Skip to main content Accessibility help
The Politics of Shari'a Law
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 8
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Chaplin, Chris 2018. Salafi Islamic piety as civic activism: Wahdah Islamiyah and differentiated citizenship in Indonesia. Citizenship Studies, Vol. 22, Issue. 2, p. 208.

    Soedirgo, Jessica 2018. Informal networks and religious intolerance: how clientelism incentivizes the discrimination of the Ahmadiyah in Indonesia. Citizenship Studies, Vol. 22, Issue. 2, p. 191.

    Alimi, Moh Yasir 2018. Rethinking anthropology of Shari’a: contestation over the meanings and uses of Shari’a in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Contemporary Islam, Vol. 12, Issue. 2, p. 123.

    Hefner, Robert W. 2018. Which Islam? Whose Shariah? Islamisation and citizen recognition in contemporary Indonesia. Journal of Religious and Political Practice, Vol. 4, Issue. 3, p. 278.

    Retsikas, Konstantinos and Chaplin, Chris 2017. Book review: Islam and Democracy in Indonesia: Tolerance Without Liberalism. South East Asia Research, Vol. 25, Issue. 3, p. 320.

    Pisani, Elizabeth and Buehler, Michael 2017. Why do Indonesian politicians promoteshari’alaws? An analytic framework for Muslim-majority democracies. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 38, Issue. 3, p. 734.

    Hadiz, Vedi R. 2017. Indonesia’s Year of Democratic Setbacks: Towards a New Phase of Deepening Illiberalism?. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Vol. 53, Issue. 3, p. 261.

    Buehler, Michael and Muhtada, Dani 2016. Democratization and the diffusion of shari’a law. South East Asia Research, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 261.

  • Michael Buehler, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

Book description

The Islamization of politics in Indonesia after 1998 presents an underexplored puzzle: why has there been a rise in the number of shari'a laws despite the electoral decline of Islamist parties? Michael Buehler presents an analysis of the conditions under which Islamist activists situated outside formal party politics may capture and exert influence in Muslim-majority countries facing democratization. His analysis shows that introducing competitive elections creates new pressures for entrenched elites to mobilize and structure the electorate, thereby opening up new opportunities for Islamist activists to influence politics. Buehler's analysis of changing state-religion relations in formerly authoritarian Islamic countries illuminates broader theoretical debates on Islamization in the context of democratization. This timely text is essential reading for students, scholars, and government analysts.


‘Buehler’s provocative study asks us to think twice before making facile assumptions about political parties, civil society and ‘Islamisation’ in post-Soeharto Indonesia. His conclusions will not go unchallenged, but the scholarship is superb, and the richness of the data, in terms of both geographic scope and historical depth, makes for a fascinating study about how old elites try to manipulate new sources of political legitimacy in a democratizing state. Buehler shows how a partnership of political opportunists and pious activists can produce Islamist outcomes without strong Islamic political parties. This is a book guaranteed to stimulate argument and debate.’

Sidney Jones - Director, Institute for Policy Analysis of Conflict, Jakarta

‘This is an excellent study of local politics and the dynamics of Islamisation in Indonesia in the years of post-authoritarian transition. Based on detailed case studies, Buehler provides a convincing explanation of the seeming paradox that Islamist political parties performed poorly in elections but the Islamisation of public life was in fact carried forward by secular local politicians, many of whom still belonged to the elite of the ancien régime. His observations on how democratisation enabled vocal (Islamist) pressure groups based outside the political system to have a greater impact on decision-making than Islamist parties within the system have relevance beyond the specific case of Indonesia.’

Martin van Bruinessen - Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands

‘Michael Buehler has produced a fine piece of scholarship on contemporary Indonesian politics that engages several important literatures - religion and politics, democratic transitions, social movement theory, and questions of democratic representation and accountability. This book is excellently researched, focusing on historically grounded case studies across multiple regions. Buehler examines a curious puzzle: Islamic parties and candidates have not fared well in Indonesian elections since 1998, and yet there has been a surge in Islamic laws at the local level championed mostly by vote-hungry candidates from non-Islamic parties. He emphasizes the short-term strategizing and competition among political elites who do not intend Indonesia to become an Islamic state, even if the effect of their opportunistic electoral politics across several regions nudges the country increasingly in that direction. Buehler advances a bold thesis that is illuminating not only for Indonesia, but for other Islamic countries as well.’

Jeffrey Winters - Northwestern University, Illinois

‘Who is pushing most for new shari'a regulations in Indonesia? To address this question Buehler has created a pioneering data set on 443 shari'a regulations which he adroitly analyses with a rich range of concepts. Buehler counterfactually shows that almost all of these shari'a regulations have been passed by secular bureaucrats who were looking to get some political, and often financial, gain. He also illustrates that one of the reasons for the decline of total vote of Islamic political parties is that they are ideologically multi-vocal and join many different competing party coalitions, often with secularist allies. Buehler’s book, based on over fifty months of theoretically sensitive field research, has resulted in a wonderful conceptual and empirical enrichment to the literature on democracy and Islam.’

Alfred C. Stepan - Wallace S. Sayre Professor of Government, Founding Director of the Center for the Study of Democracy, Toleration and Religion, and Co-Director of the Institute for Religion, Culture and Public Life, Columbia University, New York

