Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 16
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bett, Philip E. Thornton, Hazel E. and Clark, Robin T. 2017. Using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis to assess climate variability for the European wind industry. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 127, Issue. 1-2, p. 61.

    Ramirez-Tejeda, Katerin Turcotte, David A. and Pike, Sarah 2017. Unsustainable Wind Turbine Blade Disposal Practices in the United States. NEW SOLUTIONS: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy, Vol. 26, Issue. 4, p. 581.

    Nogueira de Oliveira, Larissa Pupo Rodriguez Rochedo, Pedro Rua Portugal-Pereira, Joana Hoffmann, Bettina Susanne Aragão, Raymundo Milani, Rodrigo de Lucena, André F.P. Szklo, Alexandre and Schaeffer, Roberto 2016. Critical technologies for sustainable energy development in Brazil: technological foresight based on scenario modelling. Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 130, Issue. , p. 12.

    van Beuzekom, I. Mazairac, L.A.J. Gibescu, M. and Slootweg, J.G. 2016. Optimal design and operation of an integrated multi-energy system for smart cities. p. 1.

    Bel, G Connaughton, C P Toots, M and Bandi, M M 2016. Grid-scale fluctuations and forecast error in wind power. New Journal of Physics, Vol. 18, Issue. 2, p. 023015.

    Li, Delei Geyer, Beate and Bisling, Peter 2016. A model-based climatology analysis of wind power resources at 100-m height over the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea. Applied Energy, Vol. 179, Issue. , p. 575.

    Urquhart, Blair Hulka, Simon and Duffy, Kevin 2015. Game birds do not surrogate for raptors in trials to calibrate observed raptor collision fatalities. Bird Study, Vol. 62, Issue. 4, p. 552.

    Yao, Xilong Liu, Yang and Qu, Shiyou 2015. When will wind energy achieve grid parity in China? – Connecting technological learning and climate finance. Applied Energy, Vol. 160, Issue. , p. 697.

    Soldatenko, Sergei and Karlin, Lev 2014. The Climate Change Impact on Russia’s Wind Energy Resource: Current Areas of Research. Energy and Power Engineering, Vol. 06, Issue. 11, p. 371.

    Steen, Markus and Hansen, Gard Hopsdal 2014. Same Sea, Different Ponds: Cross-Sectorial Knowledge Spillovers in the North Sea. European Planning Studies, Vol. 22, Issue. 10, p. 2030.

    Luderer, Gunnar Krey, Volker Calvin, Katherine Merrick, James Mima, Silvana Pietzcker, Robert Van Vliet, Jasper and Wada, Kenichi 2014. The role of renewable energy in climate stabilization: results from the EMF27 scenarios. Climatic Change, Vol. 123, Issue. 3-4, p. 427.

    Zhou, Yuyu and Smith, Steven J 2013. Spatial and temporal patterns of global onshore wind speed distribution. Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 8, Issue. 3, p. 034029.

    Infield, David 2013. Transition to Renewable Energy Systems. p. 265.

    Edenhofer, Ottmar Seyboth, Kristin Creutzig, Felix and Schlömer, Steffen 2013. On the Sustainability of Renewable Energy Sources. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 38, Issue. 1, p. 169.

    Zhou, Yuyu Luckow, Patrick Smith, Steven J. and Clarke, Leon 2012. Evaluation of Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Generation Costs. Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 46, Issue. 14, p. 7857.

    Waisman, Henri Guivarch, Céline Grazi, Fabio and Hourcade, Jean Charles 2012. The Imaclim-R model: infrastructures, technical inertia and the costs of low carbon futures under imperfect foresight. Climatic Change, Vol. 114, Issue. 1, p. 101.

