Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
The Origins of Health and Disease
  • Cited by 25
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Some phenomena in medicine and psychology remain unexplained by current theory. Chronic fatigue syndrome, repetitive strain injury and irritable bowel syndrome, for example, are all diseases or syndromes that cannot be explained in terms of a physiological abnormality. In this intriguing book, Michael E. Hyland proposes that there is a currently unrecognised type of illness which he calls 'dysregulatory disease'. Hyland shows how such diseases develop and how the communication and art of medicine, good nursing care, complementary medicine and psychotherapy can all act to reduce the dysregulation that leads to dysregulatory disease. The Origins of Health and Disease is a fascinating book that develops a novel theory for understanding health and disease, and demonstrates how this theory is supported by existing data, and how it explains currently unexplained phenomena. Hyland also shows how his theory leads to new testable predictions that, in turn, will lead to further scientific advancement and development.

Reviews

‘Michael Hyland, in [The] Origins of Health and Disease, creates a meta-theory of health and disease, a synthesis that incorporates the notions of mind, brain, body, and environment. This synthesis, based on a scientific theory, explains many of the mysteries of how humans heal. This is a book that will challenge the reader to move beyond conceptualizations of their discipline and should be read and understood by all physicians, psychologists, social workers, counselors - anyone involved in healing.’

Bruce E. Wampold - Professor and Chair, Department of Counseling Psychology and Clinical Professor, Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA

‘A clever idea written with a combination of scientific disciplines that is both thoughtful and provocative, as well as being blindingly obvious when you read it!'

George Lewith - Professor in Health Research, University of Southampton

‘From a tangled skein of data, Michael Hyland has woven a rich theoretical tapestry with wide ranging implications of health research, clinical practice, and daily living. It provides a wealth of cogent and testable hypotheses concerning medical conditions that are currently, at best, poorly understood.’

Irving Kirsch - Professor Emeritus, University of Hull and University of Connecticut Lecturer, Harvard Medical School

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Save to Kindle
  • Save to Dropbox
  • Save to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

References
Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P. and Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49–74.
Addington, A. M., Gallo, J. J., Ford, D. E. and Eaton, W. W. (2001). Epidemiology of unexplained fatigue and major depression in the community: The Baltimore ECA follow-up, 1981–1994. Psychological Medicine, 31, 1037–44.
Ader, R. and Cohen, N. (1975). Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 37, 333–40.
Ader, R., Cohen, N. and Felton, D. (1995). Psychoneuroimmunology: interactions between the nervous system and immune system. Lancet, 345, 99–103.
Adler, N. E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M. A. et al. (1994). Socioeconomic status and health: The challenge of the gradient. American Psychologist, 49, 15–24.
Adshead, G. (2000). Psychological therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 144–8.
Affleck, G., Apter, A., Tennen, H. et al. (2000). Mood states associated with transitory changes in asthma symptoms and peak expiratory flow. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 61–8.
Ahn, H. and Wampold, B.E. (2001). Where oh where are the specific ingredients?: a meta-analysis of component studies in counselling and psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 251–7.
Alexander, F. (1950). Psychosomatic Medicine: Its Principles and Applications. New York, NY: Norton and Co.
Alloy, L. B. and Abramson, L. Y. (1979). Judgment of contingency in depressed and nondepressed students: sadder but wiser?Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108, 441–85.
Amanzio, M., Pollo, A., Maggi, G. and Benedetti, F. (2001). Response variability to analgesics: a role for non-specific activation of endogenous opioids. Pain, 90, 205–15.
Anderson, J. W., Liu, C. and Kryscio, R. L. (2008). Blood pressure response to transcendental meditation: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Hypertension, 21, 310–16.
Anisman, H., Merali, Z., Poulter, M. O. and Hayley, S. (2005). Cytokines as a precipitant of depressive illness: animal and human studies. Current Pharmaceutical Designs, 11, 963–72.
Antonovsky, A. (1996). The salutogenic model as a theory to guide health promotion. Health Promotion International, 11, 11–18.
Appels, A. (1997). Why do imminent victims of a cardiac event feel so tired?International Journal of Clinical Practice, 51, 447–50.
Appleton, K. M., Hayward, R. C., Gunnell, D. et al. (2006). Effects of n–3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on depressed mood: systematic review of published trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 1308–16.
Astin, J.A., Harkness, E. and Ernst, E. (2000). The efficacy of ‘distant healing’: a systematic review of randomized trials. Annals of Internal Medicine, 132, 903–10.
Baines, K. J., Simpson, J.L., Bowden, N.A., Scott, R.J. and Gibson, P.G. (2010). Differential gene expression and cytokine production from neutrophils in asthma phenotypes. European Respiratory Journal, 35, 522–31.
Bakker, R. J., Putte, E. M., Kuis, W. and Sinnema, G. (2009). Risk factors for persistent fatigue with significant school absence in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 124: e89–e95.
Bandura, A., O'Leary, A., Taylor, C.B., Gauthier, J. and Gossard, D. (1987). Perceived self-efficacy and pain control: opioid and nonopioid mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 563–71.
Barker, D. J. P. (1992). The fetal origins of disease. Journal of Hypertension, 10(Suppl. 7): S39–S44.
Barker, D. J. P. (2007). Introduction: the window of opportunity. Journal of Nutrition, 137, 1058–9.
Barker, D. J. P., Osmond, C., Kajantie, E. and Eriksson, J. G. (2009). Growth and chronic disease: findings of the Helsinki birth cohort. Annals of Human Biology, 36, 445–58.
Barnes, P. M, Bloom, B., and Nahin, R. L. (2008). Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007. National health statistics reports; no 12. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Barth, J., Schumacher, M. and Herrmann-Lingen, C. (2004). Depression as a risk factor for mortality in patients with coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 802–13.
Bates, D. W., Schmitt, W., Buchwald, D. et al. (1993). Prevalence of fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome in a primary care practice. Archives of Internal Medicine, 153, 2759–65.
Bechtel, W. and Abrahamsen, A. (1991). Connectionism and the Mind: An Introduction to Parallel Processing in Networks. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.
Beck, A.T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, Experimental, and Theoretical Aspects. New York: Hoeber. (Republished as Depression: Causes and Treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.)
Beckman, H., Regier, N. and Young, J. (2007). Effect of workplace laughter groups on personal efficacy beliefs. Journal of Primary Prevention, 38, 167–82
Bedau, M. A. (1998). Philosophical content and method of artificial life. In: Bynam, T. W. and Moor, J. H., eds. The Digital Phoenix: How Computers Are Changing Philosophy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp. 135–52.
Beecher, H. K. (1955). The powerful placebo. Journal of the American Medical Association, 159, 1602–3.
Beekman, A. T. F., Penninx, B. W. J. H., Deeg, D. J. H., Ormel, J., Braam, A. W. and Tilburg, W. (1997). Depression and physical health in later life: results from the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam (LASA). Journal of Affective Disorders, 46, 219–31.
Bender, T., Karagülle, Z., Bálint, G. P.et al. (2004). Hydrotherapy, balneotherapy, and spa treatment in pain management. Rheumatology International, 25, 220–24.
Benedetti, F., Amanzio, M., Baldi, S., Casadio, C. and Maggi, G. (1999). Inducing placebo respiratory depressant responses in humans via opioid receptors. European Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 625–31.
Benedetti, F., Pollo, A., Lopiano, L. et al. (2003). Conscious expectation and unconscious conditioning in analgesic, motor, and hormonal placebo/nocebo responses. The Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 4315–23.
Benson, H. (1979). The Mind/Body Effect. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Benson, H. (1983). The relaxation response: its subjective and objective historical precedents and physiology. Trends in Neuroscience, 6, 281–4.
Bieling, P. J., Israeli, A. L. and Antony, M. M. (2004). Is perfectionism good, bad, or both? Examining models of the perfectionism construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1373–85.
Bilchick, K. C. and Berger, R. D. (2006). Heart rate variability. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 17, 691–4.
Bjorksten, B. (1999). The intrauterine and postnatal environments. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 104, 1119–27.
Bleiker, E. M. A., Hendriks, J. H. C. L., Otten, J. D. M., Verbeek, A. L. M. and Ploeg, H. M. (2008). Personality factors and breast cancer risk: a 13-year follow-up. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 100, 213–18.
Boffetta, P., Couto, E., Wichmann, J. et al. (2010). Fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 102, 1–9.
Borrell, C., Muntaner, C, Benach, J. and Artazcoz, L (2004). Social class and self-reported health status among men and women: what is the role of work organisation, household material standards and household labour?Social Science and Medicine, 58, 1869–87.
Brosschot, J. F., Verkuil, B. and Thayer, J. F. (2010). Conscious and unconscious perseverative cognition: is a large part of prolonged physiological activity due to unconscious stress?Journal of Psychosomatic Research 69, 407–16.