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Abdullah, Taufik. 2009. Schools and Politics: The Kaum Muda Movement in West Sumatra (1927–1933). Singapore: Equinox Publishing.
Abuza, Zachary. 2007. Political Islam and Violence in Indonesia. New York City: Routledge.
Agrama, Hussein Ali. 2012. Questioning Secularism: Islam, Sovereignty, and the Rule of Law in Modern Egypt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Akinci, Ugur. 1999. “The Welfare Party’s Municipal Track Record: Evaluating Islamist Municipal Activism in Turkey.” Middle East Journal 53, 1 (Winter): 7594.
Alagappa, Mutiah. 2004. “Civil Society and Democratic Change: Indeterminate Connection, Transforming Relations.” In Alagappa, Mutiah. Ed. Civil Society and Political Change in Asia: Expanding and Contracting Democratic Space. Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 478508.
Alamsyah, Rahman Andi. 2013. “Laporan Penelitian Awal: Peraturan Daerah Syariah di Sumatera Barat (1998–2013).” Unpublished manuscript.
Awaludin, U., Junadi, Yudi, Margana, Unang, Susilo, Adhi Anam, Choirul. 2006. Portret Cianjur Dalam Pilkada 2006. Cianjur: KPU Kabupaten Cianjur.
Ali, Muklis. 1990. “Subversion Trial for Editor?” Reuters (October 24), online. Available at
Alisjahbana, Samiati. 1954. A Preliminary Study of the Class Structure among the Sundanese in the Prijangan. Ithaca: Cornell University.
Amal, Ichlasul. 1992. Regional and Central Government in Indonesian Politics: West Sumatra and South Sulawesi, 1949–1979. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.
Amal, Taufik Adnan and Panggabean, Samsu Rizal. 2004. Politik Syariat Islam: Dari Indonesia Hingga Nigeria. Jakarta: Pustaka Alvabet.
Amenta, Edwin. 1998. Bold Relief: Institutional Politics and the Origins of Modern American Social Policy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Amenta, Edwin, Caren, Neal, Chiarello, Elizabeth and Su, Yang. 2010. “The Political Consequences of Social Movements.” Annual Review of Sociology 36 (August): 287307.
Amenta, Edwin, Caren, Neil and Olasky, Sheera Joy. 2005. “Age for Leisure? Political Mediation and the Impact of the Pension Movement on US Old-Age Policy.” American Sociological Review 70: 516–38.
Amenta, Edwin and Caren, Neal. 2004. “The Legislative, Organizational, and Beneficiary Consequences of State-Oriented Challengers.” In Snow, Daniel A., Sale, Sarah A. and Kriesi, Hanspeter. Eds. The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 464–88.
Amenta, Edwin, Caren, Neal, Fetner, Tina and Young, Michael. 2002. “Challengers and States: Toward a Political Sociology of Social Movements.” Research in Political Sociology 10: 4783.
Amenta, Edwin and Zylan, Yvonne. 1991. “It Happened Here: Political Opportunity, the New Institutionalism, and the Townsend Movement.” American Sociological Review 56, 2: 250–65.
Amenta, Edwin and Young, Michael P.. 1999. “Making an Impact: Conceptual and Methodological Implications of the Collective Goods Criterion.” In Giugni, Marco, McAdam, Doug and Tilly, Charles. Eds. How Social Movements Matter. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 2241.
Anderson, Benedict. 1996. “Elections and Participation in Three Southeast Asian Countries.” In Taylor, R. H.. Ed. The Politics of Elections in Southeast Asia. New York: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, pp. 1234.
Anderson, Benedict. 1990. “Murder and Progress in Modern Siam.” New Left Review 181, 2: 3348.
Anderson, Benedict. 1988. “Cacique Democracy in the Philippines: Origins and Dreams.” New Left Review 169, 3: 331.
Anderson, Benedict. 1983. “Old State, New Society: Indonesia’s New Order in Comparative Historical Perspective.” Journal of Asian Studies 42, 3: 477–96.
Andrews, Kenneth T. 2004. Freedom Is a Constant Struggle: The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement and Its Legacy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Andrews, Kenneth T. and Edwards, Bob. 2004. “Advocacy Organizations in the U.S. Political Process.” Annual Review of Sociology 30: 479506.
Anonymous. 2011a. “Lebih Dari 50% Pilkada Jabar, Calon PKS Unggul.” Islamedia, online. Available at
Anonymous. 2011b. “Transkrip Cianjur Chep Hernawan Pendiri dan Ketua Umum Gerakan Islam Reformis [Transcript of Cianjur Interview with Chep Hernawan Founder and Head of Islamist Reform Movement].” Unpublished manuscript (November 1).
Anonymous. 2010. “Safari Ramadhan Perdana Bupati Maros Terpilih, 5 Mesjid Dapat Bantuan,” online. Available at
Ansar, . 2013. “Pesantren Hidayatullah BTP Kumpulkan Zakat Rp 111 Juta.” Tribun Timur (July 9), online. Available at
Antoun, Richard. 2006. “Fundamentalism, Bureaucratization, and the States’ Co-Optation of Religion: A Jordanian Case Study.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 38, 3: 369–93.
Anwar, Syafi. 2003. “Developing Social Fiqh?ICIP Journal 1 (April).
Anwar, Marzani dan Endang Turmudi. 2003. “Penerapan Syariat Islam di Sulawesi Selatan.” In Turmudi, Endang (Ed.). Pengaruh Modernitas Terhadap Sikap Keberagamaan Masyarakat: Penerapan dan Diskursus Politik Syariat Islam Studi Kasus di Cianjur, Sulawesi Selatan dan Jombang. Jakarta: LIPI, pp. 3796.
Aspinall, Edward. 2009. Islam and Nation: Separatist Rebellion in Aceh, Indonesia. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Aspinall, Edward, Dettman, Sebastian and Warburton, Eve. 2011. “When Religion Trumps Ethnicity: A Regional Election Case Study from Indonesia.” South East Asia Research 19, 1: 2758.
Aspinall, Edward and van Klinken, Gerry. 2011. “Building Relations: Corruption, Competition and Cooperation in the Construction Industry.” In Aspinall, Edward and van Klinken, Gerry. Eds. The State and Illegality in Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press, pp. 139–63.
Aspinall, Edward and Mietzner, Marcus. 2010. Eds. Problems of Democratisation in Indonesia: Elections, Institutions and Society. Singapore: ISEAS.
Aspinall, Edward and Fealy, Greg. 2003. Eds. Local Power and Politics in Indonesia: Decentralisation and Democratisation. Singapore: ISEAS.
Assyaukanie, Luthfi. 2009. Islam and the Secular State in Indonesia. Singapore: ISEAS.
Assyaukanie, Luthfi. 2007. “The Rise of Religious Bylaws in Indonesia,” RSIS Commentaries (March). Singapore: Rajarathnam School of International Studies. Available at
Ayata, Sencer. 1996. “Patronage, Party, and State: The Politicization of Islam in Turkey.” Middle East Journal 50, 1 (Winter): 4056.
Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). 2013a. Sulawesi Selatan Dalam Angka. Makassar: BPS. Available at
Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). 2013b. Jawa Barat Dalam Angka. Makassar: BPS. Available at
Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). 2004. Sulawesi Selatan Dalam Angka. Makassar: BPS.
Badan Pusat Statistik Sulawesi Selatan (BPS). 2003. Direktori Perusahaan Pertanian Sulawesi Selatan 2003. Makassar: BPS.
Badie, Bertrand and Birnbaum, Pierre. 1983. The Sociology of the State. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Balowski, James. 2012. “The Mohawk Crusade: Punks Are the Latest Victims of Aceh’s Shariah Bylaws.” Inside Indonesia 107 (January–March). Available at
Barfield, T. 2011. “Afghanistan: The Local and the Global in the Practice of Shari’a.” In Hefner, Robert. Ed. Shari’a Politics: Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World. Indiana: Indiana University Press, pp. 184–5.
Barratt, Susan. 2004. “Implementation Studies: Time for a Revival? Personal Reflections on 20 Years of Implementation Studies.” Public Administration 82, 2: 249–62.
Bastiyandi, Benny. 2011. “Massa Garis ‘Duduki’ Masjid Ahmadiyah Cianjur [Garis Masses Occupying Ahmadiyah Mosque in Cianjur],” (11 March). Available at
Baumgartner, Frank R. and Mahoney, Christine. 2005. “Social Movements, the Rise of New Issues, and the Public Agenda.” In Meyer, David S., Jenness, Valerie and Ingram, Helen. Eds. Routing the Opposition: Social Movements, Public Policy, and Democracy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 6586.
Beatty, Andrew. 2009. A Shadow Falls: In the Heart of Java. London: Faber & Faber.
Beck, Colin J. 2009. “State Building as a Source of Islamic Political Organization.” Sociological Forum 24, 2: 337–56.
Benda, Harry J. 1955. “The Crescent and the Rising Sun: Indonesian Islam under the Japanese Occupation of Java, 1942–1945.” Unpublished PhD thesis. Ithaca: Cornell University.
Bertrand, Jacques. 2010. “Political Islam and Democracy in the Majority Muslim Country of Indonesia.” In Saravanamuttu, Johan. Ed. Islam and Politics in Southeast Asia. New York: Routledge, pp. 4564.
Bilal, . 2012. “FPI: Jangan Serang Syariat Islam Untuk Black Campaign Pilkada,”, online. Available at
Bloch, Marc. 1966. Les Caractères Originaux De l’Histoire Rurale Française. Paris: A Colin.
Boudreau, Vince. 2004. Resisting Dictatorship: Repression and Protest in Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Boudreau, Vince. 1996. “Northern Theory, Southern Protest: Opportunity Structure Analysis in Cross-National Perspective.” Mobilization: An International Quarterly 1, 2: 175–89.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1983. “Ökonomisches Kapital, kulturelles Kapital, soziales Kapital.” In Kreckel, Reinhard. (Hg.) Soziale Ungleichheiten. Göttingen: Soziale Welt Sonderheft 2, pp. 183–98.
Bowen, John. 2013. “Contours of Sharia in Indonesia.” In Künkler, Mirjam and Stepan, Alfred. Eds. Democracy and Islam in Indonesia. New York City: Columbia University Press: pp. 149–67.
Brown, N.J. 2011. “Egypt: Cacophony and Consensus in the Twenty-first Century.” In Hefner, Robert. Ed. Shari’a Politics: Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World. Indiana: Indiana University Press, pp. 94120.
Bubalo, Anthony, Greg, Fealy and Mason, Whit. 2008. Zealous Democrats: Islamism and Democracy in Egypt, Indonesia and Turkey. Double Bay: Lowy Institute.
Buehler, Michael and Muhtada, Dani. 2016. “Democratization and the Diffusion of Shari’a Law: Comparative Insights from Indonesia.” South East Asia Research, 24 (2): 261–82.
Buehler, Michael. 2014. “Elite Competition and Changing State-Society Relations: Shari’a Policymaking in Indonesia.” In Ford, Michele and Pepinsky, Tom. Eds. Beyond Oligarchy: Wealth, Power, and Contemporary Indonesian Politics. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publications, pp. 157–75.
Buehler, Michael. 2013. “Married with Children: The Second Round of Direct Elections for Governors and District Heads Shows that Democratisation is Allowing Powerful Families to Entrench Themselves in Local Politics,” Inside Indonesia 112 (April–June), online. Available at
Buehler, Michael. 2012. “Revisiting the Inclusion-Moderation Thesis in the Context of Decentralized Institutions: The Behavior of Indonesia’s Prosperous Justice Party in National and Local Politics.” Party Politics 19, 2: 210–29.