  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: December 2011

Chapter 7 - Wind Energy


Executive Summary

Wind energy offers significant potential for near-term (2020) and long-term (2050) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. A number of different wind energy technologies are available across a range of applications, but the primary use of wind energy of relevance to climate change mitigation is to generate electricity from larger, grid-connected wind turbines, deployed either on- or offshore. Focusing on these technologies, the wind power capacity installed by the end of 2009 was capable of meeting roughly 1.8% of worldwide electricity demand, and that contribution could grow to in excess of 20% by 2050 if ambitious efforts are made to reduce GHG emissions and to address the other impediments to increased wind energy deployment. Onshore wind energy is already being deployed at a rapid pace in many countries, and no insurmountable technical barriers exist that preclude increased levels of wind energy penetration into electricity supply systems. Moreover, though average wind speeds vary considerably by location, ample technical potential exists in most regions of the world to enable significant wind energy deployment. In some areas with good wind resources, the cost of wind energy is already competitive with current energy market prices, even without considering relative environmental impacts. Nonetheless, in most regions of the world, policy measures are still required to ensure rapid deployment. Continued advances in on- and offshore wind energy technology are expected, however, further reducing the cost of wind energy and improving wind energy's GHG emissions reduction potential.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
3TIER (2009). The First Look Global Wind Dataset: Annual Mean Validation. 3TIER, Seattle, WA, USA, 10 pp.
Ackermann, T. (ed.) (2005). Wind Power in Power Systems. John Wiley and Sons, London, UK.
Ackermann, T., and Soder, L. (2002). An overview of wind energy-status 2002. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 6, pp. 67–127.
Agnolucci, P. (2007). The effect of financial constraints, technological progress and long-term contracts on tradable green certificates. Energy Policy, 35, pp. 3347–3359.
AIGS (2008). All Island Grid Study (AIGS). Workstream 4: Analysis of Impacts and Benefits. Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources, Dublin, Ireland and UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment, London, UK, 88 pp.
Allen, S.R., Hammond, G.P., and McManus, M.C. (2008). Prospects for and barriers to domestic micro-generation: A United Kingdom perspective. Applied Energy, 85, pp. 528–544.
Alves-Pereira, M., and Branco, C. (2007). In-home wind turbine noise is conducive to vibroacoustic disease. Presented at the Second International Meeting on Wind Turbine Noise INCE/Europe, Lyon, France, 20-21 September, 2007.
Al-Yahyai, S., Charabi, Y., and Gastli, A. (2010). Review of the use of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) Models for wind energy assessment. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, pp. 3192–3198.
Amelin, M. (2009). Comparison of capacity credit calculation methods for conventional power plants and wind power. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 24, pp. 685–691.
Andersen, P.B., Mac Gaunaa, C.B., and Buhl, T. (2006). Load alleviation on wind turbine blades using variable airfoil geometry. In: 2006 European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, Athens, Greece, 27 February – 2 March 2006.
Apt, J. (2007). The spectrum of power from wind turbines. Journal of Power Sources, 169, pp. 369–374.
Archer, C.L., and Jacobson, M.Z. (2005). Evaluation of global wind power. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, D12110.
Archer, C., and Caldeira, K. (2009). Global assessment of high-altitude wind power. Energies, 2, pp. 307–319.
Argatov, I., and Silvennoinen, R. (2010). Energy conversion efficiency of the pumping kite wind generator. Renewable Energy, 35, pp. 1052–1060.
Argatov, I., Rautakorpi, P., and Silvennoinen, R. (2009). Estimation of the mechanical energy output of the kite wind generator. Renewable Energy, 34, pp. 1525–1532.
Arnett, E.B., Brown, W.K., Erickson, W.P., Fiedler, J.K., Hamilton, B.L., Henry, T.H., Jain, A., Johnson, G.D., Kerns, J., and Koford, R.R. (2008). Patterns of bat fatalities at wind energy facilities in North America. Journal of Wildlife Management, 72, pp. 61–78.
Arnett, E.B., Huso, M.M.P., Schirmacher, M.R., and Hayes, J.P. (2011). Altering turbine speed reduces bat mortality at wind-energy facilities. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 9(4), pp. 209–214.
Arrow, K.J. (1962). The economic implications of learning by doing. The Review of Economic Studies, 29, pp. 155–173.
Ashwill, T.D. (2009). Materials and innovations for large blade structures: research opportunities in wind energy technology. In: 50th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference. Palm Springs, CA, USA, 4-7 May 2009, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 20 pp.
Auer, H., Stadler, M., Resch, G., Huber, C., Schuster, T., Taus, H., Nielsen, L.H., Twidell, J., and Swider, D.J. (2004). Cost and Technical Constraints of RES-E Grid Integration: Working package 2. European Commission, Brussels, Belgium, 82 pp.
AWEA (2008). Wind Energy Siting Handbook. American Wind Energy Association, Washington, DC, USA, 183 pp.
AWEA (2009). AWEA Small Wind Turbine Global Market Study: Year Ending 2008. American Wind Energy Association, Washington, DC, USA, 24 pp.
Baerwald, E.F., Edworthy, J., Holder, M., and Barclay, R.M.R. (2009). A large-scale mitigation experiment to reduce bat fatalities at wind energy facilities. Journal of Wildlife Management, 73, pp. 1077–1082.
Baidya, R.S., and Traiteur, J.J. (2010). Impacts of wind farms on surface air temperatures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, pp. 17899– 17904.
Banta, R.M., Pichugina, Y.L., and Newsom, R.K. (2003). Relationship between low-level jet properties and turbulence kinetic energy in the nocturnal stable boundary layer. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 60, pp. 2549–2555.
Barclay, R.M.R., Baerwald, E.F., and Gruver, J.C. (2007). Variation in bat and bird fatalities at wind energy facilities: assessing the effects of rotor size and tower height. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 85, pp. 381–387.
Barrios, L., and Rodriguez, A. (2004). Behavioral and environmental correlates of soaring bird mortality at onshore wind turbines. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, pp. 72–81.
Barthelmie, R.J., and Jensen, L.E. (2010). Evaluation of wind farm efficiency and wind turbine wakes at the Nysted offshore wind farm. Wind Energy, 13, pp. 573– 586.
Barthelmie, R.J., Larsen, G., Pryor, S.C., Jörgensen, H., Bergström, H., Schlez, W., Rados, K., Lange, B., Völund, P., Neckelmann, S., Mogensen, S., Schepers, G., Hegberg, T., Folkerts, L., and Magnusson, M. (2004). ENDOW (efficient development of offshore wind farms): Modelling wake and boundary layer interactions. Wind Energy, 7, pp. 225–245.
Bastasch, M., van-Dam, J., Søndergaard, B., and Rogers, A. (2006). Wind turbine noise – An overview. Canadian Acoustics, 34, pp. 7–15.
Bell, D., Gray, T., and Haggett, C. (2005). The ‘social gap’ in wind farm siting decisions: Explanations and policy responses. Environmental Politics, 14, pp. 460–477.