Brostoff, J. and Challacombe, S. J. (2002). Food Allergy and Intolerance. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Brostoff, J. and Gamlin, L. (1998). The Complete Guide to Food Allergy and Intolerance. Leicester, UK: Blitz.
Brothwell, D. R. and Brothwell, P. (1998). Food in Antiquity: A Survey of the Diet of Early Peoples. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Brown, K. W. and Moskowitz, D. S. (1997). Does unhappiness make you sick? The role of affect and neuroticism in the experience of common physical symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 907–17.
Bucknall, C. E., Slack, R., Godley, C. C., Mackay, T. W. and Wright, S. C. (1999) Scottish Confidential Inquiry into Asthma Deaths (SCIAD), 1994–6. Thorax, 1999, 54, 978–84.
Burnard, P. (2005). Counselling Skills for Health Professionals. Cheltenham, UK: Nelson Thomas.
Camargo, C. A., Weiss, S. T., Zhang, S., Willet, W. C. and Speizer, F. E. (1999). Prospective study of body mass index, weight change, and risk of adult-onset asthma in women. Archives of Internal Medicine, 159, 2582–8.
Carlens, C., Jacobsson, L., Brandt, L., Cnattingius, S., Stephansson, O. and Askling, J. (2009). Perinatal characteristics, early life infections and later risk of rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Annals of Rheumatic Disease, 68, 1159–64.
Carruthers, B. M., Jain, A. K., Meirleir, K. L. et al. (2003). Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical working case definition, diagnostic and treatment protocols. Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 11, 7–97.
Carson, A. J., Best, S., Postma, K. et al. (2003). The outcome of neurology outpatients with medically unexplained symptoms: a prospective cohort study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 74, 897–900.
Carver, C. S. and Scheier, M. F. (1982). Control theory: a useful conceptual framework for personality-social, clinical, and health psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 111–35.
Carver, C.S. and Scheier, M.F. (1990). Origins and functions of positive and negative affect: a control-process view. Psychological Review, 97, 19–35.
Carver, C. S. and Scheier, M. F. (1998). On the Self-Regulation of Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F. and Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267–83.
Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W. and Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453–84.
Catt, S., Fallowfield, L. and Langridge, C. (2006). What non-prescription treatments do UK women with breast cancer use?European Journal of Cancer Care, 15, 279–85.
Chen, E., Strunk, R. C.Bacharier, L. B., Chan, M. and Miller, G. E. (2010). Socioeconomic status associated with exhaled nitric oxide responses to acute stress in children with asthma. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 24, 444–50.
Chida, Y. and Steptoe, A. (2009). The association of anger and hostility with future coronary heart disease: a meta-analytic review of prospective evidence. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 53, 936–46.
Christakis, D. A., Zimmerman, F. J., DiGiuseppe, D. L. and McCarty, C. A. (2004). Early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems in children. Pediatrics. 113, 708–13.
Connor, T. J. and Leonard, B. E. (1998). Depression, stress and immunological activation: the role of cytokines in depressive disorders. Life Sciences, 62, 583–606.
Consedine, N. S. and Moskowitz, J. T. (2007). The role of discrete emotions in health outcomes: a critical review. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 12, 59–75.
Constant, F., Collin, J. F., Guillemin, F. and Boulange, M. (1995). Effectiveness of spa therapy in chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Rheumatology, 22, 1315–20.
Corr, P. J. (2008). The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cortese, S., Angriman, M., Maffeis, C.et al. (2008). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity: a systematic review of the literature. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 48, 524–37.
Cousins, N. (1983). The Healing Heart : Antidotes to Panic and Helplessness. New York: Norton.
Coussons-Read, M. E., Okun, M. L. and Netles, C. D. (2007). Psychosocial stress increases inflammatory markers and alters cytokine production across pregnancy. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 21, 343–50.
Coyne, J. C., Stefanek, M. and Palmer, S. C. (2007). Psychotherapy and survival in cancer: the conflict between hope and evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 367–94.
Coyne, J. C., Thombs, B. D., Stefanek, M. and Palmer, S. C. (2009). Time to let go of the illusion that psychotherapy extends the survival of cancer patients: reply to Kraemer, Kuchler, and Spiegel (2009). Psychological Bulletin, 135, 179–82.
Cramer, A., Waldorp, L. J., Maas, H. L. J. and Borsboom, D. (2010). Comorbidity: a network perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 137–50; discussion 150–93.
Crawford, C. C., Sparber, A. G. and Jonas, W. B. (2004). A systematic review of the quality of research on hands-on and distance healing: clinical and laboratory studies. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 9: A96–A104.
Crawford, J. R. and Henry, J. D. (2004). The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS): construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 245–65.
Cronbach, L. J. and Mowrer, O. H. (1953). Correlations between persons as a research tool. In: Psychotherapy: Theory and Research. Oxford, UK: Ronald Press, pp. 376–88.
Croog, S. and Levine, S. (1982). Life After a Heart Attack: Social and Psychological Factors Eight Years Later. New York: Human Sciences Press.
Crum, A. J. and Langer, E. J. (2007). Mind-set matters: exercise and the placebo effect. Psychological Science, 18, 165–71.
Cullinan, P., Harris, J.M., Newman Taylor, A.J. et al. (2003). Can early infection explain the sibling effect in adult atopy?. European Respiratory Journal, 22, 956–61.
D'Amato, G. (2000). Urban air pollution and plant-derived respiratory allergy. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 30, 628–36.
Dantzer, R. and Kelley, K. W. (2007). Twenty years of research on cytokine-induced sickness behaviour. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 21, 153–60.
Davenport, G., McDonald, I. and Moss-Gibbons, C. (eds.) (2001). The Royal College of Physicians and Its Collections: an Illustrated History. London: James and James.
Deale, A., Chalder, T., Marks, I. and Wessely, S. (1997). Cognitive behaviour therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 408–14.
Deary, V. and Chalder, T. (2010). Personality and perfectionism in chronic fatigue syndrome: a closer look. Psychology & Health, 25, 465–75.
Deci, E. L. and Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum Press.
Deci, E. L. and Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behaviour. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–68.
Craen, A. J. M., Ketchup, T. J., Ijssel, H. G. P. and Kalinin, J. (1999). Placebos and the placebo effects in medicine: historical overview. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 92, 511–15
DeGrandpre, R. J. (1999). Ritalin Nation. London: Norton.
Dembroski, T. M., MacDougall, J. M., Costa, P. T. and Grandits, G. A. (1989). Components of hostility as predictors of sudden death and myocardial infarction in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 514–22.
Demitrack, M. A., Cale, J. K., Straus, S. E., Laue, L., Listwak, S.J. and Kruesi, M.J.P. (1991). Evidence for impaired activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 73, 1224–34.
Demitrack, M. A. and Crofford, L. J. (1998). Evidence for and pathophysiologic implications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 840, 684–97.
Denollet, J. (1998). Personality and coronary heart disease: the type-D scale-16 (DS16). Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 20, 209–15.
Denson, T. F., Spanovic, M. and Miller, N. (2009). Cognitive appraisals and emotions predict cortisole and immune responses: a meta-analysis of acute laboratory social stressors and emotion inductions. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 823–53.
Winter-de Groot, K. M., Ent, C. K., Prins, I., Tersmette, J. M. and Uiterwaal, C. S. P. M. (2004). Exhaled nitric oxide: the missing link between asthma and obesity?Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 115, 419–20.
DeYoung, C. G. (2006). Higher-order factors of the Big Five in a multi-informant format. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 1138–51.
DeYoung, C. G., Peterson, J. B. and Higgins, D. A. (2002). Higher-order factors of the Big Five predict conformity: are there neuroses of health?Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 533–52.
Diehl, H. S., Baker, A B. and Cowan, D. W. (1938). Cold vaccines: an evaluation based on a controlled study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 111, 1168–73.
Digman, J. M. (1997). Higher-order factors of the Big Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1246–56.
Di Marco, F., Verga, M., Reggente, M. et al. (2006). Anxiety and depression in COPD patients: The roles of gender and disease severity. Respiratory Medicine, 100, 1767–74.
Dinos, S., Khoshaba, B., Ashby, D. et al. (2009). A systematic review of chronic fatigue, its syndromes and ethnicity: prevalence, severity, co-morbidity and coping. International Journal of Epidemiology, 38: 1554–70.
Diwaker, H. N. and Stothard, J. (1993). What do doctors mean by tenosynovitis and repetitive strain injury?Occupational Medicine, 45, 97–104.
Domjan, M. and Wilson, N. E. (1972). Specificity of cue to consequence in aversion learning in the rat. Psychonomic Science, 26, 143–5.
