERCANTILISM: A MODERN ARGUMENT. The Manchester School, Vol. 47, Issue. 2, p. 93.

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  • Volume 4: The Decline of Spain and the Thirty Years War, 1609-48/49
  • Edited by J. P. Cooper

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    The New Cambridge Modern History
    • Volume 4: The Decline of Spain and the Thirty Years War, 1609-48/49
    • Edited by J. P. Cooper
    • Online ISBN: 9781139055796
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180
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War, plague, rebellions, and religious and dynastic conflicts changed the distribution of power between states, as well as their structure, when many of the social, intellectual and political foundations of Europe during the Ancien Régime were laid. The mass of the people suffered from direct and indirect effects of war, but both limited and absolutist governments and a variety of social groups strengthened themselves. In this volume, contributors discuss the shift of power and command of oceanic routes to north-western Europe, the failure of Habsburg power in Spain and Germany and the rebuilding of their power in Bohemia. The internal costs of France's victory over Spain and her international position in the 1650s are assessed. Greater immediate gains were won by smaller powers, the Dutch and the Swedes and, despite the Civil War, England. Particular attention is paid to attitudes towards absolutism and the development of scientific ideas.

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‘… a major event for both teachers and students of the period concerned … Happily this volume is among the best. A team of distinguished scholars, several of them foreign, has been assembled, and on the whole they have performed their task well.’

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  • Chapter I - General introduction
    pp 1-66
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.002
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Undeniably the first half of the seventeenth century in Europe (or for that matter in China and to a lesser extent India) was an eventful period, full of conflicts. In China a dynasty collapsed amidst peasant revolts and for the last time nomadic invaders conquered the settled lands. The duel on the point of honour seems to have developed in France from the early sixteenth century and produced a distinctive code which had absolute force in controlling the behaviour and reputation of nobles. The monolithic character of Chinese culture can doubtless be exaggerated and the Taoist tradition had enduring importance as an unofficial alternative. In England and France anticipations and assignments had eroded ordinary revenues and ensured permanent deficits so that nominally short-term debts were often left unpaid to the detriment of royal credit. The most conspicuous new recruits in the later period were financiers, merchants and lesser nobles who had made their fortunes as office-holders and councillors.
  • Chapter II - The European economy 1609–50
    pp 67-103
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter covers a similar reversal in the economic history of Europe. In the chapter, the varying crisis in different sectors-population; money, prices and wages; trade and production-must claim attention in turn, through at least some thirty years of European war, with its inevitable wastages and destruction. The problems of population growth in the early seventeenth century, perhaps typically of pre-industrial economies, remained fundamental to economic activity. Spain had attracted the attention of the great financial entrepreneurs, who found through Spain the required opening into both the bullion markets of Europe and the trade with the New World. In Germany, the governments also tampered with the currency during the Kipper- und Wipperzeit, a spell of monetary debasements and coin clipping which shook the country at the outbreak of the Thirty Years War. The capital assets threatened by difficult conditions again found relief in the great companies, armed to seize the initiative and win outstanding profits.
  • Chapter III - The exponents and critics of absolutism
    pp 104-131
    • By R. Mousnier, Professor of Modern History at the Sorbonne
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Between 1610 and 1659 absolutism triumphed almost everywhere in Europe. One must try to consider what statesmen, administrators and members of different social groups thought of absolutism, what ideas and slogans moved men to act-and their relationship to their whole environment. The Lex Regia was considered the foundation of princely absolutism. The Parlement aimed at judicial absolutism with the courts exercising sovereign power. The realization of these ideas was prevented by the anarchy of the Fronde, which emphasized the need for order and security and so assisted the triumph of absolutism. Queen Christina also surrounded herself with Netherlanders and Germans and was deeply influenced by neo-Stoicism, but she adopted the French theory of absolutism and tried to introduce it in practice. Hobbes had transformed the theory of contract and so influenced Locke and Rousseau. Political ideas were not merely linked to political, social and economic situations, but were a function of the whole of European civilization.