Bengtsson, L., Hodges, K.I., and Keenlyside, N. (2009). Will extratropical storms intensify in a warmer climate?Journal of Climate, 22, pp. 2276–2301.
Benitez, L.E., Benitez, P.C., and Kooten, G.C. (2008). The economics of wind power with energy storage. Energy Economics, 30, pp. 1973–1989.
Benjamin, R. (2007). Principles for interregional transmission expansion. The Electricity Journal, 20, pp. 36–47.
Berg, D.E., Wilson, D.G., Barone, M.F., Resor, B.R., Berg, J.C., Paquette, J.A., Zayas, J.R., Kota, S., Ervin, G., and Maric, D. (2009). The impact of active aerodynamic load control on fatigue and energy capture at low wind speed sites. In: European Wind Energy Conference, Marseille, France, 16-19 March 2009, pp. 16–19.
Bergek, A. (2010). Levelling the playing field? The influence of national wind power planning instruments on conflicts of interests in a Swedish county. Energy Policy, 38, pp. 2357–2369.
Berry, D. (2009). Innovation and the price of wind energy in the US. Energy Policy, 37, pp. 4493–4499.
Bierbooms, W.A.A.M. (1992). A comparison between unsteady aerodynamic models. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 39, pp. 23–33.
Bird, L., Bolinger, M., Gagliano, T., Wiser, R., Brown, M., and Parsons, B. (2005). Policies and market factors driving wind power development in the United States. Energy Policy, 33, pp. 1397–1407.
Black and Veatch (2003). Strategic Assessment of the Potential for Renewable Energy: Stage 1. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, London, UK, 163 pp.
Black, M., and Strbac, G. (2006). Value of storage in providing balancing services for electricity generation systems with high wind penetration. Journal of Power Sources, 162, pp. 949–953.
Blanco, M.I. (2009). The economics of wind energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, pp. 1372–1382.
Bloom, A., Kotroni, V., and Lagouvardos, K. (2008). Climate change impact of wind energy availability in the Eastern Mediterranean using the regional climate model PRECIS. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 8, pp. 1249–1257.
Boccard, N. (2009). Capacity factor of wind power realized values vs. estimates. Energy Policy, 37, pp. 2679–2688.
Boccard, N. (2010). Economic properties of wind power: A European assessment. Energy Policy, 38, pp. 3232–3244.
Bolinger, M., Harper, J., and Karcher, M. (2009). A review of wind project financing structures in the USA. Wind Energy, 12, pp. 295–309.
Bossanyi, EA. (2003). Individual blade pitch control for load reduction. Wind Energy, 6, pp. 119–128.
Boyle, M.A., and Kiel, K.A. (2001). A survey of house price hedonic studies of the impact of environmental externalities. Journal of Real Estate Literature, 9, pp. 117–144.
Bradley, J.S. (1994). Annoyance caused by constant-amplitude and amplitude-modulated sounds containing rumble. Noise Control Engineering Journal, 42, pp. 203–208.
Brenner, M., Cazares, S., Cornwall, M., Dyson, F., Eardley, D., Horowitz, P., Long, D., Sullivan, J., Vesecky, J., and Weinberger, P. (2008). Wind Farms and Radar. US Department of Homeland Security, McLean, VA, USA, 21 pp.
Breslow, P.B., and Sailor, D.J. (2002). Vulnerability of wind power resources to climate change in the continental United States. Renewable Energy, 27, pp. 585–598.
Breton, S.P., and Moe, G. (2009). Status, plans and technologies for offshore wind turbines in Europe and North America. Renewable Energy, 34, pp. 646–654.
BTM (2010). International Wind Energy Development. World Market Update 2009. BTM Consult ApS, Ringkøbing, Denmark, 124 pp.
Budhraja, V.S., Mobasheri, F., Ballance, J., Dyer, J., Silverstein, A., and Eto, J. (2009). Improving electricity resource-planning processes by considering the strategic benefits of transmission. The Electricity Journal, 22, pp. 54–63.
Buhl, T., Gaunaa, M., and Bak, C. (2005). Potential load reduction using airfoils with variable trailing edge geometry. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 127, pp. 503–516.
Burke, D.J., and O'Malley, M.J. (2010). Maximizing firm wind connection to security constrained transmission networks. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 25, pp. 749–759.
Burton, T., Sharpe, D., Jenkins, N., and Bossanyi, E. (2001). Wind Energy: Handbook. Wiley, J., Chichester, UK and New York, NY, USA, 642 pp.
Butler, M.M., and Johnson, D.A. (2003). Feasibility of Mitigating the Effects of Wind Farms on Primary Radar. UK Department of Trade and Industry, London, UK, 210 pp.
BWEA and Garrad Hassan (2009). UK Offshore Wind: Charting the Right Course. British Wind Energy Association, London, UK, 42 pp.
Byrne, J., Zhou, A., Shen, B., and Hughes, K. (2007). Evaluating the potential of small-scale renewable energy options to meet rural livelihoods needs: A GIS-and lifecycle cost-based assessment of Western China's options. Energy Policy, 35, pp. 4391–4401.
Bywaters, G., John, V., Lynch, J., Mattila, P., Norton, G., Stowell, J., Salata, M., Labath, O., Chertok, A., and Hablanian, D. (2004). Northern Power Systems WindPACT Drive Train Alternative Design Study Report, Period of Performance: April 12, 2001 to January 31, 2005. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 404 pp.
Capps, S.B., and Zender, C.S. (2010). Estimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCAT observations, accounting for turbine characteristics and siting. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, D09101.
Carbon Trust (2008a). Small-scale Wind Energy: Policy Insights and Practical Guidance. Carbon Trust, London, UK, 108 pp.
Carbon Trust (2008b). Offshore Wind power: Big Challenge, Big Opportunity. The Carbon Trust, London, UK, 40 pp.
Cavallo, A. (2007). Controllable and affordable utility-scale electricity from intermittent wind resources and compressed air energy storage (CAES). Energy, 32, pp. 120–127.
Chao, D.D., and Dam, C.P. (2007). Computational aerodynamic analysis of a blunt trailing edge airfoil modification to the NREL Phase VI rotor. Wind Energy, 10, pp. 529–550.
,China Renewable Energy Association (2009). Annual Report of New Energy and Renewable Energy in China, 2009. China Renewable Energy Association, Beijing, China.
Christiansen, M.B., and Hasager, C.B. (2005). Wake effects of large offshore wind farms identified from satellite SAR. Remote Sensing of Environment, 98, pp. 251–268.
Christiansen, M.B., and Hasager, C.B. (2006). Using airborne and satellite SAR for wake mapping offshore. Wind Energy, 9, pp. 437–455.
Claussen, N.E., Lundsager, P., Barthelmie, R.J., Holttinen, H., Laakso, T., and Pryor, S.C. (2007). Wind power. In: Impacts of Climate Change on Renewable Energy Sources. Their Role in the Nordic Energy System. Fenger, J. (ed.), Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 105–128.
CMA (2006). The Report of Wind Energy Resource Assessment in China. China Meteorological Administration, China Meteorological Press, Beijing, China.
CMOH (2010). The Potential Health Impacts of Wind Turbines. Ontario Chief Medical Officer of Health (CMOH), Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Toronto, Canada, 14 pp.
Costa, A., Crespo, A., Navarro, J., Lizcano, G., Madsen, H., and Feitosa, E. (2008). A review on the young history of the wind power short-term prediction. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12, pp. 1725–1744.
Coughlan, Y., Smith, P., Mullane, A., and O'Malley, M. (2007). Wind turbine modelling for power system stability analysis—A system operator perspective. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 22, pp. 929–936.