Buehler, Michael. 2011. “Indonesia’s Law on Public Services No. 25/ 2009: Changing State–Society Relations or Continuing Politics as Usual?Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 47, 1: 6586.
Buehler, Michael. 2010. “Decentralisation and Local Democracy in Indonesia: The Marginalisation of the Public Sphere.” In Aspinall, Edward and Mietzner, Marcus. Eds. Problems of Democratisation in Indonesia: Elections, Institutions and Society. Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 267–85.
Buehler, Michael. 2009a. “Islam and Democracy in Indonesia.” Insight Turkey 11, 4: 5163.
Buehler, Michael. 2009b. “The Rising Importance of Personal Networks in Indonesian Local Politics: An Analysis of the District Government Head Elections in South Sulawesi in 2005.” In Erb, Maribeth and Sulistyanto, Priyambudi. Eds. Deepening Democracy in Indonesia: Direct Elections for Local Leaders (Pilkada). Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 101–24.
Buehler, Michael. 2009c. “Suicide and Progress in Modern Nusantara: The Absence of Political Murders in Indonesian Elections,” Inside Indonesia 96 (July–September). Available at
Buehler, Michael. 2008. “Shari’a By-Laws in Indonesian Districts: An Indication for Changing Patterns of Power Accumulation and Political Corruption.” Southeast Asia Research 16, 2: 165–95.
Buehler, Michael. 2007. “Local Elite Reconfiguration in Post-New Order Indonesia: The 2005 Election of District Government Heads in South Sulawesi.” Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 41, 1: 119–47.
Buehler, Michael and Tan, Paige. 2007. “Party-Candidate Relationships in Indonesian Local Politics: A Case Study of the 2005 Regional Elections in Gowa, South Sulawesi Province.” Indonesia 84: 4169.
Burgess, Robin Matthew Hansen, Olken, Benjamin A., Potapov, Peter and Sieber, Stefanie. 2012. “The Political Economy of Deforestation in the Tropics.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 127, 4: 1707–54.
Burstein, Paul and Sausner, Sarah. 2005. “The Incidence and Impact of Policy-Oriented Collective Action: Competing Views.” Sociological Forum 20, 3: 404–19.
Burstein, Paul and Linton, April. 2002. “The Impact of Political Parties, Interest Groups, and Social Movement Organizations on Public Policy: Some Recent Evidence and Theoretical Concerns.” Social Forces 81, 2: 380408.
Bush, Robin. 2009. Nahdlatul Ulama and the Struggle for Power within Islam and Politics in Indonesia. Singapore: ISEAS.
Bush, Robin. 2008. “Regional Sharia Regulations in Indonesia.” In Fealy, Greg and White, Sally. Eds. Expressing Islam. Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 174–91.
Butt, Simon. 2013. “Indonesian Constitutional Court Decisions in Regional Head Electoral Disputes.” CDI Policy Papers on Political Governance. Available at
Cahyono, H. 1992. Peranan ulama dalam Golkar 1971–1980: dari Pemilu sampai Malari. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan.
Camroux, David. 1996. “State Responses to Islamic Resurgence in Malaysia.” Asian Survey 36 (September): 852–68.
Carothers, Thomas. 2002. “The End of the Transition Paradigm.” Journal of Democracy 13, 1: 521.
Cheong, Yong Mun. 1973. Conflicts within the Prijaji World of the Parahyangan in West Java 1914–1927. Singapore: ISEAS.
Chernov Hwang, Julie. 2010. “When Parties Swing: Islamist Parties and Institutional Moderation in Malaysia and Indonesia.” South East Asia Research 18: 635–74.
Clark, Janine Astrid. 2012. “Patronage, Prestige, and Power: The Islamic Center Charity Society’s Political Role within the Muslim Brotherhood.” In Shehata, Samer S.. Ed. Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 6887.
Cochrane, Joe. 2014. “In a Nation of Muslims, Political Islam is Struggling to Win Votes.” The New York Times, 4 April, online. Available at
Collier, David and Mahoney, James. 1996. “Insights and Pitfalls: Selection Bias in Qualitative Research.” World Politics 49, 1: 5691.
Crouch, Melissa. 2011. “Religious ‘Deviancy’ and Law.” Inside Indonesia 105 (July–September). Available at
Crouch, Harold A. 2010. Political Reform in Indonesia after Soeharto. Singapore: ISEAS.
Crouch, Harold. 1978. “Patrimonialism and Military Rule in Indonesia.” World Politics 31, 04: 571–87.
Damanik, AS. 2002. Fenomena Partai Keadilan: Transformasi 20 Tahun Gerakan Tarbiyah di Indonesia [The Justice Party Phenomenon: The Transformation of 20 Years of Tarbiyah Movement in Indonesia]. Jakarta: Penerbit Teraju.
Daniels, Timothy. 2009. Islamic Spectrum in Java, Anthropology and Cultural History in Asia and the Indo-Pacific. Farnham: Ashgate.
Debord, Guy. 1967. The Society of the Spectacle. New York: Black & Red.
De Leon, Cedric, Desai, Manali and Tugal, Cihan. Eds. 2015. Building Blocs: How Parties Organize Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Dengel, Holk H. 1986. Darul-Islam: Kartosuwirjos Kampf um einen islamischen Staat Indonesien. Wiesbaden: Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden.
Denoueux, Guilan. 1993. Urban Unrest in the Middle East: A Comparative Study of Informal Networks in Egypt, Iran and Lebanon. Albany: SUNY Press.
Dewi, Kurniawati Hastuti. 2015. Indonesian Women and Local Politics: Islam, Gender and Networks in Post-Suharto Indonesia. Singapore: NUS Press.
Dhume, Sadanand. 2007. “Step Up the Fight Against Islamism.” Far Eastern Economic Review 170 (July–August): 613.
Direktorat Pendidikan Diniyah dan Pondok Pesantren. 2007. Direktori Pesantren Vol. 1–6 Jakarta: Departmen Agama Republik Indonesia.
Echols, John and Shadily, Hassan. 1989. Kamus Indonesia-Inggris. Jakarta: Penerbit PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
Economist. 2013. “Egypt: Disbanded Brothers.” The Economist (September 25), Available online at
Sri Eddyono, Wiyanti. 2010. “Politicization of Islam During the Democratic Transition: New Challenges for the Indonesian Women’s Movement,” online. Available at
Effendy, Bahtiar. 2003. Islam and the State in Indonesia. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Elaigwu, Isawa J. and Galadima, Habu. 2003. “The Shadow of Sharia over Nigerian Federalism.” Publius, The Journal of Federalism 33, 3: 123–44.
Eligür, Banu. 2010. The Mobilization of Political Islam in Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Elshobaki, Amr. 2012. “The Muslim Brotherhood – Between Evangelizing and Politics: The Challenges of Incorporating the Brotherhood into the Political Process.” In Shehata, Samer S.. Ed. Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 107–19.
Elson, R.E. 2009a. “Another Look at the Jakarta Charter Controversy of 1945.” Indonesia 88: 105–30.
Elson, R.E. 2009b. “Disunity, Distance, Disregard: The Political Failure of Islamism in Late Colonial Indonesia.” Studia Islamika 16, 1: 150.
Elson, R.E. 2007. “Islam, Islamism, the Nation, and the Early Indonesian Nationalist Movement.” Journal of Indonesian Islam 1, 2: 231–66.
Ensering, E. 1987. “De traditionele en hedendaagse rol van lokale religieuze leiders in de Preanger, West-Java.” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde 143, 2–3: 267–92.
Esposito, John L. and Voll, John O.. 1996. Islam and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Esposito, John L. 1986. “Sudan’s Islamic Experiment.” The Muslim World 76, 3–4: 181202.
Fajar, , 2010. “Antara Ada dan Tiada,” Fajar, January 12: 15.
Fajar, , 2010. “KAMMI Bentuk Pemantau Pilkada,” Fajar, January 2: 7.
Fajar, . 2008. “Ilham Pastikan Wakilnya Bukan Politisi: Adil Bertemu Mubyl Handaling.” Fajar February 19: 6.
Fajar, . 2006. PKS Ingin Duetkan Aska dengan Tamsil. July 26: 10.
Fajar, . 2006. Pendiri Pesantren Darul Istiqamah Berpulang. June 28: 26.
Fealy, Greg. 2010. “Front Stage with the PKS.” Inside Indonesia 101 (July–September). Available at
Fealy, Greg. 2009. ‘‘Indonesia’s Islamic Parties in Decline,’’ Inside Story, May 11. Available at
Fealy, Greg. 2002. Radical Islam in Indonesia. From Terrorism to Revolution – The Jihadist Threat to Regime Survival in Societies: Historical Cases and Current Prospects. Washington DC: n.a.
Fealy, Greg. 1998. “Ulama and Politics in Indonesia: A History of Nahdlatul Ulama, 1952–1967.” Unpublished PhD dissertation, Monash University.
Federspiel, Howard M. 2001. Islam and Ideology in the Emerging Indonesian State: The Persatuan Islam (Persis) 1923 – 1957. Leiden: Brill.
Feener, R. Michael. 2013. Shari’a and Social Engineering: The Implementation of Islamic Law in Contemporary Aceh, Indonesia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Feith, Herbert. 1962. The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Feith, Herbert and Lev, Daniel S.. 1963. “The End of the Indonesian Rebellion”, Pacific Affairs 36 (Spring): 3246.
Feillard, Andrée. 1995. Islam et armée dans l’Indonésie contemporaine. Paris: L’Harmattan.
Feillard, Andrée et Rémy Madinier. 2006. L’islam Indonésien Face à la Tentation Radicale de 1967 à nos Jours. Paris: Institut de Recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est Contemporaine.
Ferdhi Gamal dan Nurul H. Maarif 2006. “Depancasilaisasi Lewat Perda SI” [De-Pancasilaization via Syariah Regulations]. Gatra. April 29. Available at
Fish, M. Steven. 2002. “Islam and Authoritarianism.” World Politics 55, 1: 437.
Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. 1990. “Islamization in Sudan.” Middle East Journal 44 (Autumn): 610–23.
Fogg, Kevin W. 2012. “The Fate of Muslim Nationalism in Independent Indonesia.” Unpublished PhD dissertation, Yale University.
Fording, Richard C. 2001. “The Political Response to Black Insurgency: A Critical Test of Competing Theories of the State.” American Political Science Review. 95, 1: 115–30.
Ford, Michele and Pepinsky, Tom. Eds. 2014. Beyond Oligarchy: Wealth, Power, and Contemporary Indonesian Politics. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publications
Gamson, William A. 1975. The Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood: Dorsey Press.
Gatra, . 2004. Mengusir Jin Menyucikan Batin [Getting rid of the Jin to purify the mind] Gatra, September 18: 16.
Geddes, Barbara. 1990. “How the Cases You Choose Affect the Answers You Get: Selection Bias in Comparative Politics.” Political Analysis 2, 1: 131–50.
George, Alexander L. and Bennett, Andrew. 2005. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge: BCSIA.
Ghadbian, Najib. 1997. Democratization and the Islamist Challenge in the Arab World. Boulder: Westview Press.
Gianie, . 2009. “Sulawesi Selatan: Ancaman Paceklik di Lumbung Politik,” Kompas (February 23), 8.
Gibson, Edward. 2005. “Boundary Control: Subnational Authoritarianism in Democratic Countries.” World Politics 58, 1: 101–32.