  • Chapter IV - The scientific movement and its influence 1610–50
    pp 132-168
    • By A. C. Crombie, University Lecturer in the History of Science, University of Oxford, and Fellow of Trinity College, M. A. Hoskin, University Lecturer in the History of Science, University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Churchill College
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The promise and achievements of the enterprise gave fresh confidence to appeals for conditions making such research possible, for more adequate provision for natural science in the universities and in new institutions, and for money to be spent on science in the public interest. To a large extent the new science was establishing itself on the margins of official learning and recognized professional activities. Criticism of the conservatism and pedantry of formal courses in the sciences became a commonplace of intellectual autobiographies of the period. Outside Italy the universities in which the new sciences were most actively cultivated were those in the Netherlands. Actual scientific enquiry is a different activity from that of formulating scientific philosophy and method, and their influences on the course of history may differ widely, but the whole notion developed in the seventeenth century of science as a new philosophy, and not just a new technology, linked them closely together.
  • Chapter V - Changes in religious thought
    pp 169-201
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The first decades of the seventeenth century played a special role in the evolution of religious religious thought. The chief concern of religious thought was one which had never lost interest since the beginnings of Christianity, that of man's free will and of his freedom to arrive at his own religious experiences. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the impetus towards orthodoxy was further strengthened by another traditional belief, that religious divergence was political treason. Lutheranism's equation of natural law with the Decalogue provided a strong rationale for the princes to regulate the faith, since the interpretation of natural law had always been a concern of rulers. Boehme was therefore symptomatic of another trend in seventeenth century Christian thought which was coursing beneath the official orthodoxies. The change in the period was not so much the creation of something new, but the crystallization and definition of these trends of religious thought.
  • Chapter VI - Military forces and warfare 1610–48
    pp 202-225
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    For the military historian, the main feature of what is usually called the modern period is that it is dominated by the professional soldier, hired at home or abroad. Naturally, the process of transition from the one method of raising an army to the other differed from country to country, but in general it can be said to have taken place in the first half of the seventeenth century. Developments in fortress engineering have already been discussed, as have the new tactics and battle-order. The hired army made way for a standing national army of professional soldiers, or at least an army with a national core, an army meeting the requirements of increasingly centralized government. The ferocity and bitterness of the religious wars belonged to the past; the prisoner-of-war now bought his freedom for the fixed price of one month's wages; and officers on opposing sides now regarded each other as colleagues and exchanged courtesies, when the occasion arose.
  • Chapter VII - Sea-power
    pp 226-238
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Changes in the distribution of sea-power among the states of Europe affected large areas outside Europe more directly than ever before. Distribution of sea-power was itself changed by changing distribution of trade and also by technical developments in shipbuilding and the conduct of war. This Spanish effort was a last desperate gamble by planners who had lost touch with the realities of both Dutch and Spanish sea-power. The resulting war with Spain demonstrated the greatness of English sea-power, since Spain's Atlantic communications were far more effectively cut than they had ever been by the Dutch. English sea-power commanded the approaches to Spain, but the Dutch as neutral carriers monopolized Spanish trade, while the English suffered severely from privateering. Temporarily England might even claim to be the strongest naval power in Europe, though this would be challenged again by both the Dutch and the French.
  • Chapter VIII - Drama and society
    pp 239-259
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The first half of the seventeenth century marks an important stage in the development of European drama. In Spain the summit of dramatic achievement was reached in the plays of Lope de Vega and his contemporaries, and this great age of the Spanish theatre was prolonged into the second half of the century by the works of Calderon. The Commedia dell'Arte continued in period to exercise a wide influence, both in the German-speaking countries and in France where the comedy of Moliere is rooted in this popular drama. In England or Spain the famous rules of drama, inherited by many devious routes from Aristotle and other ancient writers, left next to no mark on the drama of the period. In the two decades between 1630 and 1650 the rules were imposed on French drama with the encouragement of aristocratic patrons, including Richelieu himself. Comedy, as distinct from farce, only really began to develop in France in the 1630s.
  • Chapter IX - Spain and Europe 1598–1621
    pp 260-282
    • By H. R. Trevor-Roper, Regius Professor of Modern History, University of Oxford, and Fellow of Oriel College
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Venice would turn openly to Henri IV, and would soon win European fame, and become the Catholic hero of Protestantism, by its resistance to both Rome and Spain. For all these reasons the revival of France under Henri IV is of great importance in the history both of Spain and Europe. In Italy, though the spirit was spent, the general pattern was similar. The Spanish viceroys satisfied their distant masters with public donativos and private bribes, and governed much as they pleased. The ultimate aim of Zuniga and Ofiate was to ensure the succession of a safely Spaniolized member of the Habsburg family to the crown of Bohemia and the empire. The effect of this sudden and dramatic coup in Bohemia was instantly felt throughout Europe. Next year Venice and Holland joined in a defensive alliance explicitly directed against Spain. If Spain was to win the peace, it must undergo a radical, even a structural change.