Cryan, P.M., and Barclay RMR, R.M.R. (2009). Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: hypotheses and predictions. Journal of Mammalogy, 90, pp. 1330–1340.
Czisch, G., and Giebel, G. (2000). A comparison of intra-and extraeuropean options for an energy supply with wind power. In: Proceedings of Wind Power for the 21st Century, Kassel, Germany, 25-27 September 2000, pp. 69–73.
Lucas, M., Janss, G.F.E., and Ferrer, M. (2004). The effects of a wind farm on birds in a migration point: the Strait of Gibraltar. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13, pp. 395–407.
Lucena, P., Frossard, A., Szklo, A.S., Schaeffer, R., and Dutra, R.M. (2009). The vulnerability of wind power to climate change in Brazil. Renewable Energy, 35, pp. 904–912.
DeCarolis, J.F., and Keith, D.W. (2006). The economics of large-scale wind power in a carbon constrained world. Energy Policy, 34, pp. 395–410.
Delft University, Garrad Hassan & Partners, Tractebel Energy Engineering, Risø National Laboratory, Kvaerner Oil & Gas, Energi & Miljoe Undersoegelser (2001). Concerted Action on Offshore Wind Energy in Europe. Delft University, Delft, the Netherlands, 289 pp.
Denholm, P. (2006). Improving the technical, environmental and social performance of wind energy systems using biomass-based energy storage. Renewable Energy, 31, pp. 1355–1370.
Denny, E., and O'Malley, M. (2009). The impact of carbon prices on generation-cycling costs. Energy Policy, 37, pp. 1204–1212.
Denny, E., Tuohy, A., Meibom, P., Keane, A., Flynn, D., Mullane, A., and O'Malley, M. (2010). The impact of increased interconnection on electricity systems with large penetrations of wind generation: A case study of Ireland and Great Britain. Energy Policy, 38, pp. 6946–6954.
Des Rosiers, F. (2002). Power lines, visual encumbrance and house values: a microspatial approach to impact measurement. Journal of Real Estate Research, 23, pp. 275–301.
Desholm, M. (2009). Avian sensitivity to mortality: Prioritising migratory bird species for assessment at proposed wind farms. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, pp. 2672–2679.
Desholm, M., and Kahlert, J. (2005). Avian collision risk at an offshore wind farm. Biology Letters, 1, pp. 296–298.
Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH (2005). Energy Management Planning for the Integration of Wind Energy into the Grid in Germany, Onshore and Offshore by 2020. Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH, Cologne, Germany.
Dinica, V. (2006). Support systems for the diffusion of renewable energy technologies – investor perspective. Energy Policy, 34, pp. 461–480.
Doherty, R., and O'Malley, M. (2005). A new approach to quantify reserve demand in systems with significant installed wind capacity. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 20, pp. 587–595.
Doherty, R., Bryans, L., Gardner, P., and O'Malley, M. (2004). Wind penetration studies on the island of Ireland. Wind Engineering, 28, pp. 27–41.
Doherty, R., Mullane, A., Lalor, G., and Burke, D. (2010). An assessment of the impact of wind generation on system frequency. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 25, pp. 452–460.
Dong Energy, Vattenfall, Danish Energy Authority, and Danish Forest and Nature Agency (2006). Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues. DONG Energy, Vattenfall, the Danish Energy Authority and the Danish Forest and Nature Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, 142 pp.
Drewitt, A.L., and Langston, R.W. (2006). Assessing the impacts of wind farms on birds. Ibis, 148, pp. 29–42.
Du, Z., and Selig, M.S. (1998). A 3-D stall-delay model for horizontal axis wind turbine performance prediction. In: Proceedings of the 1998 ASME Wind Energy Symposium. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and ASME International, Reno, NV, USA, 12-15 January 1998, pp. 9–19.
Dunlop, J. (2006). Wind power project returns – What should equity investors expect? Journal of Structured Finance, 12, pp. 81–89.
Dürr, T., and Bach, L. (2004). Bat deaths and wind turbines – a review of current knowledge, and of the information available in the database for Germany. Bremer Beiträge für Naturkunde und Naturschutz, 7, pp. 253–264.
Durstewitz, M., Hahn, B., Lange, B., Rohrig, K., and Wessel, A. (2008). Windenergie Report Deutschland 2007. Institut für Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kessel, Germany.
,Ea Energianalyse (2007). 50% Wind Power in Denmark in 2025. Ea Energieanalyse, Copenhagen, Denmark, 121 pp.
EC (2003). External Costs: Research Results on Socio-Environmental Damages Due to Electricity and Transport. European Commission (EC), Brussels, Belgium, 28 pp.
EC (2006). European Energy and Transport: Scenarios on Energy Efficiency and Renewables. European Commission (EC), Brussels, Belgium, 124 pp.
EC (2009). Communication from the Commission on Investing in the Development of Low Carbon Technologies (SET-Plan). A Technology Roadmap. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, Belgium, 1295 pp.
Echavarria, E., Hahn, B., Bussel, G.J.W., and Tomiyama, T. (2008). Reliability of wind turbine technology through time. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 130, 031005.
EEA (2009). Europe's Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy Potential: An Assessment of Environmental and Economic Constraints. European Environmental Agency (EEA), Copenhagen, Denmark, 90 pp.
Ehler, C.N., and Douvere, F. (2009). Marine Spatial Planning: A Step-by-Step Approach Towards Ecosystem Based Management. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and Marine and Biosphere Programme, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris, France, 99 pp.
EIA (2010). International Energy Outlook, 2010. Energy Information Agency, US Department of Energy, Washington, DC, USA, 231 pp.
EirGrid and SONI (2010). All Island TSO Facilitation of Renewables Studies. EirGrid and System Operator for Northern Ireland (SONI), Dublin, Ireland, 77 pp.
Ek, K., and Söderholm, P. (2010). Technology learning in the presence of public R&D: The case of European wind power. Ecological Economics, 69, pp. 2356–2362.
Ela, E., and Kirby, B. (2008). ERCOT Event on February 26, 2008: Lessons Learned. USA: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 12 pp.
Elliott, D. (2002). Assessing the world's wind resources. In: IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2002, New York, NY, USA, 27-31 January 2002, pp. 346–347.
Elliott, D., Schwartz, M., and Scott, G. (2004). Wind resource base. In: Encyclopaedia of Energy. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 465-479.
Eltham, D.C., Harrison, G.P., and Allen, S. J. (2008). Change in public attitudes towards a Cornish wind farm: Implications for planning. Energy Policy, 36, pp. 23–33.
EnerNex Corp (2010). Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 242 pp.
EPA (1974). Information on Levels of Environmental Noise Requisite to Protect Public Health and Welfare with an Adequate Margin of Safety. Office of Noise Abatement and Control, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 242 pp.
EPA (1978). Protective Noise Levels. Office of Noise Abatement and Control, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 25 pp.
ERCOT (2008). ERCOT Operations Report on the EECP Event of February 26, 2008. The Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), Austin, TX, USA, 13 pp.