Giraudy, Augustina. 2015. Democrats and Autocrats: Pathways of Subnational Undemocratic Regime Continuity within Democratic Countries. New York: Oxford University Press.
Giugni, Marco G. 2007. “Useless Protest? A Time-Series Analysis of the Policy Outcome of Ecology, Antinuclear, and Peace Movements in the United States, 1977–1995.” Mobilization 12: 5377.
Giugni, Marco G. 1999. “How Social Movements Matter: Past Research, Present Problems, Future Developments.” In Giugni, Marco, McAdam, Doug and Tilly, Charles. Eds. How Social Movements Matter. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. xixxxiii.
Giugni, Marco G. 1998. “Was it Worth the Effort? The Outcomes and Consequences of Social Movements.” Annual Review of Sociology 24: 371–93.
Giugni, Marco and Yamasaki, Sakura. 2009. “The Policy Impact of Social Movements: A Replication Through Qualitative Comparative Analysis.” Mobilization: An International Quarterly 14, 4: 467–84.
Giugni, Marco, McAdam, Doug and Tilly, Charles. Eds. 1999. How Social Movements Matter. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Goldstone, Jack A. 2003. States, Parties, and Social Movements. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goodwin, Jeff. 2011. “Why We Were Surprised (again) by the Arab Spring.” Swiss Political Science Review 17, 4: 452–6.
Gotō, Kenʼichi. 1971. “Local Politics in Indonesia: The Case of West Java.” Unpublished PhD dissertation, Cornell University.
Green, Donald P. and Shapiro, Ian. 1994. Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory: A Critique of Applications in Political Science. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Gultom, Aldi. 2012. “Inilah Maklumat Politik FPI Jakarta Untuk Pilgub DKI: Djanjurkan Tidak Memilih Calon Non-Muslim.” Rakyat Merdeka, August 27. Available
Gunawan, Anton H. and Siregar, Reza Y.. 2009. “Survey of Recent Developments.” Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 45, 1: 938.
Hadi, Samsul MH. 2004. “Prediksi Pemilu di Banten Tiga Pilar Penentu Suara * Pemilihan Umum 2004.” Kompas (February 10): 1.
Hadiz, Vedi. 2011. “No Turkish Delight: The Impasse of Islamic Party Politics in Indonesia.” Indonesia 92 (October): 118.
Hadiz, Vedi. 2010. Localising Power in Post-Authoritarian Indonesia: A Southeast Asian Perspective. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Hadiz, Vedi R. 2004. “Indonesian Local Party Politics: A Site of Resistance to Neoliberal Reform.” Critical Asian Studies 36: 615–36.
Hadiz, Vedi R. and Teik, Khoo Boo. 2011. “Approaching Islam and Politics from Political Economy: A Comparative Study of Indonesia and Malaysia.” The Pacific Review. 24, 4: 463–85.
Hadiz, Vedi R. and Robison, Richard. 2004. Reorganising Power in Indonesia: The Politics of Oligarchy in an Age of Markets. London: Routledge.
Hallaq, Wael B. 2009. Shari’a between Past and Present: Theory, Practice and Modern Transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hale, Henry E. 2006. Why Not Parties in Russia? Democracy, Federalism, and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hale, Henry E. 2003. “Explaining Machine Politics in Russia’s Regions: Economy, Ethnicity, and Legacy.” Post-Soviet Affairs 19, 3: 228–63.
Hamayotsu, Kikue. 2012. “A House for All Muslims?” Inside Indonesia 108 (April–June). Available at
Hamayotsu, Kikue. 2011. “The End of Political Islam? A Comparative Analysis of Religious Parties in the Muslim Democracy of Indonesia.” Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 30, 3: 133–59.
Harijanto, Christian. 2010 “The Convergence of Democracy, De-Islamization of Formal Politics, and Sharia in Post-1998 Indonesia.” Unpublished manuscript. Available at,_Christian_1_.pdf.
Harvey, Barbara S. 1974. Tradition, Islam and Rebellion: South Sulawesi, 1950–1965. Ithaca: Cornell University.
Harnischfeger, Johannes. 2008. Democratization and Islamic Law: The Sharia Conflict in Nigeria. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Hasan, Aswar. 2008. “PKS: Partai Kroni Soeharto.” Tribun Timur (December 18): 2.
Hasan, Noorhaidi. 2007. Islamic Militancy, Sharia, and Democratic Consolidation in Post-Suharto Indonesia. IDSS Working Papers, 143. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.
Hasan, Noorhaidi. 2006. Laskar Jihad: Islam, Militancy, and the Quest for Identity in Post-New Order Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Hasan, Noorhaidi. 2000. “In Search of Identity: The Contemporary Islamic Communities in Southeast Asia.” Studia Islamika 7, 3: 67110.
Hasan-Askari, Rizvi. 1974. The Military and Politics in Pakistan. Karachi: Progressive Publishers.
Hasani, Ismail. 2012. Laporan Pemantauan Kondisi Pemenuhan Hak-Hak Konstitusional Perempuan di 16 Kabupaten/Kota Pada 7 Provinsi [Assessment Report on the Compliance of 16 Districts/Municipalities in 7 Provinces with the Constitutional Rights of Women]. Jakarta: Komnas Perempuan.
Hasani, Ismail and Naipospos, Bonar Tigar. 2010. The Faces of Islam ‘Defenders’: Religion Radicalism and its Implications on Assurance of Religious/Belief Freedom in Jabotabek and West Java. Jakarta: Setara Institute.
Hassan, Riaz. 1985. “Islamization: An Analysis of Religious, Political and Social Change in Pakistan.” Middle Eastern Studies 21 (July): 263–84.
Hasyim, Syafiq. 2013. Council of Indonesia (Majelis Ulama Indonesia, MUI) and its Role in the Shariatisation of Indonesia. Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin.
Hefner, Robert. Ed. 2011. Shari’a Politics: Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
Hefner, Robert. 2010. “Religious Resurgence in Contemporary Asia: Southeast Asian Perspectives on Capitalism, the State, and the New Piety.” Journal of Asian Studies 69, 4: 1031–47.
Hefner, Robert. 2003. “Islamizing Capitalism: On the Founding of Indonesia’s First Islamic Bank.” In Salim, Arskal and Azra, Azyumardi. Eds. Shari’a and Politics in Modern Indonesia. Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 148–67.
Hefner, Robert. 2000. Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hefner, Robert. 1987. “The Political Economy of Islamic Conversion in Modern East Java.” In Roff, William R.. Ed. Islam and the Political Economy of Meaning. London: Croom Helm, pp. 5378.
Heiduk, Felix. 2012. “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Radical Islam in Post-Suharto Indonesia.” International Journal of Conflict and Violence 6, 1: 2640.
Heydemann, Steven and Leenders, Reinoud. 2013. Middle Eastern Authoritarianisms: Governance, Contestation, and Regime Resilience in Syria and Iran. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Hicks, Jacqueline. 2012. “The Missing Link: Explaining the Political Mobilisation of Islam in Indonesia.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 42, 1: 3966.
Hindley, Donald. 1972. “Indonesia 1971: Pantjasila Democracy and the Second Parliamentary Elections.” Asian Survey 12, 1: 5668.
Hindley, Donald. 1966. The Communist Party of Indonesia: 1951–1963. Berkeley: The University of California Press.
Holike, Christine. 2008. Geschlechterpolitik in Indonesien: Der Einzug der Scharia in die regionale Gesetzgebung. Berlin: Regiospectra.
Hookway, James. 2012. “Moderate Islamic Preachers Gain Followers in Indonesia.” The Wall Street Journal. October 10. Available at
Horikoshi, Hiroko. 1976. “A Traditional Leader in a Time of Change: The ‘Kijaji’ and ‘Ulama’ in West Java.” Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign.
Horikoshi, Hiroko. 1975. “The Dar Ul-Islam Movement in West Java (1948–1962): An Experience in the Historical Process.” Indonesia 20 (October): 5986.
Husken, F. and White, B.. 1989. “Java: Social Differentiation, Food Production, and Agrarian Control.” In Hart, G., Turton, A. and White, B.. Eds. Agrarian Transformations: Local Processes and the State in Southeast Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 235–65.
Ibrahim, Anis, Sirajuddin, Nuruddin Hady Sholahuddin, Umar. 2009. Parlemen Lokal DPRD: Peran dan Fungsi dalam Dinamika Otonomi Daerah [Local Parliaments DPRD: Their Role and Function in the Context of Regional Autonomy]. Malang: Setara Press.
Ichwan, Moch Nur. 2013. “Toward a Puritanical Moderate Islam: The Majelis Ulama Indonesia and the Politics of Religious Orthodoxy.” In van Bruinessen, Martin. Ed. Contemporary Developments in Indonesian Islam: Explaining the “Conservative Turn.” Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 60104.
Ilham, . 2013a. “Demi IA, Noer Namry Siap Dikeluarkan dari PPP,” Tribun Timur, August 31, online. Available at
Ilham, . 2013b. “KPPSI Sulsel Dukung Paket Ilham-Aziz Kahar,” Tribun Timur, August 4, online. Available at
Ilham, . 2012. “Aziz: Jangan Biarkan Pemerintahan Dipegang Orang Sekular,” Tribun Timur, August 7, online. Available at
International Crisis Group (ICG). 2012. “Indonesia: From Vigilantism to Terrorism in Cirebon,” Asia Briefing, 132. Jakarta: International Crisis Group.
International Crisis Group (ICG). 2010. “Indonesia: ‘Christianisation’ and Intolerance.” Asia Briefing. 114. Jakarta: International Crisis Group.
International Crisis Group (ICG). 2005. “Recyling Militants in Indonesia: Darul Islam and the Australian Embassy Bombing.” Asia Briefing. 92. Jakarta: International Crisis Group.
International Crisis Group (ICG). 2004. “Indonesia Backgrounder: Why Salafism and Terrorism Mostly Don’t Mix.” Asia Report. 83. Jakarta: International Crisis Group.
International Crisis Group (ICG). 2003. “Jemaah Islamiyah in Southeast Asia: Damaged but still DangerousAsia Report. 63. Jakarta: International Crisis Group.
International Crisis Group (ICG). 2002. “Al-Qaeda in Southeast Asia: The Case of the ‘Ngruki Network’ in Indonesia.” Asia Briefing 20. Jakarta: International Crisis Group.
International Security Agency. 2010. “Consolidation of the Structure.” International Security Agency, online. Available at
Institut Manajemen Zakat (IMZ). 2009. Kompilasi 20 perda zakat: kabupaten/ kota dan provinsi di Indonesia [A Compilation of 20 Zakat Local Regulations: Districts/ Municipalities and Provinces in Indonesia]. Ciputat: Divisi Publikasi Institut Manajemen Zakat.
Institute for Policy Analysis of Conflict (IPAC). 2013. “Weak, Therefore Violent: The Mujahidin of Western Indonesia.” IPAC Report No. 5 (December 2). Available at
Irianto, Edi Slamet. 2006. “Pengantar: Islam, Barat, dan politik kebangsaan: Rekonstruksi gerakan Islam local.” In Jurdi, Syarifuddin, Ed. Islam dan Politik Lokal. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Cendekia Press.
Ismail, Salwa. 2000. “The Popular Movement Dimensions of Contemporary Militant Islamism: Socio-Spatial Determinants in the Cairo Urban Setting.” Comparative Studies in History and Society 42, 2: 363–93.
Globe, Jakarta. 2014. “Jakarta High Court Increases Ahmad Fathanah Prison Sentence to 16 Years,” The Jakarta Globe, March 26, online. Available at