  • Chapter X - The state of Germany (to 1618)
    pp 283-305
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In political structure, it was 'the Roman empire of the German nation'-briefly, the German Reich-at whose apex was enthroned the Kaiser Rudolf II (1576-1612), the senior representative of the Austrian branch of the Habsburg arch-house. This chapter considers the family difficulties of the ruling dynasty, then the political and religious problems which were causing the breakdown of the Reich constitution, and lastly the condition of German industry and trade. The family bickerings that came near to wrecking the future of the Austrian dynasty may in their immediate origins be traced to the series of events that led up to the conclusion of the Sitvatorok treaty. The development of the southern traffic in corn and naval materials, and especially the opening of the Venetian trade, helped Danzig to stave off any decline and indeed to maintain great prosperity in the later sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.
  • Chapter XI - The Thirty Years War
    pp 306-358
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In the early years of the seventeenth century, the Holy Roman Empire of the German people had the misfortune to be the centre of intense internal and international rivalries. Two major issues dominated European international politics: French ambition to break the ring of Habsburg territories surrounding their state, and the preparations by Spain to reconquer the United Provinces. The German and international situations made it possible for the war to spread from Bohemia to Germany, and to involve England, Spain, the United Provinces, Denmark, Sweden, northern Italy, and France. Traditionally, religion should have been the common ideal which drew together the various elements of Bohemian society. Two more princes appeared to perpetuate the war, the Margrave George Frederick of Baden-Durlach and Prince Christian of Brunswick. The Mantuan war which ensued marks a turning point in the fortunes of Spain, and tied up imperial troops in Italy, soon to be desperately needed in Germany.
  • Chapter XII - The Low Countries
    pp 359-384
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The truce of 1609 which for the time being terminated Spain's attempts to reconquer the northern Netherlands was in fact a defeat of the southern Netherlands, although the Archduke Albert and his principal minister Spinola had done so much to bring it about. A truly republican political ideology was not developed in the northern Netherlands before the 1650s. The state which had come into existence in the north was not built according to any constitutional programme nor was it felt or recognized by its inhabitants as a new, revolutionary creation. Both in the south and the north, however, federalism, provincial autonomy, local particularism remained the leading principles of everyday political life. The federation of the northern Netherlands was based on the Union of Utrecht of 1579. Gelderland, Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Friesland, Overijssel and Groningen sent delegates to the States General but Drente was not represented in the central government although it had a sort of provincial States of its own.
  • Chapter XIII - Sweden and the Baltic 1611–54
    pp 385-410
    • By M. Roberts, The Queen’s University, Belfast
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In the first half of the seventeenth century two states established themselves for the first time as great powers. The one was the United Netherlands; the other, Sweden. The southern provinces of the Scandinavian peninsula, Blekinge, Skane, Halland, were still part of Denmark, separated from independent Sweden by a frontier that took no account either of geography or of economics; and the Danish kings had some justification for feeling that the dissolution of the Scandinavian union was a political aberration from the natural order of things. The kings of Denmark claimed a dominium marts Balthici, a vague sovereignty over the waters of the Baltic; and in the Sound, at least, they were able to assert that claim effectively. The victories of Gustavus Adolphus transformed Sweden within the space of two years from the leading power in the Baltic into one of the two or three leading powers in Europe.
  • Chapter XIV - International relations and the role of France 1648–60
    pp 411-434
    • By G. Livet, Universitè de Strasbourg
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The evolution of international relations dominates the entire history of the period between the Peace of Westphalia and the Treaties of the Pyrenees and of Oliva. Since 1635, when France declared war on Spain, a European conflict had been grafted on to the German war. There were, in fact, two separate wars which frequently became confused. Each theatre of operations whether in the Low Countries, the Iberian Peninsula, or Italy, had its own laws and its intrinsic development. The conflict in the Low Countries, which first arose with the revolt of the former Spanish provinces against Philip II, had moved towards the establishment of two separate territorial, religious and political regimes: in the north, the Protestant and republican United Provinces; in the south, the provinces which remained Catholic and Spanish. The war against Spain was less an end in itself than a means of safeguarding the influence of the monarchy in Europe.