Erdman, W., and Behnke, M. (2005). Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Phase II: The Application of Medium-Voltage Electrical Apparatus to the Class of Variable Speed Multi-Megawatt Low Wind Speed Turbines. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 119 pp.
Erickson, W.P., Johnson, G.D., and Young, D.P. Jr. (2005). A Summary and Comparison of Bird Mortality from Anthropogenic Causes with an Emphasis on Collisions. General Technical Report, United States Forest Service, Washington, DC, USA, 14 pp.
Eto, J., Undrill, J., Mackin, P., Daschmans, R., Williams, B., Haney, B., Hunt, R., Ellis, J., Illian, H., Martinez, C., O'Malley, M., Coughlin, K., and LaCommare, K. (2010). Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Generation. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA, 90 pp.
EU (2008). European Wind Energy Technology Platform for Wind Energy. Strategic Research Agenda - Market Development Strategy from 2008 to 2030. Synopsis. European Union (EU), TPWind Secretariat, Brussels, Belgium, 15 pp.
Everaert, J., and Stienen, E.W.M. (2007). Impact of wind turbines on birds in Zeebrugge (Belgium). Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, pp. 3345–3359.
EWEA (2005). Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy in the European Power Supply: Analysis, Issues and Recommendations. European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), Brussels, Belgium, 172 pp.
EWEA (2009). Wind Energy, the Facts. European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), Brussels, Belgium, 488 pp.
EWEA (2010a). The European Offshore Wind Industry – Key Trends and Statistics 2009. European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), Brussels, Belgium, 9 pp.
EWEA (2010b). Wind in Power: 2009 European Statistics. European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), Brussels, Belgium, 14 pp.
FANM (2005). Human Health Repercussions of Windmill Operation. French Académie Nationale de Médecine (FANM), Paris, France, 17 pp.
Fastl, H., and Zwicker, E. (2007). Psychoacoustics: Facts and Models. 3rd ed. Springer, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany and New York, NY, USA, 428 pp.
Fellows, A. (2000). The Potential of Wind Energy to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions. Garrad Hassan and Partners Ltd, Glasgow, Scotland, 146 pp.
Ferioli, F., Schoots, K., and Zwaan, B.C.C. (2009). Use and limitations of learning curves for energy technology policy: A component-learning hypothesis. Energy Policy, 37, pp. 2525–2535.
Firestone, J., and Kempton, W. (2007). Public opinion about large offshore wind power: Underlying factors. Energy Policy, 35, pp. 1584–1598.
Firestone, J., Kempton, W., and Krueger, A. (2009). Public acceptance of offshore wind power projects in the USA. Wind Energy, 12, pp. 183–202.
Focken, U., Lange, M., Mönnich, K., Waldl, H., Beyer, H.G., and Luig, A. (2002). Short-term prediction of the aggregated power output of wind farms – a statistical analysis of the reduction of the prediction error by spatial smoothing effects. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 90, pp. 231–246.
Førsund, F.R., Singh, B., Jensen, T., and Larsen, C. (2008). Phasing in wind-power in Norway: Network congestion and crowding-out of hydropower. Energy Policy, 36, pp. 3514–3520.
Fox, B., Flynn, D., Bryans, L., Jenkins, N., Milborrow, D., O'Malley, M., Watson, R., and Anaya-Lara, O. (2007). Wind power integration: connection and system operational aspects. The Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, UK, 288 pp.
Frandsen, S.T., Barthelmie, R.J., Pryor, S.C., Rathmann, O., Larsen, S., Højstrup, J., and Thøgersen, M. (2006). Analytical modelling of wind speed deficit in large offshore wind farms. Wind Energy, 9, pp. 39–53.
Frandsen, S.T., Jørgensen, H.E., Barthelmie, R.J., Rathmann, O., Badger, J., Hansen, K., Ott, S., Rethore, P., Larsen, S.E., and Jensen, L.E. (2009). The making of a second-generation wind farm efficiency model complex. Wind Energy, 12, pp. 445–458.
Frost, S.A., Balas, M.J., and Wright, A.D. (2009). Direct adaptive control of a utilityscale wind turbine for speed regulation. International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, 19, pp. 59–71.
Garreaud, R.D., and Falvey, M. (2009). The coastal winds off western subtropical South America in future climate scenarios. International Journal of Climatology, 29, pp. 543–554.
Garthe, S., and Hüppop, O. (2004). Scaling possible adverse effects of marine wind farms on seabirds: developing and applying a vulnerability index. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, pp. 724–734.
Gautam, D., Vittal, V., and Harbour, T. (2009). Impact of increased penetration of DFIG-based wind turbine generators on transient and small signal stability of power systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 24, pp. 1426–1434.
GE Energy (2010). Western Wind and Solar Integration Study. General Electric (GE) Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 536 pp.
GEC (2001). WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 3–Self-Erecting Tower Structures. Global Energy Concepts (GEC), National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 72 pp.
Gibson, E., and Howsam, P. (2010). The legal framework for offshore wind farms: A critical analysis of the consents process. Energy Policy, 38, pp. 4692–4702.
Gipe, P. (1995). Wind Energy Comes of Age. Wiley, New York, USA, 560 pp.
Göransson, L., and Johnsson, F. (2009). Dispatch modeling of a regional power generation system - Integrating wind power. Renewable Energy, 34, pp. 1040–1049.
Goyal, M. (2010). Repowering–Next big thing in India. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, pp. 1400–1409.
Goyette, S., Brasseur, O., and Beniston, M. (2003). Application of a new wind gust parameterization: Multiscale case studies performed with the Canadian regional climate model. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, pp. 4374.
Graham, J.B., Stephenson, J.R., and Smith, I.J. (2009). Public perceptions of wind energy developments: Case studies from New Zealand. Energy Policy, 37, pp. 3348–3357.
Greenblatt, J.B., Succar, S., Denkenberger, D.C., Williams, R.H., and Socolow, R.H. (2007). Baseload wind energy: modeling the competition between gas turbines and compressed air energy storage for supplemental generation. Energy Policy, 35, pp. 1474–1492.
Griffin, D.A. (2001). WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 1 – Composite Blades for 80-to 120-Meter Rotor. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 44 pp.
Gross, C. (2007). Community perspectives of wind energy in Australia: The application of a justice and community fairness framework to increase social acceptance. Energy Policy, 35, pp. 2727–2736.
Gross, R., and Heptonstall, P. (2008). The costs and impacts of intermittency: An ongoing debate: “East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet”. Energy Policy, 36, pp. 4005–4007.
Gross, R., Heptonstall, P., Anderson, D., Green, T., Leach, M., and Skea, J. (2006). The Costs and Impacts of Intermittency: An assessment of the evidence on the costs and impacts of intermittent generation on the British electricity network. Imperial College London, London, UK, 112 pp.
Gross, R., Heptonstall, P., Leach, M., Anderson, D., Green, T., and Skea, J. (2007). Renewables and the grid: understanding intermittency. Energy, 160, pp. 31–41.