Duhme, H., Weiland, S. K., Keil, U. et al. (1996). The association between self-reported symptoms of asthma and allergic rhinitis and self-reported traffic density on street of residence in adolescents. Epidemiology, 7, 578–82
Eippert, F., Bingel, U., Schoell, E. D. et al. (2009). Activation of the opioidergic descending pain control system underlies placebo analgesia. Neuron, 63, 533–43.
Eisenberger, N. O., Inagaki, T. K., Mashal, N. M. and Irwin, M. R. (2010). Inflammation and social experience: An inflammatory challenge induces feelings of social disconnection in addition to depressed mood. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 24, 558–63.
Elkayam, O., Wigler, I., Tischler, M.et al. (1991). Effect of spa therapy in Tiberias on patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Journal of Rheumatology, 18, 1799–803.
Ellis, R. and Humphries, G. W. (1999). Connectionist Psychology. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Emmons, R. A. (1991). Personal strivings, daily life events, and psychological and physical well-being. Journal of Personality, 59, 453–72.
Engel, G. L. (1977). The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196, 129–36.
Ernst, E. (2002). A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 54, 577–82.
Ernst, E. and Canter, P. H. (2006). A systematic review of systematic reviews of spinal manipulation. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 99, 192–6.
Esmaillzadeh, A., Kimiagar, M., Mehrabi, Y., Azadbakht, L., Hu, F.B. and Willett, W.C. (2007.) Dietary patterns and markers of systemic inflammation among Iranian women. Journal of Nutrition, 137, 992–8.
Evans, J. St. B. T. (2007). Hypothetical thinking: Dual Processes in Reasoning and Judgement. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Eysenck, H. J. (1967). The Biological Basis of Personality. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.
Fakuda, K., Strauss, S., Hickie, I., Sharpe, M., Dobbins, J. and Komaroff, A. (1994). The chronic fatigue syndrome: a comprehensive approach to its definition and study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 121, 953–9.
Fava, G. A. and Sonino, N. (2008). The biopsychosocial model thirty years later. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 77, 1–2.
Fawzy, F. I. (1999). Psychosocial interventions for patients with cancer: what works and what doesn't. European Journal of Cancer, 35, 1559–64.
Feldman, R. H. and Laura, R. (2004). The use of complementary and alternative medicine practices among Australian university students. Complementary Health Practice Review. 9, 173–9.
Field, T. M. (1998). Massage therapy effects. American Psychologist, 53, 1270–81.
Fleisher, W., Staley, D., Krawetz, D., Pillay, N., Arnett, J. L. and Maher, J. (2002). Comparative study of trauma-related phenomena in subjects with pseudoseizures and subjects with epilepsy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 660–3.
Forsythe, P., Sudo, N., Dinan, T., Taylor, V. H. and Bienenstock, J. (2010). Mood and gut feelings. Brain, Behaviour and Immunity, 24, 9–16.
Frank, J. D. and Frank, J. B. (1991) Persuasion and Healing: A Comparative Study of Psychotherapy, 3rd edn. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Franke, A., Reiner, L., Pratzel, H. G., Franke, T. and Resch, K. L. (2000). Long-term efficacy of random spa therapy in rheumatoid arthritis – a randomized sham-controlled study and follow-up. Rheumatology (Oxford), 39, 894–902.
Freud, S. (1910). The origin and development of psychoanalysis. American Journal of Psychology, 21, 181–218.
Friedlr, K., King, M., Lloyd, M. and Horder, J. (1997) Randomised controlled assessment of non-directive psychotherapy versus routine general-practitioner care. The Lancet, 350, 1662–5
Friedman, H. S. and Booth-Kewley, S. (1987). The ‘disease-prone personality’: a meta-analytic view of the construct. American Psychologist, 42, 539–55.
Friedman, M. and Rosenman, R. H. (1974). Type A Behavior and Your Heart. New York: Alfred A Knopf.
Fromm, E. (1976). To Have Or To Be?London: Jonathan Cape.
Fry, A. M. and Martin, M. (1996). Fatigue in the chronic fatigue syndrome: a cognitive phenomenon?Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 42, 415–26.
Fulcher, K. Y. and White, P. D. (1997). A randomised controlled trial of graded exercise therapy in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. British Medical Journal, 314, 1646–52.
Fuller-Thomson, E. and Brennenstuhl, S. (2009). Making a link between childhood physical abuse and cancer: Results from a regional representative survey. Cancer 115, 3341–50.
Fuller-Thomson, E., Stefanyk, M. and Brennenstuhl, S. (2009). The robust association between childhood physical abuse and osteoarthritis in adulthood: findings from a representative community sample. Arthritis Care and Research, 61, 1554–62.
Furnham, A. (2003). The psychology of complementary and orthodox medicine. Evidence Based Integrative Medicine, 1, 57–64.
Gallacher, J. E. J., Sweetnam, P. M., Yarnell, J. W. G., Elwood, P. C. and Stansfeld, S. A. (2003). Is Type A behavior pattern really a trigger for coronary heart disease events?Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 65, 339–46.
Garcon, F. C. and Rodriguez, A. G. (2009). Where is cognitive science heading?Minds and Machines, 19, 301–18
Garfield, S. L. (1995). Psychotherapy: An Eclectic-Integrative Approach, 2nd edn. New York: Wiley.
Geers, A.L., Handley, I.M. and McLarney, A.R. (2003). Discerning the role of optimism in persuasion: the valence-enhancement hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 554–65.
Geers, A.L., Helfer, S.G., Kosbab, K., Weiland, P.E. and Landry, S.J. (2005a). Reconsidering the role of personality in placebo effects: dispositional optimism, situational expectations, and the placebo response. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58, 121–7.
Geers, A. L, Weiland, P. E., Kosbab, K., Landry, S. J. and Helfer, S. G. (2005b). Goal activation, expectations, and the placebo effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 89, 143–59.
Geers, A. L., Wellman, J. A. and Lassiter, G. D. (2009). Dispositional optimism and engagement: the moderating influence of goal prioritization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 913–32.
Geist, V. (1978). Life Strategies, Human Evolution, Environmental Design: Toward a Biological Theory of Health. New York: Springer.
Geraghty, A. W. A., Wood, A. M and Hyland, M. E. (2010a) Dissociating the facets of hope: agency and pathways predict dropout from unguided self-help therapy in opposite directions. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 155–8.
Geraghty, A. W. A., Wood, A. M and Hyland, M. E. (2010b) Attrition from self-directed interventions: investigating the relationship between psychological predictors, intervention content and dropout from a body dissatisfaction intervention. Social Science and Medicine, 71, 30–7.
Gilbody, S., Whitty, P, Grimshaw, J. and Thomas, R. (2003). Improving the detection and management of depression in primary care. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 12, 149–55.
Gilliland, F.D., Berhane, K., Islam, T. et al. (2003). Obesity and the risk of newly diagnosed asthma in school-age children. American Journal of Epidemiology, 158, 406–15.
Goebel, M. U., Trebst, A. F., Steiner, J. et al. (2002). Behavioral conditioning of immunosuppression is possible in humans. FASEB Journal, 16, 1869–73.
Gray, J. A. (1987). The Psychology of Fear and Stress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gribbin, J. and Gribbin, M. (1990). Children of the Ice: Climate and Human Origins. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Gross, R., Tabenkin, H., Porath, A. et al. (2003). The relationship between primary care physicians' adherence to guidelines for the treatment of diabetes and patient satisfaction: findings from a pilot study. Family Practice, 20, 563–9.
Grossberg, S. (1987). Competitive learning: from interactive activation to adaptive resonance. Cognitive Science, 11, 23–63.
Grosset, K. A. and Grosset, D. G. (2004). Prescribed drugs and neurological complications. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 75(Suppl. 3), 2–8.
Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S. and Walach, H. (2004) Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: a meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57, 35–43.
Grouzet, F. M. E., Kasser, T., Ahuvia, A. et al. (2005). The structure of goal contents across 15 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 800–16.
Guerra, S., Wright, A. L., Morgan, W. J., Sherrill, D. L., Holberg, C. J. and Martinez, F. D (2004). Persistence of asthma symptoms during adolescence: role of obesity and age at the onset of puberty. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 170, 78–85.
Hahn, R. A. (1999). Expectations of sickness: concept and evidence of the nocebo phenomenon. In: Kirsch, I., ed. How Expectancies Shape Experience. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 333–56.
Hahnemann, S. (1999). The Organon of Medicine, 6th edn., translated by Boericke, W. New Delhi: Jain.
Hakkarainen, R., Partonen, T., Haukka, J., Virtamo, J., Albanes, D. and Lönnqvist, J. (2004). Is low dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids associated with depression?American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 567–9.
Hamer, M., Stamatakis, E. and Mishra, G. (2009). Psychological distress, television viewing, and physical activity in children aged 4 to 12 years. Pediatrics, 123, 1263–8.