  • Chapter XV - The Spanish peninsula 1598–1648
    pp 435-473
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The years 1598 to 1621 were pre-eminently years of national introspection, in modern Spanish history when the country turns inward upon itself in an agony of self-appraisal. The first half of the seventeenth century was a period of economic crisis not only for Spain but for most of Europe, the alleged characteristics of Spain in decline may neither be necessarily confined to the Iberian Peninsula, nor be attributable solely to the Spanish temperament. Spanish power in the later sixteenth century had primarily been Castilian power. High labour costs combined with the loss of foreign markets to ruin native industries, until by the middle of the seventeenth century even the great traditional cloth centres, like Toledo and Segovia, had fallen into decay. The collapse of urban industries in Castile left Castilian markets wide open to foreign manufactures. The principality of Catalonia, occupied a vital strategic position in the war against France.
  • Chapter XVI - French institutions and society 1610–61
    pp 474-502
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.017
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Revolts by the aristocrats were well received by the discontented provincial gentry, who had often been impoverished by the wars of religion. The rural gentry seem to have been particularly weak in regions where capitalism and trade were most advanced, such as the Beauvaisis, where the class would have died out but for the influx into its ranks of officials and merchants, eager for social advancement. Merchants and officials controlled the municipal institutions, becoming echevins, consuls and mayors. Louis XIII and Richelieu were in favour of classical art, with its aesthetic of unity and hierarchy, as against the baroque, embodying diversity. Richelieu would have liked to control Catholicism. He improved the recruitment of bishops; as abbot of Cluny, of Citeaux and administrator of Chezal-Benoit, he reformed the Benedictine monasteries. The government had to fight Jansenism, 'warmed-up Calvinism', whose expansion in France dates from the publication of the Frequente Communion by Antoine Arnauld, a disciple of Saint-Cyran.
  • Chapter XVII - The Habsburg lands 1618–57
    pp 503-530
    • By V-L. Tapie, The Sorbonne, Membre de l ’Institut
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.018
  • View abstract
    Summary
    At the beginning of the seventeenth century the states of the House of Habsburg stretched from the Vosges to the Carpathians. Historians have traditionally laid much stress on the different characteristics of the inhabitants of the Habsburg lands, on their diverse racial origins and on their different languages which accentuated differences. Economic and social developments and religious differences which cut across social groups were more important in determining the course of events than linguistic and national differences. From the beginning of the sixteenth century, major changes had been taking place in organization of production and in working conditions. The rise in prices, the discoveries and the growth of trade all had repercussions in the Habsburg lands. The Bohemian Evangelical Church, professing the Confession of 1609, had received the widest guarantees for their religion and their church buildings. Austria was a system possessing elements of power and greatness, but it was far from being a modern state.
  • Chapter XVIII - The fall of the Stuart monarchy
    pp 531-584
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.019
  • View abstract
    Summary
    From 1570 to 1639, England had its longest period of domestic peace since 1066 and, unlike the nearly comparable period 1330-80, was only engaged in foreign wars for just over a third of the time. One of the most important symptoms of political crisis under the Stuarts was their inability to pursue an effective foreign policy. This impotence saved England from direct participation in the Thirty Years. The government increasingly commandeered arms, paid for by local rates, to equip troops sent overseas. The militia was administered after the 1580s by much smaller groups, whether commissioners or deputy lieutenants, than earlier. The war gave increased opportunities for patronage, faction and corruption in the country as well as at court. By 1600 the justices of assizes monopolized criminal justice to a greater extent than ever before. The privy council not only directed local administration, but tried to supervise administration of justice.
  • 1 - Poland–Lithuania 1609–48
    pp 585-601
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.020
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In the first half of the seventeenth century the kingdom of Poland- Lithuania was the most important Power in the Slav world. The most important religious problem, and one which had important consequences upon both the internal evolution and the foreign policy of the Polish-Lithuanian state, was that of relations with the Orthodox church, which had a strong following amongst the White Russian and Ukrainian minorities in the eastern part of the country. The decision of the Synod of Brest to unite the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches in Poland-Lithuania was not acceptable to the whole Orthodox, community, and a split ensued. Poland's position along the lower Dnieper and Dniester was governed by several factors: by her relations with Turkey, by the attitude of the sultan's vassals, the Crimean Tartars, and in particular by the attitude of the Dnieper Cossacks, who lived in south-eastern Poland area.