Grubb, M.J. (1991). Value of variable sources on power systems. IEE Proceedings C Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 138, pp. 149–165.
Grubb, M.J., and Meyer, N.I. (1993). Wind energy: Resources, systems and regional strategies. In: Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels and Electricity. Johansson, T.B., Kelly, H., Reddy, A.K., and Williams, R.H. (eds.), Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 157–212.
GWEC (2010a). Global Wind 2009 Report. Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), Brussels, Belgium, 4 pp.
GWEC (2010b). Global wind power boom continues despite economic woes. Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), Brussels, Belgium, 68 pp.
GWEC and GPI (2010). Global Wind Energy Outlook 2010. Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) and Greenpeace International (GPI), Brussels, Belgium, 60 pp.
Haggett, C. (2011). Understanding public responses to offshore wind power. Energy Policy, 39, pp. 503–510.
Hameed, Z., Ahn, S.H., and Cho, Y.M. (2010). Practical aspects of a condition monitoring system for a wind turbine with emphasis on its design, system architecture, testing and installation. Renewable Energy, 35, pp. 879–894.
Hand, M.M., and Balas, M.J. (2007). Blade load mitigation control design for a wind turbine operating in the path of vortices. Wind Energy, 10, pp. 339–355.
Hand, M.M., Simms, D.A., Fingersh, L.J., Jager, D.W., Cotrell, J.R., Schreck, S., Larwood, S.M. (2001). Unsteady aerodynamics experiment phase vi: Wind tunnel test configurations and available data campaigns. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 310 pp.
Hansen, M.H. (2007). Aeroelastic instability problems for wind turbines. Wind Energy, 10, pp. 551–577.
Hansen, M.O., Sorensen, J.N., Voutsinas, S., Sorensen, N., and Madsen, H.A. (2006). State of the art in wind turbine aerodynamics and aeroelasticity. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 42, pp. 285–330.
Harris, M., Hand, M., and Wright, A. (2006). Lidar for Turbine Control. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA.
Hasche, B., Keane, A., and O'Malley, M. (2010). Capacity credit of wind power: calculation and data requirements; The Irish power system case. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 99, pp. 1–11.
Haugen, J.E., and Iversen, T. (2008). Response in extremes of daily precipitation and wind from a downscaled multi-model ensemble of anthropogenic global climate change scenarios. Tellus A, 60, pp. 411–426.
Heege, A., Betran, J., and Radovcic, Y. (2007). Fatigue load computation of wind turbine gearboxes by coupled finite element, multi-body system and aerodynamic analysis. Wind Energy, 10, pp. 395–413.
Hoen, B., Wiser, R., Cappers, P., Thayer, M., and Sethi, G. (2011). Wind energy facilities and residential properties: The effect of proximity and view on sales prices. Journal of Real Estate Research, accepted for publication.
Hohmeyer, O., Mora, D., and Wetzig, F. (2005). Wind Energy. The Facts. Volume 4. European Wind Energy Association, Brussels, Belgium, 60 pp.
Holttinen, H. (2005). Optimal electricity market for wind power. Energy Policy, 33, pp. 2052–2063.
Holttinen, H., Meibom, P., Orths, A., F., Hulle, Lange, B., Tiedemann, A., O'Malley, M., Perik, J., Ummels, B., Tande, J.O., Estanqueiro, A., Matos, M., Gomez, E., Soder, L., Strbac, G., Shakoor, A., Smith, J.C., and Milligan, M. (2009). Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power: Phase One 2006-2008. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland, 200 pp.
Hoogwijk, M., and Graus, W. (2008). Global Potential of Renewable Energy Sources: A Literature Assessment. Ecofys, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 45 pp.
Hoogwijk, M., Vries, B., and Turkenburg, W. (2004). Assessment of the global and regional geographical, technical and economic potential of onshore wind energy. Energy Economics, 26, pp. 889–919.
Hoogwijk, M., Vuuren, D., Vries, B., and Turkenburg, W. (2007). Exploring the impact on cost and electricity production of high penetration levels of intermittent electricity in OECD Europe and the USA, results for wind energy. Energy, 32, pp. 1381–1402.
Hoppock, D.C., and Patiño-Echeverri, D. (2010). Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, pp. 8758–8765.
Horn, J.W., Arnett, E.B., and Kunz, T.H. (2008). Behavioral responses of bats to operating wind turbines. Journal of Wildlife Management, 72, pp. 123–133.
Hubbert, M.K. (1971). The energy resources of the Earth. Scientific American, 225, pp. 60–70.
Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie (2006). Technical Requirements for the Connection of Generation Facilities to the Hydro-Quebec Transmission System. Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie, Montreal, Canada, 17 pp.
IEA (2008). Energy Technology Perspectives 2008. Scenarios and Strategies to 2050. International Energy Agency, Paris, France, 646 pp.
IEA (2009). Technology Roadmap – Wind energy. International Energy Agency, Paris, France, 52 pp.
IEA (2010a). Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries. International Energy Agency, Paris, France, 554 pp.
IEA (2010b). World Energy Outlook 2010. International Energy Agency, Paris, France, 736 pp.
IEA (2010c). Energy Technology Perspectives 2010. Scenarios and Strategies to 2050. International Energy Agency, Paris, France, 708 pp.
IEA and OECD (2010). Projected Costs of Generating Electricity, 2010 Edition. International Energy Agency and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France, 218 pp.
IEA Wind (2010). IEA Wind Energy Annual Report 2009. International Energy Agency Wind, Paris, France, 172 pp.
IEC (2008). Wind Turbines – Part 21: Measurement and Assessment of Power Quality Characteristics of Grid Connected Wind Turbines; IEC 61400-21. International Electrotechnical Commission, Delft, The Netherlands.
IEC (2010). Wind Turbines - Part 22: Conformity Testing and Certification, IEC 61400- 22. International Electrotechnical Commission, Delft, The Netherlands.
IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. B., Metz, Davidson, O.R., Bosch, P.R., Dave, R., and Meyer, L.A. (eds.), Cambridge University Press, 851 pp.
ISO (2006). Environmental Management - Life-Cycle Assessment - Requirements and Guidelines. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.
Jackson, K.J., Zuteck, M.D., Dam, C.P., Standish, K.J., and Berry, D. (2005). Innovative design approaches for large wind turbine blades. Wind Energy, 8, pp. 141–171.
Jackson, T.O. (2001). The effects of environmental contamination on real estate: A literature review. Journal of Real Estate Literature, 9, pp. 91–116.
Jacobson, M.Z. (2009). Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security. Energy & Environmental Science, 2, pp. 148–173.
Jakobsen, J. (2005). Infrasound emission from wind turbines. Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control, 24, pp. 145–155.
Jamasb, T. (2007). Technical change theory and learning curves: patterns of progress in electricity generation technologies. The Energy Journal, 28, pp. 51–71.
JCSP (2009). Joint Coordinated System Plan 2008, Volume 1 - Economic Assessment. Joint Coordinated System Plan (JCSP), Report of the Midwest Independent System Operator, PJM Interconnection, Southwest Power Pool Electric Energy Network, Tennessee Valley Authority and Mid-continent Area Power Pool, 113 pp.