Harvey, S. B., Wadsworth, M., Wessely, S. and Hotopf, M. (2008). Etiology of chronic fatigue syndrome: testing popular hypotheses using a national birth cohort study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 488–95.
Hebb, D. O. (1949). The Organisation of Behavior. New York: Wiley.
Heim, C., Nater, U. M., Maloney, E.Roumiana, B., Jones, J. F. and Reeves, W. C. (2009). Childhood trauma and risk for chronic fatigue syndrome: association with neuroendocrine dysfunction. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 72–80.
Heim, C., Wagner, D., Maloney, E. et al. (2006). Early adverse experience and risk for chronic fatigue syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 1258–66.
Herman, J. L. (1992). Complex PTSD: a syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 1, 377–91.
Holroyd, K. A., Tkachuk, G., O'Donnell, , F. and Cordingley G. E. (2006). Blindness and bias in a trial of antidepressant medication for chronic tension-type headache. Cephalalgia, 26, 973–82.
Honavar, V. and Uhr, L. (1993). Generative learning structures and processes for generalized connectionist networks. Information Sciences, 70, 75–108.
Hoppmann, C.A. and Klumb, P.L. (2006). Daily goal pursuits predict cortisol secretion and mood states in employed parents with preschool children. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68, 887–94.
Horn, S. and Munafo, M. (1997). Pain: Theory, Research and Intervention. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
,House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology Sixth Report. (2000). Complementary and Alternative Medicine. http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199900/ldselect/ldsctech/123/12301.htm
Hróbjartsson, A. and Gøtzsche, P. C. (2001). Is the placebo powerless? An analysis of clinical trials comparing placebo with no treatment. The New England Journal of Medicine, 344, 1594–602.
Hughes, C. H. and Baumer, J. H. (1995). Moving house: a risk factor for the development of childhood asthma. British Medical Journal, 311, 1069–70.
Huibers, M. J. H., Bleijenberg, G., Amelsvoort, L. G. P. M. et al. (2004). Predictors of outcome in fatigued employees on sick leave – results from a randomised trial. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57, 443–9.
Hung, H.C., Joshipura, K.J., Jiang, R. et al. (2004). Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 96, 1577–84.
Hyland, M. E. (1981). Introduction to Theoretical Psychology. London: Macmillan.
Hyland, M. E. (1985). Do person variables exist in different ways?American Psychologist, 40, 1003–10.
Hyland, M. E. (1987). A control theory interpretation of psychological mechanisms of depression: comparison and integration of several theories. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 109–21.
Hyland, M. E. (1988). Motivational control theory: an integrative framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 642–51.
Hyland, M. E. (1992a). The items in quality of life scales: how item selection creates bias and how bias can be prevented. PharmacoEconomics, 1, 182–90.
Hyland, M. E. (1992b). A reformulation of quality of life for medical science. Quality of Life Research, 1, 267–72.
Hyland, M. E. (1999). A connectionist theory of asthma. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 29, 1467–73.
Hyland, M. E. (2001a). A two-phase network theory of asthma causation: a possible solution to the impact of genes, hygiene and air quality. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 31, 1485–92.
Hyland, M. E. (2001b). Extended network learning error: a new way of conceptualising chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychology and Health, 16, 273–87.
Hyland, M. E. (2002). The intelligent body and its discontents. Journal of Health Psychology 7, 21–32.
Hyland, M. E. (2005). Entanglement and some heretical thoughts about homeopathy. Homeopathy, 94, 105–6
Hyland, M. E. (2010). Networks and the origins of anxiety and depression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 161–2.
Hyland, M. E., Bott, J., Singh, S. and Kenyon, C. A. P. (1994). Domains, constructs, and the development of the breathing problems questionnaire. Quality of Life Research, 3, 245–56.
Hyland, M. E., Geraghty, A. D. W., Joy, O. E. T. and Turner, S. I. (2006a). Spirituality predicts outcome independently of expectancy following flower essence self-treatmentJournal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 53–8.
Hyland, M. E., Kenyon, C. A. P., Taylor, M. and Morice, A. H. (1993). Steroid prescribing for asthmatics: relationship with Asthma Symptom Checklist and Living with Asthma Questionnaire. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32, 505–11.
Hyland, M. E. and Kirsch, I. (1988). Methodological complementarity with and without reductionism. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 9, 5–12.
Hyland, M. E. and Lewith, G. T. (2002). Oscillatory effects in a homeopathic clinical trial: an explanation using complexity theory, and implications for clinical practice. Homeopathy, 91, 145–9.
Hyland, M. E., Lewith, G. T. and Westoby, C. (2003). Developing a measure of attitudes: the holistic complementary and alternative medicine questionnaire. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 11, 33–8.
Hyland, M. E., Sodergren, S. C. and Lewith, G. T. (2006). Chronic fatigue syndrome – The role of positivity to illness in chronic fatigue syndrome patients. Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 731–41.
Hyland, M. E. and Whalley, B. (2008). Motivational concordance: an important mechanism in self-help therapeutic rituals involving inert (placebo) substances. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 65, 405–41.
Hyland, M. E.Whalley, B. and Geraghty, A. W. A. (2007). Dispositional predictors of placebo responding: a motivational interpretation of flower essence and gratitude therapy. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 62, 331–40.
Irwin, R. R. (2008). Human psychoneuroimmunology: 20 years of discovery. Brain, Behaviour, and Immunity, 22, 129–39.
Irwin, R. R. and Miller, A. H. (2007). Depressive disorders and immunity: 20 years of progress and discovery. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 21, 374–83.
Irwin, R. S. and Richardson, N D. (2006). Patient-focused care – using the right tools. Chest, 130(Suppl. 1), 735–825.
Ishigami, T. (1919). The influence of psychic acts on the progress of pulmonary tuberculosis. American Review of Tuberculosis, 2, 470–84.
James, W. (1899). Talks to Teachers on Psychology and to Students on Some of Life's Ideals. New York: Henry Holt.
Jason, L. A., Jordan, K., Miike, T. et al. (2006). A pediatric case definition for myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 13, 1–44.
Jason, L. A., Jordan, J. M., Richman, J. A. et al. (1999). A community-based study of prolonged fatigue and chronic fatigue. Journal of Health Psychology, 4, 9–26.
Jensen, P. S., Arnold, L. E., Richter, J. E.et al. (1999a). Moderators and mediators of treatment response for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 1088–96.
Jensen, P., Arnold, B., Richter, J., Severe, J., Vereen, D. and Vitiello, B. (1999b),. A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 1073–86.
Jensen, P.S., Arnold, L. E., Swanson, J. M. et al. (2007). 3-Year Follow-up of the NIMH MTA Study, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 989–1002.
Johnson, F. and Wardle, J. (2005). Dietary restraint, body dissatisfaction, and psychological distress: a prospective analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 119–25.
Jolliffe, J., Rees, K., Taylor, R.R.S., Thompson, D.R., Oldridge, N. and Ebrahim, S. (2001). Exercise-based rehabilitation for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1, Art. No. CD001800.
Jones, J., Lin, J., Maloney, E. et al. An evaluation of exclusionary medical/psychiatric conditions in the definition of chronic fatigue syndrome. BMC Medicine 7, 57. http://biomedcentral.com/1741–7015/7/57.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Mindfulness Meditation. London: Piatkus Books.
Kardos, L. (1984). The Origin of Neuropsychological Information. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado.
Kemeny, M. E., Rosenwasser, L. J., Panettieri, R. A., Rose, R. M., Berg-Smith, S. M. and Kline, J. N. (2007). Placebo response in asthma: a robust and objective phenomenon. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 119, 1375–81.
Kemeny, M. E. and Schedlowski, M. (2007). Understanding the interaction between psychosocial stress and immune-related diseases: a stepwise progression. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 21, 1009–18.
Kern, Z. T. (2007). Psychoneuroimmunology – cross-talk between the immune and nervous systems. Journal of Neurology, 254(Suppl 2), 8–11.
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Marucha, P. T., Malarkey, W. B., Mercado, A. M. and Glaser, R. (1995). Slowing of wound healing by psychological stress. Lancet, 346(8984), 1194–6.
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., McGuire, L., Robles, T. F. and Glaser, R. (2002). Psychoneuroimmunology: psychological influences on immune function and health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 537–57.
Kirmayer, L. J., Groleau, D, Looper, K. J. and Dao, M. D. (2004). Explaining medically unexplained symptoms. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 663–72.
Kirsch, I. (1985). Response expectancy as a determinant of experience and behavior. American Psychologist, 40, 1189–202.
Kirsch, I. (1997). Specifying nonspecifics: psychological mechanisms of placebo effects. In: Harrington, A., ed. The Placebo Effect: An Interdisciplinary Exploration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 166–8.
Kirsch, I. (2005). Placebo psychotherapy: synonym or oxymoron?Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 791–803.