Jamal, Erizal and Dewi, Yovita Anggita. 2009. “Technical Efficiency of Land Tenure Contracts in West Java Province, Indonesia.” Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development 6, 2: 21.
Janoski, Thomas, Alford, Robert, Hicks, Aleksander, and Schwartz, Mildred A.. 2005. The Handbook of Political Sociology: States, Civil Society, and Globalization. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Jenkins, J. Craig and Perrow, Charles. 1977. “Insurgency of the Powerless: Farm Worker Movements (1946–1972).” American Sociological Review 42, 2 (April): 249–68.
Jourde, Cédric. 2005. “ ‘The President Is Coming to Visit!’: Dramas and the Hijack of Democratization in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania.” Comparative Politics 4 (July): 421–40.
JPPR. 2008. Data Pasangan Calon Bupati/ Walikota Pilkada 2005 s/d 2008. Jakarta: Jaringan Pendidikan Pemilih untuk Rakyat.
Juhanis, Hamdan. 2006. “The Struggle for Formalist Islam in South Sulawesi: From Darul Islam (DI) to Komite Persiapan Penegakan Syariat Islam (KPPSI).” Unpublished PhD Thesis. Canberra: Australian National University.
Jung, Eunsook. 2014. “Islamic Organizations and Electoral Politics in Indonesia: The Case of Muhammadiyah.” South East Asia Research 22, 1: 7386.
Kahin, Audrey. 1974. “Some Preliminary Observations on West Sumatra during the Revolution”, Indonesia 18 (October): 76117.
Kahin, George. 1970. “Preface,” in Ward, Ken. Ed. The Foundation of the Partai Muslimin Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Project, pp. 78.
Kahin, George. 1952. Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Kalyvas, Stathis N. 2000. “Commitment Problems in Emerging Democracies: The Case of Religious Parties.” Comparative Politics 32, 4: 379–98.
Kalyvas, Stathis N. 1996. The Rise of Christian Democracy in Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Kambie, AS. 2012. “Aziz Ceramah Subuh di Bantaeng,” Tribun Timur, February 15, online. Available at
Karch, Andrew. 2007. “Emerging Issues and Future Directions in State Policy Diffusion Research.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 7, 1: 5480.
Karim, Muhammad Rusli. 1997. HMI-MPO dalam Kemelut Modernisasi Politik di Indonesia. Bandung: Mizan.
Kendhammer, Brandon. 2013. “The Sharia Controversy in Northern Nigeria and the Politics of Islamic Law in New and Uncertain Democracies.” Comparative Politics 45, 3: 291311.
Khan, Shandana Mohamad. 2014. “Losing the Connection: Party-Voter Linkages in Pakistan.” Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 52, 1: 731.
Keppel, Giles. 2000. Jihad, expansion et déclin de l’islamisme. Paris: Gallimard.
Kimura, Ehito. 2013. Political Change and Territoriality in Indonesia: Provincial Proliferation. London: Routledge.
King, Dwight. 2003. Half-Hearted Reform: Electoral Institutions and the Struggle for Democracy in Indonesia. Westport: Praeger.
Kitschelt, Herbert. 2000. “Linkages between Citizens and Politicians in Democratic Polities.” Comparative Political Studies 33, 6–7: 845–79.
Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I.. 2007. Patrons, Clients and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kompas, . 2010. Kepemimpinan: Calon Birokrat Tidak Jamin Kemajuan. November 18: 1.
Kompas, . 2009. “Peta Politik: Partai Keadilan Sejahtera*Mosaik Pluralitas Muslim Perkotaan,” Kompas, March 24, 8.
Kompas, . 2007. “Pilkada: Etnik, Genetik, dan Program di Sulsel.” November 5: 24.
Kompas, . 2006. Reformasi Militer: Larangan TNI Ikuti Pilkada Tunjukkan Ketegasan. November 25: 4.
Kompas, . 2005. Judi Akan Musnah * Jika Dalam Sepekan Tidak Ada Tindakan dari Polisi. July 13, 2005: 27.
Kompas, . 2005. Massa Ormas Islam Datangi PN Cianjur. May 17: 19.
Kompas, . 2004. Partai Politik Islam dan Pemilihan Umum 2004, January 16: 8.
Kompas, . 2002. Pemilihan Bupati Banyumas, PDI-P Minta Rp 250 Juta: Sanksi Tidak Efektif Untuk Mencegah Politik Uang. August 20: 25.
Kompas, . 2002. Kemelut Soal Kepala Daerah: Antara Pemilihan Langsung Dan Cari Keseimbangan Baru. May 11: 8.
Kompas, . 2002. Soal Hukuman Agus Dwikarna: DPRD Sulsel Tawarkan Tiga Opsi Penyelesaian. July 17: 26.
Kompas, . 2002. Agus Dwikarna Diketahui Pernah Masuki Mindanao. March 18: 11.
Kompas, . 2002. Penangkapan Warga Indonesia di Manila DPP PAN, PAN siap bantu, KPPSI tunggu kejelasan. March 17: 1.
Kompas, . 2001. PDI-P Tak Paksakan Kadernya Jadi Kepala Daerah. January 10: 6.
Kompas, . 2000. Tajuk Rencana: Ihklas Berkorban, Semangat Yang Perlu Kita Tunjukkan Sekarang. March 15: 4.
Kompas, . 2000. Politik Uang Pemilihan Kepala Daerah: Anggota Dewan, Kiri-Kanan Oke. March 14: 7.
Kompas, . 1999. Mendagri Cabut SK No 53/1999. December 3: 24.
Kompas, . 1998. Dr PJ Soewarno: UU No 3/1950 Berlaku Untuk DI Yogyakarta. August 15: 8.
Kompas, . 1996. Ahli Agama Bukan Pilihan Satu-Satunya [A Religious Expert is Not the Only Option]. October14: 21.
Kompas, . 1994. Pabrik Kertas Gowa Berhenti Produksi. December 12: 2.
Kompas, . 1988. “Kongres HMI” di Yogya Memilih Ketua Baru. July 7: 8.
Kompas, . 2002. Tindak Lanjut Peledakan Bom di Makassar: 18 Saksi Diperiksa, 2 Orang Diduga Calon Tersangka. December 9: 1.
Köker, Levent. 1995. “Local Politics and Democracy in Turkey: An Appraisal.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 540: 5162.
Kriesi, Hanspeter and Wisler, Dominique. 1999. “The Impact of Social Movements on Political Institutions: A Comparison of the Introduction of Direct Legislation in Switzerland and the United States.” In Giugni, Marco, McAdam, Doug and Tilly, Charles. Eds. How Social Movements Matter. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 4265.
KPPSI. 2005. Ikhtiar Menuju Darusslam: Perjuangan Menegakkan Syariat Islam di Sulawesi Selatan. Jakarta: Pustaka AR-Rayhan.
Kristiansen, Stein Agus Dwiyanto, Pamusinto, Agus, and Putranto, Erwan Agus.2009. “Public Sector Reforms and Financial Transparency: Experiences from Indonesian Districts.” Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs 31, 1: 6487.
Künkler, Mirjam and Stepan, Alfred. Eds. 2013. Democracy and Islam in Indonesia. New York City: Columbia University Press.
Lasswell, Harold Dwight. 1956. The Decision Process: Seven Categories of Functional Analysis. College Park, Maryland: University of Maryland Press.
Laakso, Markuu and Taagepera, Rein. 1979. “Effective Number of Parties: A Measure with Application to West Europe.” Comparative Political Studies 12: 327.
Langhor, Vicky. 2001. “Of Islamists and Ballot Boxes: Rethinking the Relationship between Islamism and Electoral Politics.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 33, 4: 591610.
Legge, John David. 1961. Central Authority and Regional Autonomy in Indonesia: A Study in Local Administration, 1950–1960. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Lev, Daniel S. 1966. The Transition to Guided Democracy: Indonesian Politics, 1957–1959. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Lewis, Blane. 2003. “Tax and Charge Creation by Regional Governments under Fiscal Decentralisation: Estimates and Explanations.” Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 39 (August): 177–93.
Liow, Joseph Chinyong. 2009. Piety and Politics: Islamism in Contemporary Malaysia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Liow, Joseph Chinyong. 2004. “Political Islam in Malaysia: Problematising discourse and practice in the UMNO-PAS ‘Islamisation race’.” Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 42, 2: 184205.
Liddle, R. William and Mujani, Saiful. 2007. “Leadership, Party, and Religion: Explaining Voting Behavior in Indonesia.” Comparative Political Studies 40, 7: 832–57.
Liddle, R. William. 1996. “The Islamic Turn in Indonesia: A Political Explanation.” Journal of Asian Studies 55: 613–34.
Lindsey, Timothy. 2008. “When Words Fail: Syariah Law In Indonesia – Revival, Reform or Transplantation?” In Nicholson, Pip and Biddulph, Sarah. Eds. Examining Practice, Interrogating Theory: Comparative Legal Studies in Asia. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff & Brill, pp. 195221.
Lipset, Seymour Martin and Rokkan, Stein. 1967. Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross-National Perspectives. New York: The Free Press.
Longley, A. 2007. “The High Water Mark of Islamist Politics? The Case of Yemen.” Middle East Journal 61: 240–60.
Lubis, Nina H. 1998. Kehidupan Kaum Menak Priangan, 1800–1942. Bandung: Pusat Informasi Kebudayaan Sunda.
Luebeck, Paul M. 2011. “Nigeria: Mapping a Shari’a Restorationist Movement.” In Hefner, Robert. Ed. Shari’a Politics: Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 244–79.
Lust-Oskar, Ellen. 2001. “The Decline of Jordanian Political Parties: Myth or Reality?International Journal of Middle East Studies 33, 4: 545–69.
Lukito, Ratno. 2003. “Law and Politics in Post-Independence Indonesia: A Case Study of Religious and Adat Courts.” In Arskal, Salim and Azra, Azyumardi. Eds. Shari’a and Politics in Modern Indonesia. Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 1732.
Machmudi, Yon. 2008. Islamising Indonesia: The Rise of Jemaah Tarbiyah and the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS). Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Maftuhin, Arif. 2007. “Secular Parties and Islamization in Indonesia: The Legacy of Soeharto.” Unpublished MA thesis. Seattle: The University of Washington.
Magadia, Jose J. 2003. State-Society Dynamics: Policy Making in a Restored Democracy. Manila: Ateneo University Press.
Magenda, Burhan Djaber. 1989. “The Surviving Aristocracy in Indonesia: Politics in Three Provinces of the Outer Islands.” Unpublished PhD thesis. Ithaca: Cornell University.
Mahoney, James. 2000. “Strategies of Causal Inference in Small-N Analysis.” Sociological Methods and Research 28, 4: 387424.
Makruf, Jamhari and Halimatussa’diyah, Iim. 2014. “Shari’a and Regional Governance in Indonesia: A Study of Four Provinces.” Australian Journal of Asian Law 15, 1: 115.
Malley, Michael. 1999. “Resources Distribution, State Coherence, and the Changing Level of Political Centralization in Indonesia, 1950–1997.” Unpublished PhD dissertation. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Makaliwe, , 1969. “An Economic Survey of South Sulawesi.” Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 5, 2: 1820.
Massicard, Elise. 2009. “L’Islamisme turc à l‘épreuve du pouvoir municipal. Production d’espaces, pratiques de gouvernement et gestion des societies locales.” Critique Internationale 42 (January–March): 2138.
Mattulada, . 1976. Islam di Sulawesi Selatan. Jakarta: Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia.
Maulana, Indra. 2006. “Cianjur: Menanti Langkah Bupati Baru.” Kompas. March 22: 4.
McAdam, Doug, McCarthy, John D. and Mayer, Zald N.. Eds. 1996. Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McGibbon, Rodd. 2006. “Indonesian Politics in 2006: Stability, Compromise and Shifting Contests over Ideology.” Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 42: 321–40.