Jiang, Q., Doyle, J.D., Haack, T., Dvorak, M.J., Archer, C.L., and Jacobson, M.Z. (2008). Exploring wind energy potential off the California coast. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L20819.
Johansson, T.B., McCormick, K., Neij, L., and Turkenburg, W. (2004). The Potentials of Renewable Energy. Thematic Background Paper for theInternational Conference for Renewable Energies, Bonn, Germany, 36 pp.
Johnson, K.E., and Fingersh, L.J. (2008). Adaptive pitch control of variable-speed wind turbines. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 130, pp. 031012–7.
Johnson, K.E., Fingersh, L.J., Balas, M.J., and Pao, L.Y. (2004). Methods for increasing region 2 power capture on a variable-speed wind turbine. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 126, pp. 1092–1100.
Jones, C.R., and Eiser, J.R. (2009). Identifying predictors of attitudes towards local onshore wind development with reference to an English case study. Energy Policy, 37, pp. 4604–4614.
Jonkman, J.M. (2009). Dynamics of offshore floating wind turbines-model development and verification. Wind Energy, 12, pp. 459–492.
Jónsson., T., Pinson, P., and Madsen, H. (2010). On the market impact of wind energy forecasts. Energy Economics, 32, pp. 313–320.
Jungbluth, N., Bauer, C., Dones, R., and Frischknecht, R. (2005). Life cycle assessment for emerging technologies: Case studies for photovoltaic and wind power. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 10, pp. 24–34.
Junginger, M., Faaij, A., and Turkenburg, W.C. (2004). Cost reduction prospects for offshore wind farms. Wind Engineering, 28, pp. 97–118.
Junginger, M., Faaij, A., and Turkenburg, W.C. (2005). Global experience curves for wind farms. Energy Policy, 33, pp. 133–150.
Junginger, M., Sark, W.V., and Faaij, A. (eds.) (2010). Technological Learning in the Energy Sector: Lessons for Policy, Industry and Science. Edward Elgar, Northampton, MA, USA.
Justus, C.G., Mani, K., and Mikhail, A.S. (1979). Interannual and month-to-month variations of wind speed. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 18, pp. 913–920.
Kahn, E. (1979). The compatibility of wind and solar technology with conventional energy systems. Annual Review of Energy, 4, pp. 313–352.
Kahouli-Brahmi, S. (2009). Testing for the presence of some features of increasing returns to adoption factors in energy system dynamics: An analysis via the learning curve approach. Ecological Economics, 68, pp. 1195–1212.
Kannen, A., and Burkhard, B. (2009). Integrated assessment of coastal and marine changes using the example of offshore wind farms: The coastal futures approach. GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society, 18, pp. 229–238.
Katzenstein, W., and Apt, J. (2009). Air emissions due to wind and solar power. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, pp. 253–258.
Katzenstein, W., Fertig, E., and Apt, J. (2010). The variability of interconnected wind plants. Energy, 38, pp. 4400–4410.
Keith, D.W., DeCarolis, J.F., Denkenberger, D.C., Lenschow, D.H., Malyshev, S.L., Pacala, S., and P. Rasch, J. (2004). The influence of large-scale wind power on global climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, pp. 16115–16120.
Kelley, N., Shirazi, M., Jager, D., Wilde, S., Adams, J., Buhl, M., Sullivan, P., and Patton, E. (2004). Lamar Low-Level Jet Program Interim Report. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 216 pp.
Kempton, W., and Tomic, J. (2005). Vehicle-to-grid power implementation: From stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy. Journal of Power Sources, 144, pp. 280–294.
Kempton, W., Archer, C.L., Dhanju, A., Garvine, R.W., and Jacobson, M.Z. (2007). Large CO2 reductions via offshore wind power matched to inherent storage in energy end-uses. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L02817.
Kikuchi, R. (2010). Risk formulation for the sonic effects of offshore wind farms on fish in the EU region. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60, pp. 172–177.
Kim, J., and Park, C. (2010). Wind power generation with a parawing on ships, a proposal. Energy, 35, pp. 1425–1432.
Kirby, B., and Milligan, M. (2008). An examination of capacity and ramping impacts of wind energy on power systems. The Electricity Journal, 21, pp. 30–42.
Kirk-Davidoff, D.B., and Keith, D.W. (2008). On the climate impact of surface roughness anomalies. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 65, pp. 2215–2234.
Kiviluoma, J., and Meibom, P. (2010). Influence of wind power, plug-in electric vehicles, and heat storages on power system investments. Energy, 35, pp. 1244–1255.
Klaassen, G., Miketa, A., Larsen, K., and Sundqvist, T. (2005). The impact of R&D on innovation for wind energy in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom. Ecological Economics, 54, pp. 227–240.
Klick, H., and E.Smith, R.A.N. (2010). Public understanding of and support for wind power in the United States. Renewable Energy, 35, pp. 1585–1591.
Kobos, P.H., Erickson, J.D., and Drennen, T.E. (2006). Technological learning and renewable energy costs: implications for US renewable energy policy. Energy Policy, 34, pp. 1645–1658.
Köller, J., Köppel, J., and Peters, W. (eds.) (2006). Offshore Wind Energy: Research on Environmental Impacts. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 371 pp.
Krewitt, W., and Schlomann, B. (2006). Externe Kosten der Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien im Vergleich zur Stromerzeugung aus fossilen Energieträgern. Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research and DLR (German Center for Aeronautics and Astronautics), Karlsruhe and Stuttgart, Germany, 59 pp.
Krewitt, W., Nienhaus, K., Kleßmann, C., Capone, C., Stricker, E., Graus, W., Hoogwijk, M., Supersberger, N., Winterfeld, U., and Samadi, S. (2009). Role and Potential of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency for Global Energy Supply. Climate Change 18/2009, ISSN 1862-4359, Federal Environment Agency, Dessau-Roßlau, Germany, 336 pp.
Krey, V., and Clarke, L. (2011). Role of renewable energy in climate change mitigation: a synthesis of recent scenarios. Climate Policy, 11, pp. 1–28.
Krohn, S., and Damborg, S. (1999). On public attitudes towards wind power. Renewable Energy, 16, pp. 954–960.
Krug, F., and Lewke, B. (2009). Electromagnetic interference on large wind turbines. Energies, 2, pp. 1118–1129.
Kunz, T.H., Arnett, E.B., Cooper, B.M., Erickson, W.P., Larkin, R.P., Mabee, T., Morrison, M.L., Strickland, M.D., and Szewczak, J. M. (2007a). Assessing impacts of wind-energy development on nocturnally active birds and bats: a guidance document. Journal of Wildlife Management, 71, pp. 2449–2486.
Kunz, T.H., Arnett, E.B., Erickson, W.P., Hoar, A.R., Johnson, G.D., Larkin, R.P., Strickland, M.D., Thresher, R.W., and Tuttle, M.D. (2007b). Ecological impacts of wind energy development on bats: questions, research needs, and hypotheses. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5, pp. 315–324.
Kuvlesky, W.P., Brennan, L.A., Morrison, M.L., Boydston, K.K., Ballard, B.M., and Bryant, F.C. (2007). Wind energy development and wildlife conservation: challenges and opportunities. Journal of Wildlife Management, 71, pp. 2487–2498.
Laakso, T., Holttinen, H., Ronsten, G., Tallhaug, L., Horbaty, R., Baring-Gould, I., Lacroix, A., Peltola, E., and Tammelin, B. (2003). State-of-the-art of Wind Energy in Cold Climates. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland, 50 pp.