  • 2 - Russia 1613–45
    pp 602-619
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.021
  • View abstract
    Summary
    During the reign of Michael Feodorovich, first tsar of the Romanov dynasty, Russia made a slow and painful recovery from the devastation wrought by the 'Time of Troubles'. The peasants and Cossacks who had risen in revolt against the encroachment of serfdom lacked the ability to construct a new social order. Michael Feodorovich's actions revealed an acute anxiety to strengthen his authority vis-a-vis the provisional government and the Zemsky Sobor. The Zemsky Sobor remained in existence during the early years of the reign, but it was apparently less representative, and certainly less authoritative, than it was in 1613. Early in 1614 Moscow regained control of the lower Volga from the rebel Cossack leader Zarutsky, who had retired with his small force to Astrakhan. In December 1618 an armistice was signed at Deulino, north-west of Moscow, to last fourteen years.
  • Chapter XX - The Ottoman empire 1617–48
    pp 620-643
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.022
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The law of fratricide had served to limit the dangers of dynastic conflict and of political fragmentation at a time when, in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Ottoman state, then rising towards greatness, was beset with numerous difficulties. The wars against Persia and against Austria imposed on the Ottomans the need to increase greatly their regiments of infantry equipped with firearms and their technical services to increase in fact the paid troops of the imperial household. The forces of the central regime, amongst them the janissaries and the sipahis of the Porte, had been recruited from Christian captives of war and from the child tribute levied on the Christian subjects of the sultan, from human material non-Muslim and non- Turkish in origin. The northern and central regions of Iraq had been conquered from Persia and incorporated into the Ottoman Empire during the years 1534-35.
  • Chapter XXI - Europe and Asia
    pp 644-671
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.023
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The crown trade between Asia and Europe, let out in contract to various European consortia, had run into difficulties from the 1570s onward. Antwerp was lost as a distribution centre; a revival of the old Levant routes cut the profit margins on pepper and spices; there were heavy losses of India men to privateers and through poor fitting-out and overloading. The link between Lisbon and Goa was thus weak, for there were neither the funds nor the ships to permit any massive reinforcement of the Estado da India. The Dutch role of distributors of Asian goods from Lisbon throughout northern Europe, a role they were outgrowing, had for some years been threatened by Spanish policy. The formation of an English East India Company late in 1600, and the arrival of French ships in Asian waters drove the Dutch to prepare for conflict by the creation in 1602 of the United East India Company.
  • Chapter XXII - The European nations and the Atlantic
    pp 672-706
    • By E. E. Rich, Vere Harmsworth Professor of Imperial and Naval History in the University of Cambridge, and Master of St Catharine’s College
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.024
  • View abstract
    Summary
    England had taken formal possession of 'Virginia' the whole of eastern America from 300 northwards, and Raleigh's Roanoke voyage had seen the use of a jointstock organization which distributed the costs of establishing colonies among merchants and speculators. All trade to Europe must go through New Amsterdam and pay dues there; but except for furs the patroons were free to buy and sell in America, and even to trade with the English and French colonies. The period to the middle of the seventeenth century, had seen the establishment of permanent colonies of settlement in North America, the revelation of long-term rivalries there and of clearly defined national patterns of colonial government, with parallel but distinct and different settlement in the West Indies. It had also seen the Dutch mount to the position of 'most envied nation', succeeding Spain in that respect and working to a pattern of Atlantic and colonial trade which forced other colonial nations to adopt imperial policies.
  • Chapter XXIII - Latin America 1610–60
    pp 707-726
    • By W. Borah, University of California, Berkeley
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521076180.025
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The half-century between 1610 and 1660 witnessed relatively little change in the area of effective Spanish occupation and a very considerable extension of the Portuguese area as the Brazilians made ample use of the opportunity provided by the union of 1580-1640. The most ambitious attempts to extend the area of Spanish occupation, as well as the most serious threats to Spanish dominion, took place in southern South America. By the early 1640s, the Jesuits had approximately twenty missions, or reductions, in the valleys of the middle Parana and Uruguay rivers, most of them in the region of the present Argentine province of Misiones. In contrast to Spanish America, the years 1610-60 were a period of active exploration and territorial expansion for the American dominions of the Portuguese crown. The emergence of the Creoles as the overwhelming element in the white population had a number of consequences that became manifest in the first half of the seventeenth century.

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