McLeod, Ross. 2005. “The Struggle to Regain Effective Government under Democracy in Indonesia.” Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 43, 1: 367–86.
McLeod, Ross H. 2000. “Soeharto’s Indonesia: A Better Class of Corruption.” Agenda 7, 2: 99112.
McMann, Kelly. 2006. Economic Autonomy and Democracy: Hybrid Regimes in Russia and Kyrgyzstan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McVey, Ruth. 2006. The Rise of Indonesian Communism. Singapore: Equinox Publishing.
McVey, Ruth. 1983. “Faith as the Outsider: Islam in Indonesian Politics.” In Piscatori, James. Ed. Islam in the Political Process. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 199225.
Media Indonesia. 2006. Hak Pilih TNI Tunggu Masukan Pangdam. September 22: 7.
Messick, Brinkley. 1993. The Calligraphic State. Berkeley and London: University of California Press.
Meyer, David S. 2004. “Protest and Political Opportunities.” Annual Review of Sociology. 30: 125–45.
Meyer, David S. and Minkoff, Debra C.. 2004. “Conceptualizing Political Opportunity.” Social Forces 82, 4: 1457–92.
Mietzner, Marcus. 2013. Money, Power, and Ideology: Political Parties in Post-Authoritarian Indonesia. Honolulu, Singapore and Copenhagen: Hawaii University Press.
Mietzner, Marcus. 2009. “Indonesia and the Pitfalls of Low-Quality Democracy: A Case Study of the Gubernatorial Elections in North Sulawesi.” In Ufen, Andreas and Buente, Marco. Eds. Democratization in Post-Suharto Indonesia. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 124–49.
Mietzner, Marcus. 2008. “Comparing Indonesia’s Party Systems of the 1950s and the Post-Suharto Era: From Centrifugal to Centripetal Inter-Party Competition.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 39, 3: 431–53.
Mietzner, Marcus. 2007. “Party Financing in post-Soeharto Indonesia: Between State Subsidies and Political Corruption.” Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs 29, 2: 238–63.
Migdal, Joel S. 1988. Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mills, C. Wright. 1956. The Power Elite. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA). 2013. Pembentukan Daerah-Daerah Otonom di Indonesia sampai dengan Tahun 2013. Jakarta: Depdagri. Available at
Mitchell, Timothy. 1991. “The Limits of the State: Beyond Statist Approaches and Their Critics.” The American Political Science Review 85, 1: 7796.
Moaddel, Mansoor. 2002. “The Study of Islamic Culture and Politics: An Overview and Assessment.” Annual Review of Sociology 28: 359–86.
Mohamad, Maznah. 2010. “The Ascendance of Bureaucratic Islam and the Secularization of the Sharia in Malaysia.” Pacific Affairs 83, 3 (September): 505–24.
Mooney, Christopher Z. 2000. “The Decline of Federalism and the Rise of Morality-Policy Conflict in the United States.” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 30, 1: 171188.
Morell, Elizabeth. 2005. “Re-Drawing Sulawesi’s Map: New Provincial Borders Don’t Solve Old Problems.” Inside Indonesia 82: 1819.
Mudzakkir, Amin. 2012. “Dinamika Islam Politik Pasca Orde Baru dan Jemaat Ahmadiyah Indonesia (JAI) di Cianjur, Jawa Barat.” Available at
Mudzakkir, Amin. 2008. “Politik Muslim dan Ahmadiyah di Indonesia Pasca Soeharto: Kasus Cianjur dan Tasikmalaya.” Available at
Muhtada, Dani. 2014. “The Mechanisms of Policy Diffusion: A Comparative Study of Shari’a Regulations in Indonesia.” Unpublished PhD thesis. Dekalb: Northern Illinois University.
Mujani, Saiful and Liddle, R. William. 2009. “Muslim Indonesia’s Secular Democracy.” Asian Survey 49, 4: 575590.
Mujiburrahman, . 2013. “The Politics of Shariah: The Struggle of the KPPSI in South Sulawesi.” In van Bruinessen, Martin. Ed. Contemporary Developments in Indonesian Islam: Explaining the “Conservative Turn.” Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 145189.
Mukhopadhyay, Dipali. 2014. Warlords, Strongman Governors, and the State in Afghanistan. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Nainggolan, Bestian 2009a. “Peta Politik: Sulawesi – Merangkai Konfigurasi Baru Penguasaan Politik.” Kompas. February 27: 8.
Nainggolan, Bestian. 2009b. “Peta Politik: Sumatera* Runtuhnya Benteng Penguasaan Partai.” Kompas. February 13: 8.
Nakamura, Mitsuo. 2005. “Islam and Democracy in Indonesia.” Islamist Legal Studies Program Harvard Law School (December). Available at
Nasr, Reza Vali. 2001. Islamic Leviathan. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nirzalin, . 2012. “Islamic Shari’a Politics and Teungku Dayah’s Political Authority Crisis in Aceh.” Jurnal Studi Pemerintahan 3, 2: 211–34.
Noer, Deliar. 1987. Partai Islam di Pentas Nasional 1966–1969. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
Noer, Deliar. 1973. The Modernist Muslim Movement in Indonesia, 1900–1942. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Noor, Farish. 2014. “Indonesia’s Presidential Election: Jaafar Umar Thalib’s ‘Jihad Against Pluralism’.” RSIS Commentaries 115 (June). Available at
Noor, Farish. 2011. “The PKS in the Landscape of Indonesian Islamist Politics: Cadre-Training as Mode of Preventive Radicalisation?” Working Paper 143. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.
Noor, Farish A. 2003. “Blood, Sweat and Jihad: The Radicalization of the Political Discourse of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) from 1982 Onwards,” Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs 25, 2: 200–32.
Nordholt, Henk Schulte and Van Klinken, Gerry. 2007. Renegotiating Boundaries. Local Politics in Post-Suharto Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Ockey, James. 2000. “The Rise of Local Power in Thailand: Provincial Crime, Elections and the Bureaucracy.” In McVey, Ruth. Ed. Money and Power in Provincial Thailand. Copenhagen: NIAS.
Olle, John. 2009. “The Majelis Ulama Indonesia versus ‘Heresy’: The Resurgence of Authoritarian Islam.” In van Klinken, Gerry and Barker, Joshua. Eds. State of Authority: The State in Society in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publications, pp. 95116.
Panebianco, Angelo. 1988. Political Parties: Organization and Power. London and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Pargeter, Alison. 2009. “Localism and Radicalization in North Africa.” International Affairs 85 (September): 1031–44.
Parsons, Nicholas and Mietzner, Marcus. 2009. “Sharia Local Regulations in Indonesia.” Australian Journal of Asian Law 11: 190217.
Pasotti, Eleonora. 2009. Political Branding in Cities: The Decline of Machine Politics in Bogotá, Naples and Chicago. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rakyat, Pedoman. 1977. Mobil untuk Kontestan Pemilu dan Pramuka, January 20: 1.
Rakyat, Pedoman. 1972. PT Inco Lakukan Pemboran Nikel di Kendari Bagian Selatan. August 13: 2.
Rakyat, Pedoman. 1971. Partai Murba Madjalengka bubarkan diri, lalu masuk Golkar. May 28: 2.
Rakyat, Pedoman. 1971. Di Sulsel terdapat 4 buah Tarekat. May 26: 1.
Rakyat, Pedoman. 1971. Rame2 Masuk Golkar di Bone. Seorang Kijai Berpengaruh dan Seorang Muballigh Kawakan Menjatakan Diri dan Pengikut2nja Masuk Golkar. April 23: 2.
Rakyat, Pedoman. 1971. BKDH Gowa sehrakan sumbangan kepada Parpol dan Golkar. January 26: 2.
Rakyat, Pedoman. 1968. Objek Landreform di Sulsel Meliputi 35.016, 53 ha: 43.486, 86 ha Telah Diredistribusikan kepada 63.367 Petani. April 6: 2.
Rakyat, Pedoman. 1968. Pabrik Kertas Gowa Tidak Dapat Lagi Subsidi. April 16: 1.
Rakyat, Pedoman. 1964. Landreform di Dat. II Soppeng: 168 Orang Penggarap Mendjadi Pemilik Baru. April 20: 2.
Pelras, Christian. 2000. “Patron-Client Ties Among the Bugis and Makassarese of South Sulawesi.” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 156, 3: 393432.
Pelras, Christian. 1996. The Bugis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pelras, Christian. 1981. “Patron-Client Ties Among the Bugis and Makassarese of South Sulawesi.” In Tol, Roger, van Dijk, Kees and Acciaioli, Greg. Eds. 2000. Authority and Enterprise Among the Peoples of South Sulawesi. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Pepinsky, Thomas. 2012. “The Limits of the Indonesian Model,” online. Available at
Pepinsky, Thomas. 2009. Economic Crises and the Breakdown of Authoritarian Regimes: Indonesia and Malaysia in Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Permata, Ahmad-Norma and Kailani, Najib. 2010. Islam and the 2009 Indonesian Elections, Political and Cultural Issues: The Case of the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS). Bangkok: IRASEC.
Pincus, Jonathan. 1996. Class Power and Agrarian Change: Land and Labour in Rural West Java. London: St. Martin’s Press.
Pisani, Elizabeth and Buehler, Michael. 2016. “Why do Indonesian politicians promote shari’a laws? An analytic framework for Muslim-majority democracies.” Third World Quarterly, (forthcoming).
Piven, Frances Fox and Cloward, Richard. 1977. Poor People’s Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail. New York: Random House.
Platzdasch, Bernhard. 2009a. Islamism in Indonesia: Politics in the Emerging Democracy. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Platzdasch, Bernhard. 2009b. “Down but Not Out: Islamic Political Parties Did Not Do Well, but Islamic Politics are Going Mainstream.” Inside Indonesia 97 (July–September). Available at
Poggi, Gianfranco. 1978. The Development of the Modern State: A Sociological Introduction. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Poulantzas, Nicos. 1975. Classes in Contemporary Capitalism. London: Verso Books.
Pradadimara, Dias and Junedding, Burhaman. 2002. “Who is Calling for Islamic Law: The Struggle to Implement Islamic Law in South Sulawesi.” Inside Indonesia 72. Available at
Arientha, Primanita. 2010. “Suburbs a Hotbed for Religious Strife.” The Jakarta Globe (19 July), online. Available at
Pringle, Robert. 2012. Understanding Islam in Indonesia: Politics and Diversity. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Przeworski, Adam and Sprague, John. 1986. Paper Stones: A History of Electoral Socialism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Rachman, Noer Fauzi. 2011. “The Resurgence of Land Reform Policy and Agrarian Movements in Indonesia.” Unpublished PhD thesis. Berkeley: University of California.
Rachman, Feizal. 2006. “Kiai dan Pemilihan Kepala Daerah: Studi Terhadap Keterlibatan Kiai dalam Proses Pemilihan Kepala Daerah Secara Langsung Tahun 2006 di Kabupaten Tasikmalaya.” PhD thesis. Tesis Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia.
Sukabumi, Radar. 2012. “Ketua FPI Sukabumi Dukung Yance.” Radar Sukabumi, online (December 15). Available at
Raillon, François. 1984. Les étudiants indonésiens et l’Ordre nouveau: Politique et idéologie du Mahasiswa Indonesia, 1966–1974. Paris: Association Archipel.