Kirsch, I. (2009). The Emperor's New Drugs: Exploding the Antidepressant Myth. London: The Bodley Head.
Kirsch, I., Deacon, B. J., Huedo-Medina, T. B., Scoboria, A., Moore, T. J. and Johnson, B. T. (2008). Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: a meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. PLoS Medicine, 5(2), e45.
Kirsch, I. and Hyland, M. E. (1987). How thoughts affect the body: a meta- theoretical framework. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 8, 417–34.
Kirsch, I., Moore, T., Scoboria, A. and Nicholls, S. (2002). The emperor's new drugs: an analysis of antidepressant medication data submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Prevention & Treatment, 5, Art. 23.
Kirsch, I. and Sapirstein, G. (1998). Listening to Prozac but hearing placebo: a meta-analysis of antidepressant medication. Prevention & Treatment. 1, Art. 2a. http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume1/pre0010002a.html.
Knapp, P. H., Levy, E. M., Giorgi, R. G., Black, P. H., Fox, B. H. and Heeren, T. C. (1992). Short-term immunological effects of induced emotion. Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 133–48.
Knibb, R. C., Armstrong, A., Booth, D. A., Platts, R. G., Booth, I. W. and MacDonald, A. (1999). Psychological characteristics of people with food intolerance in a community sample. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 47, 545–54.
Knoop, H., Bleijenberg, G., Gielissen, M. F., Meer, J. A. and White, P. D. (2007). Is full recovery possible after cognitive behavioural therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome?Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76, 171–6.
Kop, W. J. and Gottdiener, J. S. (2005). The role of immune system parameters in the relationship between depression and coronary artery disease. Psychosomatic Medicine 67(Suppl. 1), S37–S41.
Kraemer, J. C., Kuchler, T. and Spiegel, D. (2009). Use and misuse of the CONSORT guidelines to assess research findings: comment on Coyne, Stefanek and Palmer (2007). Psychological Bulletin, 135, 173–8.
Kramer, M. S. (2002). Clinical update: Substance P antagonists in patients with major depression. Paper presented at the 11th Association of European Psychiatrists Congress, Stockholm, Sweden.
Kuhn, T. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd edn. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Kullowatz, A., Rosenfield, D., Dahme, B., Magnussen, H., Kanniess, F. and Ritz, T. (2008). Stress effects on lung function in asthma are mediated by changes in airway inflammation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 468–75.
Kunik, M.E., Roundy, K., Veazey, C. et al. (2005) Surprisingly high prevalence of anxiety and depression in chronic breathing disorders. Chest, 127, 1205–11.
Kurina, L. M., Goldacre, M. J., Yeates, D. and Gill, L. E. (2001). Depression and anxiety in people with inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 55, 716–20.
Lacasse, J. R. and Leo, J. (2005). Serotonin and depression: a disconnect between the advertisements and the scientific literature. PLoS Medicine 2(12), e392. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020392.
Lakatos, , I. (1978). The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes: Philosophical Papers, Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Landay, A. L, Jessop, C., Lennette, E. T. and Levy, J. A. (1991). Chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical condition associated with immune activation. Lancet, 338, 707–12.
Landhuis, C. E., Poulton, R., Welch, D. and Hancox, R. J. (2007). Does childhood television viewing lead to attention problems in adolescence? Results from a prospective longitudinal study. Pediatrics, 120, 532–7.
Langhorst, J., Klose, P., Musial, F., Irnich, D. and Hauser, W. (2010). Efficacy of acupuncture in fibromyalgia syndrome – a systematic review with a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Rheumatology, 49, 778–88.
Larson-Freeman, D. (1997). Chaos/complexity science and second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 18, 141–65.
Lawrie, S., MacHale, S., Power, M. and Goodwin, G. (1997). Is the chronic fatigue syndrome best understood as a primary disturbance of the sense of effort?Psychological Medicine, 27, 995–9.
Fanu, J. (1999). The Rise and Fall of Modern Medicine. London: Little, Brown.
LeShan, L. (1994). Cancer as a Turning Point: A Handbook for People with Cancer, Their Families and Health Professionals. Bath, UK: Gateway Books.
Lewith, G. T., Brien, S. and Hyland, M. E. (2005). Presentiment or entanglement? An alternative explanation for apparent entanglement in provings. Homeopathy, 94, 92–5.
Lewith, G. T., Kenyon, J. N., Brookfield, J., Prescott, P., Goddard, J. and Holgate, S. T. (2001). Is electrodermal testing as effective as skin prick tests for diagnosing allergies? A double blind, randomised block design study. British Medical Journal, 322, 131–4.
Lewith, G. T., Watkins, A. D., Hyland, M. E. et al. (2002). Use of ultramolecular potencies of allergen to treat asthmatic people allergic to house dust mite: double blind randomised controlled clinical trial. British Medical Journal, 324: 520–3.
Lillestøl, K., Berstad, A., Lind, R., Florvaag, E., Lied, G. L. and Tangen, T. (2010). Anxiety and depression in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity. General Hospital Psychiatry 32, 42–8.
Linde, K.Clausius, N., Ramirez, G. et al. (1997). Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Lancet, 350, 834–43.
Linde, K. and Willich, S.N. (2003). How objective are systematic reviews? Differences between reviews on complementary medicine. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 96, 17–22.
Linden, W., Philips, M. J. and Leclerc, J. (2007). Psychological treatment of cardiac patients: a meta-analysis. European Heart Journal, 28, 2972–84.
Linden, W., Stossel, C. and Maurice, J. (1996). Psychosocial interventions for patients with coronary artery disease. a meta-analysis. Archives of Internal Medicine, 156, 745–52.
Lindsley, O., Skinner, B.F. and Solomon, H.C. (1953). Studies in Behavior Therapy (Status Report I). Waltham, MA: Metropolitan State Hospital.
Lloyd, A., Hickie, I., Wilson, A. and Wakefield, D. (1994). Immune function in chronic fatigue syndrome and depression: implications for understanding these disorders and for therapy. Clinical Immunotherapeutics, 2, 84–8.
Loeser, J. D. and Melzack, R. (1999). Pain: an overview. Lancet, 353, 1607–9.
Luborsky, L., McClellan, A.T., Diguer, L., Woody, G. and Seligman, D.A. (1997). The psychotherapist matters: comparison of outcomes across twenty-two therapists and even patient samples. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 4, 53–65.
Luborsky, L., Rosenthal, R., Diguer, L. et al. (2002). The dodo bird verdict is alive and well – mostly. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 2–12.
Luborsky, L., Singer, B. and Luborsky, L. (1975). Comparative studies of psychotherapies: is it true that ‘Everyone has won and all must have prizes?’. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 995–1008.
Lüdtke, R. and A. Rutten, A. (2008). The conclusions on the effectiveness of homeopathy highly depend on the set of analyzed trials. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 61, 1197–204.
Luyten, P., Houdenhove, B., Cosyns, N.and Broeck, A.-L. (2006). Are patients with chronic fatigue syndrome perfectionistic – or were they? A case-control study. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1473–83.
Lydiard, R. B. (2001). Irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, and depression: what are the links?Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62(Suppl. 8), 38–45.
Lynch, J. J. (1977). The Broken Heart: The Medical Consequences of Loneliness. New York: Basic Books.
MacStravic, R. S. (1986) Therapeutic pampering. Hospital and Health Services Administration, 31, 59–69.
Maes, M. (1993). Acute phase protein alterations in major depression: a review. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 4, 407–16.
Magnusson, A. E., Nias, D. K. B. and White, P. D. (1996). Is perfectionism associated with fatigue?Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 41, 377–83.
Malaspina, D., Corcoran, C., Kleinhaus, K. R. et al. (2008). Acute maternal stress in pregnancy and schizophrenia in offspring: a cohort prospective study. BMC Psychiatry, 8, 71. Online at http://biomedcentral.com/1471–244X/8/71/.
Manganello, J. A. and Taylor, C. A. (2009). Television exposure as a risk factor for aggressive behavior among 3-year-old children. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 163, 1037–45.
Manheimer, E., White, A., Berman, B., Forys, K. and Ernst, E. (2005). Meta-analysis: acupuncture for low back painAnnals of Internal Medicine, 142, 651–63.
Martin, D. J., Garske, J. P. and Davis, M. K. (2000). Relation of the therapeutic alliance with outcome and other variables: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 438–50.
Martin, J., Donaldson, A. N., Villarroel, R., Parmar, M. K., Ernst, E. and Higginson, I. J. (2002). Efficacy of acupuncture in asthma: systematic review and meta-analysis of published data from 11 randomised controlled trials. European Respiratory Journal, 20, 846–52.
Marucha, P. T. and Engeland, C. G. (2007). Stress, neuroendocrine hormones and wound healing: human models. In: Ader, R., ed. Psychoneuroimmunology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 825–35.
Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Addison-Wesley.
Masters, K. S., Spielmans, G. I. and Goodson, J. T. (2006). Are there demonstrable effects of distant intercessory prayer? A meta-analytic review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 21–6.
Mazzoni, G., Hyland, M. E., Foan, L. and Kirsch, I. (2010). The effects of observation and gender on psychogenic symptoms. Health Psychology, 29, 181–5.
McCauley, J., Kern, D. E., Kolodner, K. et al. (1997). Clinical characteristics of women with a history of childhood abuse: unhealed wounds. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277: 1362–8.
McClelland, J. L. and Rumelhart, D. E. (1985). Distributed memory and the representation of general and specific information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 159–88.
McCulloch, W. S. and Pitts, W. (1943). A logical calculus of the ideas imminent in nervous activity. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 9, 127–47.
McCullough, M. E. and Willoughby, B. L. B. (2009). Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: associations, explanations, and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 69–93.
McDonagh, A., Friedman, M., McHugo, G. et al. (2005). Randomized trial of cognitive–behavioral therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuseJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 515–24
McDougall, W. (1938). The Riddle of Life. London: Methuen.
McKay, K. M., Imel, Z. E. and Wampold, B. E. (2006). Psychiatrist effects in the psychopharmacological treatment of depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92, 287–90.
Meissner, K., Distel, H. and Mitzdorf, U. (2007). Evidence for placebo effects on physical but not biochemical outcome parameters: a review of clinical trials. BMC Medicine, 5:3. www.biomedcentral.com/1741–7015/3/3.
Mick, E., Biederman, J.Prince, J.Fischer, M. J. and Faraone, S. V. (2002). Impact of low birth weight on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 16–22.
Miller, C. J, Marks, D. J., Miller, S. R. et al. (2007). Brief report: Television viewing and risk for attention problems in preschool children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 448–52.
Miller, G. E. (2009). In search of integrated specificity: comment on Denson, Spanovic, and Miller (2009). Psychological Bulletin, 135, 854–6.
Miller, T. Q., Smith, T. W., Turner, C. W., Guijarro, M. L. and Hallet, A. J. (1996). Meta-analytic review of research on hostility and physical health. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 322–48.
Miller, T. Q., Turner, C. W., Scott Tindale, R., Posavace, E. J. and Dugoni, B. L. (1991). Reasons for the trend toward null findings in research on type A behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 469–85.
Mittra, I. (2009). Why is modern medicine stuck in a rut?Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 52, 500–17.
Moerman, D. (2002). Meaning, Medicine, and the ‘Placebo Effect’. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Montgomery, G. H. and Kirsch, I. (1997). Classical conditioning and the placebo effect. Pain, 72, 107–13
Moons, W. G., Eisenberger, N. I. and Taylor, S. E. (2010). Anger and fear responses to stress have different biological profiles. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 24, 215–19.
Moyer, C.A., Rounds, J. and Hannum, J. W. (2004). A meta-analysis of massage therapy research. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 3–18.
Murray, C. J. L. and Lopez, A. D., eds. (1996). The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Musek, J. (2007). A general factor of personality: evidence of the Big One in the five-factor model. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 1213–33.
Nelson, M. and Ogden, J. (2008). An exploration of food intolerance in the primary care setting: the general practitioner's experience. Social Science and Medicine, 67, 1038–45.
Nguyen, M., Revel, M. and Dougados, M. (1997). Prolonged effects of 3 week therapy in a spa resort on lumbar spine, knee and hip osteoarthritis: follow-up after 6 months. A randomized controlled trial. Rheumatology (Oxford), 36, 77–81.
,NICE (2004). Depression: Management of depression in primary and secondary care. Clinical Guideline 23. NICE and National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health; December 2004.
Nimnuan, C., Hotoph, M. and Wessely, S. (2001). Medically unexplained symptoms: an epidemiological study in seven specialities. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 51, 361–7.
O'Donnell, , K., Brydon, L., Wright, C. E. and Steptoe, A. (2008). Self-esteem levels and cardiovascular and inflammatory responses to acute stress. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 22, 1241–7.
Okiishi, J., Lambert, M. J., Nielsen, S. L. and Ogles, B. M. (2003). Waiting for supershrink: an empirical analysis of therapist effects. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 10, 361–73.
Ostir, G. V., Berges, I. M., Markides, K. S. and Ottenbacher, , K. J. (2006). Hypertension in older adults and the role of positive emotions. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68, 727–33.
Pagani, M. and Lucini, D. (1999). Chronic fatigue syndrome: a hypothesis focusing on the autonomic nervous system. Clinical Science, 96, 117–25.
Pavlov, I. P (1897). Work of the Principal Digestive Glands. St Petersburg, Russia: Kushneroff.
Pavlov, I. P. (1928). Lectures on Conditioned Reflexes. New York: Liveright.
Pepper, O. H. P. (1945). A note on the placebo. American Journal of Pharmacy, 117, 409–12.
Petry, J. J. and Finkel, R. (2004). Spirituality and choice of health care practitioner. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine,10, 939–45.
Popper, K. R. (1963). Conjectures and Refutations. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Porter, R. (1996). The Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Powers, W. T. (1978). Quantitative analysis of purposive systems: some spadework at the foundations of scientific psychology. Psychological Review, 85, 417–35.
Pressman, S. D. and Cohen, S. (2005). Does positive affect influence health?Psychological Bulletin, 131, 925–71.
Prins, J., Bleijenberg, G., Bazelmans, E.et al. (2001). Cognitive behaviour therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 357, 841–7.
Proctor, M., Hing, W., Johnson, T. C., Murphy, P.A. and Brown, J. (2006). Spinal manipulation for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, Art. No.: CD002119.
Rabkin, J. G., Markowitz, J. S., Stewart, J. W. et al. (1986). How blind is blind? assessment of patient and doctor medication guesses in a placebo-controlled trial of imipramine and phenelzine. Psychiatry Research, 19, 75–86.
Ragland, R. R. and Brand, R. J. (1988). Type A behavior and mortality from coronary heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 65–9.
Räikkönen, K., Pesonen, A-K., Heinonen, K. et al. (2008). Infant growth and hostility in adult life. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 306–13.
Raison, C. L., Lin, J. M. S. and Reeves, W. C. (2009). Association of peripheral inflammatory markers with chronic fatigue in a population-based sample. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 23, 327–37.
Ray, C., Jeffefues, S., Wei, W. et al. (1998). Making sense of chronic fatigue syndrome: patients' accounts of onset. Psychology and Health, 13, 99–109.
Reichenberg, A., Yirmi, R., Schuld, A. et al. (2001). Cytokine-associated emotional and cognitive disturbances in humans. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 445–52.
Ridsdale, L., Godfrey, E. and Chalder, T. (2001). Chronic fatigue in general practice: is counselling as good as cognitive behaviour therapy? A UK randomised trial. British Journal of General Practice, 51, 19–24.
Rietveld, S., Beest, I. and Kamphuis, J. H. (2007). Stress-induced muscle effort as a cause of repetitive strain injury?Ergonomics, 50, 2049–58.
Rimes, K. A., Goodman, R., Hotopf, M., Wessely, S., Meltzer, H. and Chalder, T. (2007). Incidence, prognosis, and risk factors for fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents: a prospective community study. Pediatrics 119: e603–9.
Rivenes, A. C., Harvey, S. B. and Mykletun, M. (2009). The relationship between abdominal fat, obesity, and common mental disorders: Results from the HUNT Study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 66, 269–75.
Ritz, T., Rosenfield, D., DeWilde, S. and Steptoe, A. (2010) Daily mood, shortness of breath, and lung function in asthma: concurrent and prospective associations. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 69, 341–51.
Robbins, L. (2006). Yoga of laughter. Yoga Therapy Today, 2, 13.
Roelofs, K. and Spinhoven, P. (2007). Trauma and medically unexplained symptoms: towards an integration of cognitive and neuro-biological accounts. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 798–820.
Rogers, C. R. (1951). Client-centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.
Romieu, I., Varraso, R., Avenel, V. et al. (2006). Fruit and vegetable intakes and asthma in the E3N study. Thorax, 61, 209–15.
Rosenkranz, M. A. (2007). Substance P at the nexus of mind and body in chronic inflammation and affective disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 1007–37.
Rosenman, R. H., Brand, R. J., Sholtz, R. I. and Friedman, M. (1976). Multivariate prediction of coronary heart disease during 8.5 year follow-up in the Western Collaborative Group Study. American Journal of Cardiology, 37, 903–10.
Rosenzweig, S. (1936). Some implicit common factors in diverse methods of psychotherapy: ‘At last the Dodo said, “Everybody has won and all must have prizes” ’. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6, 412–15.
