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  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: June 2012

Chapter 18 - Bodily and external goods and happiness


Cicero, On Duties 3.106

Therefore, those who discuss these things with more vigour dare to say that what is base is the only evil, while those who do so in a more relaxed way do not hesitate to say that it is the supreme evil.

Seneca, Letters on Morals 88.5

Unless perhaps they persuade you that Homer was a philosopher, when they deny this by the very points which they collect. For now they make him a Stoic, approving only of virtue and shunning pleasures and not abandoning what is honourable even for the reward of immortality; now an Epicurean, praising the condition of a peaceful state where life is spent in banquets and singing; now a Peripatetic, introducing three kinds of goods; now an Academic, saying that everything is uncertain. It is clear that none of these things is present in him, because they all are; for they disagree with one another.

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