Ramage, Douglas. 1997. Politics in Indonesia: Democracy, Islam and the Ideology of Tolerance. London: Routledge.
Reeves, Edward B. 1995. “Power, Resistance, and the Cult of Muslim Saints in a Northern Egyptian Town.” American Ethnologist 22, 2: 306–23.
Riaz, Ali. 2004. God Willing: The Politics of Islamism in Bangladesh. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
Ricklefs, Merle Calvin. 2001. A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1200. 3rd edition. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Ricklefs, Merle Calvin. 1993. A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1300. 2nd edition. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Rinakit, Sukardi. 2005. “Indonesian Regional Elections in Praxis.” IDSS Commentaries 65 (September), Available at
Robison, Glenn. 1997. “Can Islamists be Democrats? The Case of Jordan.” Middle East Journal 51, 3: 373–87.
Rogers, Benedict. 2014. Indonesia: Pluralism in Peril – The Rise of Religious Intolerance across the Archipelago. London: Christian Solidarity Worldwide.
Ross, Michael L. 2008. “Oil, Islam, and Women.” American Political Science Review 102, 1: 107123.
Roy, Olivier. 2001. “Islam et Politique en Asie Centrale.” Islam et Politique dans le Monde (Ex)-Communiste. 115. Paris: Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions. Available at
Ruddy, AS. 2005. Gerbang Marhamah: Sebuah Gagasan Pembangunan Moral Bangsa. Cianjur: n.a.
Ryter, Loren. 2009. “Their Moment in the Sun: The New Indonesian Parliamentarians from the Old OKP.” In van Klinken, Gerry and Barker, Joshua. Eds. State of Authority: The State in Society in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 181218.
Sabatier, Paul A. 2007. “The Need for Better Theories.” In Sabatier, Paul. Ed. Theories of the Policy Process. 2nd edition. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Salim, Arskal. 2007. “Muslim Politics in Indonesia’s Democratisation.” In McLeod, R. and MacIntyre, A.. Eds. Indonesia: Democracy and the Promise of Good Governance. Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 115–37.
Salim, Arskal. 2003. “Zakat Administration in Politics of Indonesian New Order.” In Salim, Arskal and Azra, Azyumardi. Eds. Shari’a and Politics in Modern Indonesia. Singapore: ISEAS: 181–92.
Salim, Arskal and Azra, Azyumardi. Eds. 2003. Shari’a and Politics in Modern Indonesia. Singapore: ISEAS.
Samson, Allan A. 1973. “Indonesia 1972: The Solidification of Military Control.” Asian Survey 13, 2: 127–39.
Santoso, F Harianto, Sugiya, Aritasius, and Rustiono, Dwi. 2004. “Peta Politik Pemilihan Umum Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan * Pemilihan Umum 2004,” Kompas, February 26, 32.
Sarkissian, Ani and Ozler, S. Ilgu. 2009. “Negotiating Islam, Civil Society, and Secularism: The Justice and Development Party in Turkey.” Paper presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting. Toronto.
Schwedler, Jilian. 2011. “Can Islamists Become Moderates?: Rethinking the Inclusion-Moderation Hypothesis.” World Politics 63, 2: 347–76.
Schwedler, Jilian. 2006. Faith in Moderation: Islamist Parties in Jordan and Yemen. Cambridge: University Press.
Scott, James C. 1989. “Prestige as the Public Discourse of Domination.” Cultural Critique 12 (Spring): 145–66.
Scott, James C. 1969. “Corruption, Machine Politics, and Political Change.” American Political Science Review 63, 4: 1142–58.
Setiawan, B. 2009. Partai Keadilan Sejahtera: Mosaik Pluralitas Islam Perkotaan. Kompas, March 24: 8.
Shihab, Najwa and Nugroho, Yanuar. 2008. “The Ties that Bind: Law, Islamisation and Indonesia’s Prosperous Justice Party (PKS).” Australian Journal of Asian Law 10: 233–67.
Sidel, John T. 2014a. “Dangers and Demon(izer)s of Democratization in Egypt: Through an Indonesian Glass, Darkly.” In Gerges, Fawaz A.. Eds. The New Middle East: Protest and Revolution in the Arab World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 226–56.
Sidel, John T. 2014b. “Economic Foundations of Subnational Authoritarianism: Insights and Evidence from Qualitative and Quantitative Research.” Democratization 21, 1: F161–84.
Sidel, John T. 2009. “The Changing Politics of Religious Knowledge in Asia: The Case of Indonesia.” In Swee-Hock, Saw and Quah, Danny. Eds. The Politics of Knowledge. Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 156–92.
Sidel, John. 2008. “The Islamist Threat in South East Asia: Much Ado About Nothing?,” Asian Affairs 39, 3: 339–51.
Sidel, John T. 2006. Riots, Pogroms, Jihad: Religious Violence in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Sidel, John T. 1998. “Macet Total: Logics of Circulation and Accumulation in the Demise of Indonesia’s New Order.” Indonesia. 66: 159–95.
Sirozi, Muhammad. 2005. “The Intellectual Roots of Islamic Radicalism in Indonesia: Ja’far Umar Thalib of Laskar Jihad (Jihad Fighters) and His Educational Background.” The Muslim World 95, 1: 81120.
Skocpol, Theda. 2003. Diminished Democracy: From Membership to Management in American Civic Life. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Skrentny, John D. 2006. “Policy-Elite Perceptions and Social Movement Success: Understanding Variations in Group Inclusion in Affirmative Action.” American Journal of Sociology 111, 6: 1762–815.
Slater, Dan and Ziblatt, Daniel. 2013. “The Enduring Indispensability of the Controlled Comparison.” Comparative Political Studies 46, 10: 1301–27.
Slater, Dan. 2010. Ordering Power: Contentious Politics and Authoritarian Leviathans in Southeast Asia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Smail, John and Wharton, John Richard. 1964. Bandung in the Early Revolution, 1945–1946. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Smith, Benjamin. 2008. “The Origins of Regional Autonomy in Indonesia: Experts and the Marketing of Political Interests.” Journal of East Asian Studies 8, 2: 211–34.
Smith, Benjamin. 2004. “Collective Action With and Without Islam: Mobilizing the Bazaar in Iran.” In Wiktorowicz, Quintan. Ed. Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach. Indiana: Indiana University Press, pp. 185204.
Snow, David A. and Soule, Sarah A.. 2009. A Primer on Social Movements. New York: W.W. Norton.
Snyder, Richard. 2001. “Scaling Down: The Subnational Comparative Method.” Studies in Comparative International Development 36, 1: 93110.
Solahudin, . 2013. The Roots of Terrorism in Indonesia: From Darul Islam to Jema’ah Islamiyah. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Somer, Murat. 2007. “Moderate Islam and Secularist Opposition in Turkey: Implications for the World, Muslims and Secular Democracy.” Third World Quarterly 28, 7: 1271–89.
Soule, Sarah A. and Olzak, Susan. 2004. “When Do Movements Matter? The Politics of Contingency and the Equal Rights Amendment.” American Sociological Review 69, 4: 473–97.
Staggenberg, Suzanne. 1998. “Social Movement Communities and Cycles of Protest: The Emergence and Maintenance of a Local Women’s Movement.” Social Problems 45, 2: 180204.
Starett, Gregory. 1998. Putting Islam To Work: Education, Politics, and Religious Transformation in Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Steffen, Lincoln. 1904. The Shame of the Cities. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Steinmo, Sven, Thelen, Kathleen and Longstreth, Frank. 1992. Structuring Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Steele, Andrew. 2006. “The Decline of Political Islam in Indonesia.” Asia Times March, 28. online. Available at
Stepan, Alfred C. and Robertson, Graeme B.. 2003. “An ‘Arab’ More Than a ‘Muslim’ Democracy Gap.” Journal of Democracy 14, 3: 3044.
Storm, Lise. 2009. “The Persistence of Authoritarianism as a Source of Radicalization in North Africa.” International Affairs 85: 9971013.
Suaedy, Ahmad. 2007. Politisasi Agama dan Konflik Komunal: Beberapa Isu Penting di Indonesia. Jakarta: The Wahid Institute.
Islam, Suara. 2011. Edisi 103. 17 December – 7 January.
Islam, Suara. 2008. “Dakwah Merangkul Preman dan Pemabuk.” Suara Islam. Edisi 46, 20 June–3 July.
Subair, , 2012. “Keangkuhan Mayoritas: Telaah kritis atas Formalisasi Agama di Sulawesi Selatan dan Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam,” Tashwirul Afkar Edisi, No. 31. Available at
Subair, Umar Pattinjo, Syamsul. 2007. “Pluralitas, Politik, dan Gerakan Formalisasi Agama: Catatan Kritis atas Formalisasi Agama di Maros dan Pangkep.” In Suaedy, Ahmad. Ed. Politisasi Agama dan Konflik Komunal: Beberapa Isu Penting di Indonesia. Jakarta: The Wahid Institute, pp. 177210.
Suberu, Rotimi T. 2009. “Religion and Institutions: Federalism and the Management of Conflicts over Sharia in Nigeria.” Journal of International Development 21, 4: 547–60.
Subianto, Benny. 1996. The Obsolence of a Bureaucrat Elite: East Java Local Politics, 1945–1960. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Program.
Sukma, Rizal. 2010. “Indonesia’s 2009 Elections: Defective System, Resilient Democracy.” In Aspinall, Edward and Mietzner, Marcus. Eds. Problems of Democratisation in Indonesia: Elections, Institutions and Society. Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 5374.
Suryadinata, Leo. 1989. Military Ascendancy and Political Culture: A Study of Indonesia’s Golkar. Athens: Ohio University, Center for International Studies.
Sutherland, Heather. 1979. The Making of a Bureaucratic Elite: The Colonial Transformation of the Javanese Priyayi. Melbourne: Asian Studies Association of Australia.
Suwadirman, . 2009. “Peta Politik: Kalimantan – Heterogenitas yang Statis.” Kompas. February 19: 8.
Svensson, Thommy. 1990. “Bureaucracies and Agrarian Change: A Southeast Asian Case.” In Lundahl, Mats and Svensson, Thommy. Eds. Agrarian Society in History: Essays in Honour of Magnus Mörner. London: Routledge, pp. 282317.
Svensson, Thommy. 1987. “Javanese Village Society in Historical-Anthropological Perspective,” Paper presented at the 6th European Colloquium on Indonesian and Malay Studies, Passau, June 23.
Syaroni, Mizan. 1998. The Majlisul Islamil Ala Indonesia (MIAI): Its Socio-Religious and Political Activities (1937–1943). Unpublished master’s thesis. Montreal: McGill University.
Tan, Paige. 2006. “Indonesia Seven Years after Suharto: Party System Institutionalization in a New Democracy.” Contemporary Southeast Asia 28, 1: 88114.
Tanthowi, Pramono U. 2008. Muslims and Tolerance: Non-Muslim Minorities under Shariah in Indonesia. Bangkok: Silkworm Books.
Tanuwidjaja, Sunny. 2010. “Political Islam and Islamic Parties in Indonesia: Critically Assessing the Evidence of Islam’s Political Decline.” Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs 32, 1 (April): 2949.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1998. Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics. 2nd Edition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, Julie. 2008. “Prophet Sharing: Strategic Interaction between Muslim Clerics and Middle Eastern Regimes.” Journal of Islamic Law and Culture 10, 1: 4162.