Ross, L., Boesen, E. H., Dalton, S. O. and Johansen, C. (2002). Mind and cancer: does psychosocial intervention improve survival and psychological well-being?European Journal of Cancer, 38, 1447–57.
Roud, P. C. (1987). Psychosocial variables associated with the exceptional survival of patients with advanced malignant disease. Natural Medical Association, 79, 97–102.
Rowland, A. S., Lesesne, C. A. and Abramowitz, A. J. (2002). The epidemiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a public health view. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research and Reviews, 8, 162–70.
Royce, J. R. (1978). How can we best advance the construction of theory in psychology?Canadian Psychological Review, 19, 259–76.
Royce, J. R. (1985). The problem of theoretical pluralism in psychology. In: B. Madsen, K. and Mos, L. P., eds. Annals of Theoretical Psychology, Vol. 3. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 297–316.
Ruff, C. B., Trinkaus, E. and Holliday, T. W. (1997). Body mass and encephalization in PleistoceneHomo. Nature, 387, 173–6.
Rupniak, N. M. and Kramer, M. S. (1999). Discovery of anti-depressant and anti-emetic efficacy of substance P receptor (NK1) antagonists. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 20, 485–90.
Rushton, J. P. and Irwing, P. (2008). A general factor of personality (GFP) from two meta-analyses of the Big Five: Digman (1997) and Mount, Barrick, Sullen and Rounds (2005). Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 679–83.
Ryan, R. M. and Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.
Saboonchi, F. and Lundh, L. G. (2003). Perfectionism, anger, somatic health, and positive affect. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1585–99.
Sandel, M. and Wright, R. J. (2006). When home is where the stress is: expanding the dimensions of housing that influence asthma morbidity. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 91: 942–8.
Schachter, S. (1971). Emotion, Obesity, and Crime. New York: Academic Press.
Schedlowski, M. and Pacheco-López, G. (2010). The learned immune response: Pavlov and beyond. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 24, 176–85.
Schlotz, W. and Phillips, D. I. W. (2009). Fetal origins of mental health: evidence and mechanisms. Brain, Behaviour, and Immunity, 23, 905–16.
Schwarzer, R. and Leppin, A, (1991). Social support and health: a theoretical and empirical overview. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 8, 99–127.
Schwartz, S. H. and Boehnke, K. (2004). Evaluating the structure of human values with confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Personality, 38, 230–255.
Scott, L. V., Medbak, S. and Dinan, T.G. (1998). Blunted adrenocorticotropin and cortisol responses to corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation in chronic fatigue syndrome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 97, 450–7.
Segerstrom, S. C. and Miller, G. E. (2004). Psychological stress and the human immune system: a meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 601–30.
Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N. and Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60, 410–21.
Shang, A., Huwiler-Müntener, K., Nartey, L. et al. (2005). Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathyLancet, 366, 726–32.
Shankardass, K., McConnell, R., Jerrett, M., Milam, J., Richardson, J. and Berhane, K. (2009). Parental stress increases the effect of traffic-related air pollution on childhood asthma incidence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 106, 12406–11.
Shanks, N. and Lightman, S. (2001). The maternal–neonatal neuro-immune interface: are there long-term implications for inflammatory or stress-related disease?. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 108, 1567–73.
Shannahoff-Khalsa, D. S. (2004). An introduction to Kundalini Yoga meditation techniques that are specific for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10, 91–101.
Sharpe, M. (1997). Cognitive behavior therapy for functional somatic complaints: the example of chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychosomatics, 38, 356–62.
Sharpe, M., Archard, L. C. and Banatvala, J. E. (1991). A report – chronic fatigue syndrome: guidelines for research. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 84, 118–21.
Shastri, L. and Ajjanagadde, V. (1993). From simple associations to systematic reasoning: A connectionist representation of rules, variables, and dynamic bindings using temporal synchrony. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 417–94.
Sheldon, K. M. and Elliot, A. J. (1999). Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: the self-concordance model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 482–97.
Shepherd, C. (2001). Pacing and exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome. Physiotherapy, 87, 395–6.
Sherman, R. and Hickner, J. (2008). Academic physicians use placebos in clinical practice and believe in the mind–body connection. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23, 7–10.
Sigurs, N., Bjarnason, R., Sigurbergsson, F. and Kjellman, B. (2000). Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy is an important risk factor for asthma and allergy at age 7. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 161, 1501–7.
Sin, N. L. and Lyubomirsky, S. (2009). Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: a practice-friendly meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 467–87.
Skinner, B. F. (1971). Beyond Freedom and Dignity. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.
Smolensky, P. (1988) On the proper treatment of connectionism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 11, 1–74.
Smith, C. A., Hay, P. P.MacPherson, H. (2010). Acupuncture for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1, Art. No. CD004046.
Smith, M. L. and Glass, G. V. (1977). Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies. American Psychologist, 32, 752–60.
Sodergren, S. C. and Hyland, M. E. (1999). Expectancy and asthma. In: Kirsch, I, ed. Expectancy, Experience and Behavior,. Washington DC: APA Books, pp. 97–212.
Sodergren, S. C. and Hyland, M. E. (2000). What are the positive consequences of illness?Psychology and Health, 15, 85–97.
Sodergren, S. C., Hyland, M. E., Crawford, A. and Partridge, M. R. (2004). Positivity in illness: self-delusion or existential growth?British Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 163–74.
Sointu, E. (2006). The search for well-being in complementary and alternative health practices. Sociology of Health and Illness, 28, 330–49.
Sok, S. R., Erlen, J. A. and Kim, K. B. (2003). Effects of acupuncture therapy on insomnia. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 44, 375–84.
Sorensen, H. J., Mortensen, E. L., Reinisch, J. M. and Mednick, S. A. (2009). Association between prenatal exposure to bacterial infection and risk of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35, 631–7.
Spiegel, D. and Giese-Davis, J. (2003). Depression and cancer: mechanisms and disease progression. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 269–82.
Starkie, R., Ostrowski, S. R., Jauffred, S., Febbraio, M. and Pedersen, B. K. (2003). Exercise and IL-6 infusion inhibit endotoxin-induced TNF-α production in humans. The FASEB Journal, 17, 884–6.
Stathopoulou, G., Powers, M. B., Berry, A. C., Smits, J.A. J. and Otto, M. W. (2006). Exercise interventions for mental health: a quantitative and qualitative review. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 13, 179–93.
Steinmetz, K. A. and Potter, J. D. (1991). Vegetables, fruit, and cancer. I. Epidemiology. Cancer Causes and Control, 2, 325–57.
Steptoe, A., Dockray, S. and Wardle, J. (2009). Positive affect and psychobiological processes relevant to health. Journal of Personality, 77, 1747–75.
Stevens, T. and Mulsow, M. (2006). There is no meaningful relationship between television exposure and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics, 117, 665–72.
Stewart-Williams, S. and Podd, J. (2004). The placebo effect: dissolving the expectancy versus conditioning debate. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 324–40.
Strachan, D. P. (1985). Wheezing presenting in general practice. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 60, 457–60.
Straub, R. H. and Männel, D. N. (1999). Nature Medicine, 5, 877–9.
Stunkard, A. J.Faith, M. S. and Allison, K. C. (2003). Depression and obesity. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 330–7.
Sturdy, P. M., Victor, C. R., Anderson, H. R. et al. (2002). Psychological, social and health behaviour risk factors for deaths certified as asthma: a national case-control study. Thorax, 57, 1034–9.
Su, C., Lichtenstein, G. R., Krok, K., Brensinger, C. M. and Lewis, J. D. (2004). A meta-analysis of the placebo rates of remission and response in clinical trials of active Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology, 126, 1257–69.
Subramanian, S.V., Ackerson, L. K., Subramanyam, M. A. and Wright, R. J. (2007). Domestic violence is associated with adult and childhood asthma prevalence in India. International Journal of Epidemiology, 36, 569–79.
Sul, J. and Bunde, J. (2005). Anger, anxiety, and depression as risk factors for cardiovascular disease: the problems and implications of overlapping affective dispositions. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 260–300.
Svartengren, M., Strand, V., Bylin, G., Jarup, L. and Pershagen, G. (2000). Short-term exposure to air pollution in a road tunnel enhances the asthmatic response to allergen. European Respiratory Journal, 37, 219–32.
Swanson, J. M., Elliott, G. R., Greenhill, L. L. et al. (2007). Effects of stimulant medication on growth rates across 3 years in the MTA follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 1015–27.
Swenson, C. R., Sanderson, C., Dulit, R. A. and Linehan, M. M. (2001). The application of dialectical behavior therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder on inpatient units. Psychiatric Quarterly, 72, 307–24.
Tashman, L.S., Tenenbaum, G. and Eklund, R. (2010). The effect of perceived stress on the relationship between perfectionism and burnout in coachesAnxiety, Stress and Coping, 23, 195–212.
Taylor, S. E. and Repettie, R. L., (1997). Health psychology: what is an unhealthy environment and how does it get under the skin. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 411–47.
Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z V., Williams, J. M. G., Ridgeway, V. A., Soulsby, J. M. and Lau, M. A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 615–23.
Temel, J. S., Greer, J. A. and Muzikansky, A. (2010). Early palliative care for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 363, 733–42.
Temoshok, L. (1987). Personality, coping style, emotion and cancer: towards an integrative model. Cancer Surveys, 6, 545–67.
Ternent, M. A. and Garshelis, D. L. (1999). Taste-aversion conditioning to reduce nuisance activity by black bears in a Minnesota military reservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 27, 720–8.
Wolbeek, M., Doornen, L. J. P., Kavelaars, A. and Heijnen, C. J. (2008). Predictors of persistent and new-onset fatigue in adolescent girls. Pediatrics, 121, e449–57.
Thomas, K. B. (1987). General practice consultations: is there any point in being positive?British Medical Journal, 294, 1200–2.
Thomas, K., Nicholl, P. and Coleman, P. (2001). Use and expenditure on complementary medicine in England. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 9, 2–11.
Thorndike, E. L. (1911). Animal Intelligence. New York: Macmillan.
Tirelli, U., Marotta, G., Improta, S. and Pinto, A. (1994). Immunological abnormalities in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 40, 601–8.
Tryon, W. W. (2009). Cognitive processes in cognitive and pharmacological therapies. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33, 570–84.
Kuppeveld, F. J., Jong, A. S., Lanke, K. H. et al. (2010). Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the Netherlands: retrospective analysis of samples from an established cohort. British Medical Journal, 340, c1018.
Ravenswaaij-Arts, C. M. A., Kollee, L. A. A., Hopman, J. C. W., Stoelinga, G. B. A. and Geijin, H. P. (1993). Heart rate variability. Annals of Internal Medicine, 118, 436–47.
West, D., Claes, S. and Deboutte, D. (2009). Differences in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning among children with ADHD predominantly inattentive and combined types. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 18, 543–53.
Varela, F. J. and Coutinho, A. (1991) Second generation immune networks. Immunology Today, 12, 159–66.
Vase, L., Robinson, M.E., Verne, G.N. and Price, D.D. (2005). Increased placebo analgesia over time in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients is associated with desire and expectation but not endogenous opioid mechanisms. Pain, 115, 338–47.
Veenhoven, R., (2009). World Database of Happiness, Distributional Findings in Nations. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Erasmus University. Available at: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl.
Vickers, A., Ohlsson, A., Lacy, J. and Horsley, A. (2004). Massage for promoting growth and development of preterm and/or low birth-weight infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2, Art. No. CD000390.
Viner, R. and Hotopf, M. (2004). Childhood predictors of self reported fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis in adults: national birth cohort study. British Medical Journal, 329, 928–9.
Viner, R. M., Clark, C., Taylor, S. J. C. et al. (2008). Longitudinal risk factors for persistent fatigue in adolescents. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 162, 469–75.
VollmerConna, U., Lloyd, A., Hickie, I. and Wakefield, D. (1998). Chronic fatigue syndrome: an immunological perspective. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 32, 523–7.
Vonk, J. M., Postma, D. S., Boezen, H. M. et al. (2004) Childhood factors associated with asthma remission after 30 year follow up. Thorax, 59, 925–9.
Walach, H. and Maidhof, C. (1999). Is the placebo effect dependent on time? A meta-analysis. In: Kirsch, I., ed. How Expectancies Shape Experience. Washington, DC: APA, pp. 321–32.
Walach, H., Rilling, C. and Engelke, U. (2001). Efficacy of Bach-flower remedies in test anxiety: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with partial crossover. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 15, 359–66.
Wampold, B.E. (2001). The Great Psychotherapy Debate: Models, Methods, and Findings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Wampold, B. E., Mondin, G. W., Moody, M., Stich, F., Benson, K. and Ahn, H. (1997). A meta-analysis of outcome studies comparing bona fide psychotherapies: empirically, ‘All must have prizes’. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 204–15.
Waterman, A. S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 678–91.
Watson, D. (1988). Intraindividual and interindividual analyses of positive and negative affect: Their relation to health complaints, perceived stress, and daily activities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1020–30.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A. and Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–70.
Watson, D. and Pennebaker, J. W. (1989). Health complaints, stress, and distress: Exploring the central role of negative affectivity. Psychological Review, 96, 234–54.
Watt, T., Groenvold, M., Bjorner, J. B., Noerholm, V., Rasmussen, N.-A. and Bech, P. (2000). Fatigue in the Danish general population. Influence of sociodemographic factors and disease. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 54, 827–33.
Welton, N. J., Caldwell, D. M., Adamopoulos, E. and Vedhara, K. (2009). Mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of complex interventions: psychological interventions in coronary heart disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169, 1158–65.
Weiner, J. (2002). Studies comparing homeopathy and placebo are unhelpful. British Medical Journal, 325, 41.
Weiss, S. J., Wilson, P. and Morrison, D. (2004). Maternal tactile stimulation and the neurodevelopment of low birth weight infants. Infancy, 5, 85–107.
Wessely, S., Hotopf, M. and Sharpe, M. (1998). Chronic Fatigue and Its Syndromes. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wetherell, M. A., Hyland, M. E. and Harris, J. E. (2004). Secretary immunoglobulin A reactivity to acute and cumulative multi-tasking stress: relationships between reactivity and perceived workload. Biological Psychology, 66, 257–70.
Whalley, B., Bennett, P., Ebrahim, S. et al. (2011). Psychological interventions for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3., Art. No. CD002902.
Whalley, B. and Hyland, M. E. (2009). One size does not fit all: motivational predictors of contextual benefits of therapy. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 82, 291–303.
Whalley, B., Hyland, M. E. and Kirsch, I. (2008). Placebo consistency and placebo responders. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, 537–41.
Wheeler, P. and Hyland, M. E. (2008). Dispositional predictors of complementary medicine and vitamin use in students. Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 516–19.
,WHO (1948). Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19–22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, No. 2, pp. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948.
Wilkin, T. J., Mallam, K., Metcalf, B. S., Jeffery, A. N. and Voss, L. D. (2006). Variation in physical activity lies with the child, not his environment: evidence for an ‘activitystat’ in young children (EarlyBird 16). International Journal of Obesity, 30, 1050–5.
Wilson, M. (2002). Six views of embodied cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 9, 625–36.
Wittwer-Backofen, U. and Tomo, N. (2008). From health to civilization stress? In search for traces of a health transition during the Early Neolithic in Europe. In: P. Bocquet-Appel, J. and Bar-Yosef, O., eds. The Neolithic Demographic Transition and its Consequences. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Netherlands, 501–38.
Wood, J. D. (2006). Integrative functions of enteric nervous system. In: R. Johnson, L. and Barrett, K. E., eds. Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. New York: Academic Press, pp. 665–84.
Wright, R. J., Cohen, S., Carey, S. T. and Gold, D. R. (2002). Parental stress as a predictor of wheezing in infancy: a prospective birth-cohort study. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 165, 358–65.
Wright, R. J., Rodriguez, M. and Cohen, S. (1998). Review of psychosocial stress and asthma: an integrated biopsychosocial approach. Thorax, 53, 1066–74.
Xu, J. and Roberts, J. E. (2010). The power of positive emotions: it's a matter of life or death—subjective well-being and longevity over 28 years in a general population. Health Psychology, 29, 9–19.
Yalom, I. D. (1980). Existential Psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.
Yazdanbakhsh, M., Kremsner, P. G. and Ree, R. (2002). Allergy, parasites, and the hygiene hypothesis. Science, 296, 490–4.
Yehud, R. (2003). Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal alterations in PTSD: are they relevant to understanding cortisol alterations in cancer?Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 17(Suppl. 1), 73–83.
Young, E., Stoneham, M. D., Petruckevitch, A., Barton, J. and Rona, R. (1994). A population study of food intolerance. Lancet, 343, 1127–30.
Zajicek, J., Fox, P., Sanders, H. et al. (2003). Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet, 362, 1517–26.
Zeaman, D. and House, B. J. (1951).The growth and decay of reactive inhibition as measured by alternation behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41, 177–86.
Zijlistra, T. R., Laar, M. A., Bernelot Moens, H. J., Taal, E., Zakraoui, L. and Rasker, J. J. (2005). Spa treatment for primary fibromyalgia syndrome: a combination of thalassotherapy, exercise and patient education improves symptoms and quality of life. Rheumatology, 44, 539–46.
Zopf, Y., Baenkler, H. W., Silermann, A., Hahn, E. G. and Raithel, M. (2009). The differential diagnosis of food intolerance. Deutsches Arzteblatt International, 106, 359–70.