Teik, Boo Khoo, Hadiz, Vedi and Nakanishi, Yoshihiro. 2014. Between Dissent and Power: The Transformation of Islamic Politics in the Middle East and Asia. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Temby, Quinton. 2010. “Imagining an Islamic State in Indonesia: From Darul Islam to Jemaah Islamiyah.” Indonesia 89 (April): 128.
Tempo, . 2013. “Diduga Korupsi Rp 800 juta, Politikus PKS Buron,” March, 12, online. Available at
Ten Dam, H. 1961. “Cooperation and Social Structure in the Village of Chibodas,” In van Hoeve, W.. Ed. Indonesian Economics: The Concept of Dualism in Theory and Policy. Amsterdam: Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen, pp. 360–80.
Tezcür, Güneş. 2010. Muslim Reformers in Iran and Turkey: The Paradox of Moderation. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Tezcür, Güneş Murat and Künkler, Mirjam, 2010. “Pursuing Votes, Responding to the Faithful: Party Politics in Indonesia and Turkey.” Paper prepared for the American Political Science Association (APSA). Washington, DC, September 25.
Tilly, Charles. 2004. Social Movements, 1768–2004. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
Tilly, Charles. 1999. “Conclusion: From Interactions to Outcomes in Social Movements.” In Giugni, Marco, McAdam, Doug and Tilly, Charles. Eds. How Social Movements Matter. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 253–70.
Tomsa, Dirk. 2014. “Party System Fragmentation in Indonesia: The Subnational Dimension.” Journal of East Asian Studies 14, 2: 249–78.
Tomsa, Dirk. 2012. “Moderating Islamism in Indonesia: Tracing Patterns of Party Change in the Prosperous Justice Party.” Political Research Quarterly 65, 3: 486–98..
Tomsa, Dirk. 2008. Party Politics and Democratization in Indonesia: Golkar in the Post-Suharto Era. London and New York: Routledge.
Tomsa, Dirk. 2006. “The Defeat of Centralized Paternalism: Factionalism, Assertive Regional Cadres, and the Long Fall of Golkar Chairman Akbar Tandjung.” Indonesia 81 (April): 122.
Tomsa, Dirk. 2005. “Bloodied but unbowed.” Inside Indonesia 83: 1718.
Timur, Tribun. 2012. “KPPSI Terima 900,000 KTP Dukungan Untuk Aziz,” Tribun Timur, January 8, online. Available at
Timur, Tribun. 2011. “Aziz Dukung Zakir Sabara Pilkada Bone,” Tribun Timur, January 26, online. Available at
Timur, Tribun. 2006. KPPSI: Perda Miras Harus Melarang Total. July 3: 30.
Timur, Tribun. 2005. 1.500 Peserta Hadiri Kongres Umat Islam. March 27: 24.
Timur, Tribun. 2005. Jubir Ba’asyir Hadiri Kongres. March 27: 1.
Timur, Tribun. 2004. KPPSI Belajar Dari Pengalaman. June 16: 24.
Turam, Berna. Ed. 2012. Secular State and Religious Society: Two Forces in Play in Turkey. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Turam, Berna. 2007. Between Islam and the State: The Politics of Engagement. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Turam, Berna. 2004. “The Politics of Engagement between Islam and the State: Ambivalences of Civil Society.” British Journal of Sociology 55, 2: 259–81.
Turmudi, Endang. 2003. Perselingkuhan Kiai dan Kekuasaan. Yogyakarta: LKiS.
Turmudi, Endang. Ed. 2002. Pengaruh Modernitas Terhadap Sikap Keberagamaan Masyariakat: Penerapan dan Diskursus Politik Syariat Islam Studi Kasus di Cianjur, Sulawesi Selatan dan Jombang. Jakarta: LIPI.
Turmudi, Endang. 2000. “Patronage, Aliran, and Islamic Ideologies during Elections in Jombang, East Java.” In Antloev, Hans and Cederroth, Sven. Eds. Elections in Indonesia: The New Order and Beyond. London: Routledge, pp. 3860.
Tyson, Adam. 2010. Decentralization and Adat Revivalism in Indonesia: The Politics of Becoming Indigenous. London: Routledge.
Ullah, Haroon K. 2014. Vying for Allah’s Vote: Understanding Islamic Parties, Political Violence and Extremism in Pakistan. Washington: Georgetown University Press.
USAID (United States Agency for International Development). 2006. “Decentralization 2006: Stock Taking on Indonesia’s Recent Decentralization Reforms” (August), online. Available at
Van Bruinessen, Martin. 2013. “Overview of Muslim Organizations, Associations and Movements in Indonesia.” In van Bruinessen, Martin. Ed. Contemporary Developments in Indonesian Islam: Explaining the “Conservative Turn.” Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 2159.
Van Bruinessen, Martin. 2008. “Traditionalist and Islamist Pesantrens in Contemporary Indonesia.” In Noor, Farish A., Sikand, Yoginder, van Bruinessen, Martin. Eds. The Madrasa in Asia: Political Activism and Transnational Linkages. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp. 227–46.
Van Bruinessen, Martin. 2002. “Genealogies of Islamic Radicalism in Post-Suharto Indonesia.” South East Asia Research 10, 2: 117–54.
Van Bruinessen, Martin. 1996. “Islamic State or State Islam? Fifty Years of State-Islam Relations in Indonesia.” In Wessel, Ingrid (Hrsg.). Indonesien am Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts. Hamburg: Abera-Verlag, pp. 1934.
Van Bruinessen, Martin. 1991. “The Tariqa Khalwatiyya in South Celebes.” In Poeze, Harry A. and Schoorl, Pim. Eds. Excursies in Celebes. Een bundel bijdragen bij het afscheid van J. Noorduyn. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, pp. 251–69.
Van Dijk, Cornelius. 1981. Rebellion under the Banner of Islam: The Darul Islam in Indonesia. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Van der Veer, Peter. 2001. Imperial Encounters: Religion and Modernity in India and Britain. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Van Klinken, Gerry. 2004. “Return of the Sultans: After the New Order, Pomp and Ceremony is Returning to Dusty Palaces All Over Indonesia.” Inside Indonesia 78 (April–June). Available at
Van Klinken, Gerry and Barker, Joshua. Eds. 2004. State of Authority: The State in Society in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publications.
Villalon, Leanordo A. 1994. “Sufi Rituals as Rallies: Religious Ceremonies in the Politics of Senegalese State-Society Relations.” Comparative Politics 26, 4: 415–37.
Von Benda-Beckmann, Franz and von Benda-Beckmann, Keebet. 2009. “Recentralization and Decentralization in West Sumatra.” In Holtzappel, Coen J.G. and Ramstedt, Martin. Eds. Decentralization and Regional Autonomy in Indonesia: Implementation and Challenges. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 293328.
Warburg, Gabriel R. 1990. “The Sharia in Sudan: Implementation and Repercussions, 1983–1989,” Middle East Journal 44, 4 (Autumn): 624–37.
Ward, Ken E. 1970. The Foundation of the Partai Muslimin Indonesia. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project.
Wattimena, Helmi. 2001. “Apa Later Belakang Terungkapnya Gerakan Darul Islam?” Yahoo Groups. Available at
Wegner, Eva and Pellicer, Miquel. 2009. “Islamist Moderation Without Democratization: The Coming of Age of the Moroccan Party of Justice and Development?Democratization 16, 1: 157–75.
Weitz-Shapiro, Rebecca. 2015. Curbing Clientelism in Argentina: Politics, Poverty, and Social Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Wertheim, Willem Frederik. 1959. Indonesian Society in Transition. The Hague and Bandung: W. van Hoeve.
White, Jenny B. 2012. “Islamist Social Networks and Social Welfare Services in Turkey.” In Shehata, Samer S.. Ed. Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 5967.
Wickham, Carrie. 2013. The Muslim Brotherhood: Evolution of an Islamist Movement. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Wickham, Carrie. 2002. Mobilizing Islam: Religion, Activism, and Political Change in Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Widjaja, Henky. 2012. “Convenient Thugs: FPI Thrives When Mainstream Muslim Groups Remain Silent.” Inside Indonesia 109 (September). Available at
Wiktorowicz, Quintan. Ed. 2004. Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Wiktorowicz, Quintan. 2000. “Civil Society as Social Control: State Power in Jordan.” Comparative Politics 33, 1 (October): 4361.
Wildan, Muhammad. 2013. “Mapping Radical Islam: A Study of the Proliferation of Radical Islam in Solo, Central Java.” In van Bruinessen, Martin. Ed. Contemporary Developments in Indonesian Islam: Explaining the “Conservative Turn. Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 190223.
Wilson, Ian Douglas. 2008. “As Long as it’s Halal: Islamic Preman in Jakarta.” In Fealy, Greg and White, Sally. Eds. Expressing Islam: Religious Life and Politics in Indonesia. Singapore: ISEAS, pp. 192210.
Willis, Michael. 2004. “Morocco’s Islamist and the Legislative Elections of 2002: The Strange Case of the Party That Did Not Want to Win.” Mediterranean Politics 9, 1: 5381.
Winters, Jeffrey. 2013. “Oligarchy and Democracy in Indonesia.” Indonesia 96, 1: 1133.
Winters, Jeffrey. 2011a. “Who Will Tame the Oligarchs? Not Democracy but Rule of Law is Indonesia’s Central Problem.” Inside Indonesia 104 (April–June). Available at
Winters, Jeffrey. 2011b. “Egypt’s Mobilization of the Last Minute.” The Huffington Post. 14 February. Available at
Wiradi, Gunawan. 1978. “Rural Development and Rural Institutions: A Study of Institutional Changes in West Java (Indonesia).” Rural Dynamics Series, 6 Bogor, FAO.
Woodward, Mark. 2010. “State-Religion Relations in Indonesia: A Comparative Perspective.”Available at
Woodward, Mark. 2001. “Indonesia, Islam, and the Prospect for Democracy.” SAIS Review 21, 2 (Summer–Fall): 2937.
Yavuz, M. Hakan. 2011. “Turkey: Islam without Shari’a?” In Hefner, Robert. Ed. Shari’a Politics: Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 146–79.
Yavuz, M. Hakan. Ed. 2003. Turkish Islam and the Secular State: The Gülen Movement. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
Yavuz, M. Hakan. 1997. “Political Islam and the Welfare (Refah) Party in Turkey.” Comparative Politics 30, 1 (October): 6382.
Zainuddin, Losi. 2004. Pemikiran Politik: Komite Persiapan Penegakan Syari’at Islam (KPPSI) Dalam Rangka Memperjuangkan Tegaknya Syari’at Islam di Sulawesi Selatan. Unpublished bachelor thesis. Makassar: Universitas Hasanuddin.
Zaman, M.Q. 2011. “Pakistan: Shari’a and the State.” In Hefner, Robert. Ed. Shari’a Politics: Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 207243.
Ziegenhain, Patrick. 2015. Institutional Engineering and Political Accountability in Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines. Singapore: ISEAS.
Zulkifli, . 2013. The Struggle of the Shi’is in Indonesia. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Zulkifli, A. 2011. “Jalan Berliku Memburu Syekh Panji” [The Zig-Zag Course of Syekh Panji’s Persecution]. Tempo (Jakarta: Edition 20–26) June: 7694.