Lackner, M., and Kuik, G. (2010). A comparison of smart rotor control approaches using trailing edge flaps and individual pitch control. Wind Energy, 13, pp. 117–134.
Ladenburg, J. (2009). Stated public preferences for on land and offshore wind power generation–a review. Wind Energy, 12, pp. 171–181.
Lalor, G., Mullane, A., and O'Malley, M. (2005). Frequency control and wind turbine technologies. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 20, pp. 1905–1913.
Lamont, A.D. (2008). Assessing the long-term system value of intermittent electric generation technologies. Energy Economics, 30, pp. 1208–1231.
Lanier, M. (2005). Low Wind Speed Technology Phase I Concept Study: Evaluation of Design and Construction Approaches for Economical Hybrid Steel/Concrete Wind Turbine Towers. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 698 pp.
Larsen, G.C., Madsen, H.A., Thomsen, K., and Larsen, T.J. (2008). Wake meandering: a pragmatic approach. Wind Energy, 11, pp. 377–395.
Larsen, T.J., Madsen, H.A., and Thomsen, K. (2004). Active load reduction using individual pitch, based on local blade flow measurements. Wind Energy, 8, pp. 67–80.
Leckebusch, G.C., Weimer, A., Pinto, J.G., Reyers, M., and Speth, P. (2008). Extreme wind storms over Europe in present and future climate: a cluster analysis approach. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 17, pp. 67–82.
Leighty, W. (2008). Running the world on renewables: Hydrogen transmission pipelines and firming geologic storage. International Journal of Energy Research, 32, pp. 408–426.
Leishman, J.G. (2006). Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics. Cambridge University Press, 536 pp.
Lemming, J.K., Morthorst, P.E., Clausen, N.E., and Jensen, P. Hjuler (2009). Contribution to the Chapter on Wind Power in Energy Technology Perspectives 2008, IEA. Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, 64 pp.
Leutz, R., Ackermann, T., Suzuki, A., Akisawa, A., and Kashiwagi, T. (2001). Technical offshore wind energy potentials around the globe. In: European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition. Copenhagen, Denmark, 2-6 July 2001, pp. 2–6.
Leventhall, G. (2006). Infrasound from wind turbines-fact, fiction or deception. Canadian Acoustics, 34, pp. 29.
Lew, D.J., Williams, R.H., Shaoxiong, X., and Shihui, Z. (1998). Large-scale baseload wind power in China. Natural Resources Forum, 22(3), 165–184.
Lewis, J.I. (2007). Technology acquisition and innovation in the developing world: Wind turbine development in China and India. Studies in Comparative International Development (SCID), 42, pp. 208–232.
Lewis, J.I., and Wiser, R.H. (2007). Fostering a renewable energy technology industry: An international comparison of wind industry policy support mechanisms. Energy Policy, 35, pp. 1844–1857.
Li, J. (2010). Decarbonising power generation in China – Is the answer blowing in the wind? Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, pp. 1154–1171.
Li, J., and Ma, L. (2009). Background Paper: Chinese Renewables Status Report. Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century, Paris, France, 95 pp.
Li, J., Gao, H., Shi, J., Ma, L., Qin, H., and Song, Y. (2007). China Wind Power Report, 2007. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing, China, 55 pp.
Lilley, M.B., and Firestone, J. (2008). Wind power, wildlife, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act: a way forward. Environmental Law, 38, pp. 1167–1214.
Liu, Y., and Kokko, A. (2010). Wind power in China: Policy and development challenges. Energy Policy, 38, pp. 5520–5529.
Loring, J.M. (2007). Wind energy planning in England, Wales and Denmark: Factors influencing project success. Energy Policy, 35, pp. 2648–2660.
Lu, X., McElroy, M.B., and Kiviluoma, J. (2009). Global potential for wind-generated electricity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, pp. 10933–10939.
Lund, H. (2006). Large-scale integration of optimal combinations of PV, wind and wave power into the electricity supply. Renewable Energy, 31, pp. 503–515.
Lund, H., and Kempton, W. (2008). Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G. Energy Policy, 36, pp. 3578–3587.
Lund, H., and Münster, E. (2003). Modelling of energy systems with a high percentage of CHP and wind power. Renewable Energy, 28, pp. 2179–2193.
Lutz, T., Herrig, A., Wörz, W., Kamruzzaman, M., and Krämer, E. (2007). Design and wind-tunnel verification of low-noise airfoils for wind turbines. AIAA Journal, 45, pp. 779–785.
MacCormack, J., Hollis|H., A. Zareipour, and Rosehart, W. (2010). The large-scale integration of wind generation: Impacts on price, reliability and dispatchable conventional suppliers. Energy Policy, 38, pp. 3837–3846.
Mackay, R.M., and Probert, S.D. (1998). Likely market-penetrations of renewableenergy technologies. Applied Energy, 59, pp. 1–38.
Madsen, H., Pinson, P., Kariniotakis, G., Nielsen, H.A., and Nielsen, T. (2005). Standardizing the performance evaluation of short term wind power prediction models. Wind Engineering, 29, pp. 475–489.
Madsen, H.A., Bak, C., Paulsen, U.S., Gaunaa, M., Sørensen, N.N., Fuglsang, P., Romblad, J., Olsen, N.A., Enevoldsen, P., Laursen, J., and Jensen, L. (2010). The DAN-AERO MW experiments. In: 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. Orlando, FL, USA, 4–7 January 2010, pp. 2010–0645.
Madsen, P.T., Wahlberg, M., Tougaard, J., Lucke, K., and Tyack, P. (2006). Wind turbine underwater noise and marine mammals: implications of current knowledge and data needs. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 309, pp. 279–295.
Malcolm, D.J. (2004). WindPACT Rotor Design. Period of performance: June 29, 2000 - February 28, 2004. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 44 pp.
Malcolm, D.J., and Hansen, A.C. (2006). WindPACT turbine rotor design study: June 2000 - June 2002. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 84 pp.
Markard, J., and Petersen, R. (2009). The offshore trend: Structural changes in the wind power sector. Energy Policy, 37, pp. 3545–3556.
Martinot, E., Dienst, C., Weiliang, L., and Qimin, C. (2007). Renewable energy futures: Targets, scenarios, and pathways. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 32, pp. 205–239.
Matthies, H.G., Garrad, A.D., Scherweit, M., Nath, C., Wastling, M.A., Siebers, T., Schellin, T., and Quarton, D.C. (1995). Study of Offshore Wind Energy in the European Community. Germanischer Lloyd, Hamburg, Germany.
McCunney, R.J., and Meyer, J. (2007). Occupational exposure to noise. In: Environmental and Occupational Medicine. 4th ed. Rom, W.N. (ed.) Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, pp. 1295–1238.
McDonald, A., and Schrattenholzer, L. (2001). Learning rates for energy technologies. Energy Policy, 29, pp. 255–261.
McElroy, M.B., Lu, X., Nielsen, C.P., and Wang, Y. (2009). Potential for windgenerated electricity in China. Science, 325, pp. 1378.
MDOH (2009). Public Health Impacts of Wind Turbines. Minnesota Department of Health (MDOH), Environmental Health Division, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 32 pp.
Meibom, P., Weber, C., Barth, R., and Brand, H. (2009). Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia. IET Renewable Power Generation, 3, pp. 75–83.
Meyer, N. (2007). Learning from wind energy policy in the EU: lessons from Denmark, Sweden and Spain. European Environment, 17, pp. 347–362.
Miao, Z., Fan, L., Osborn, D., and Yuvarajan, S. (2009). Control of DFIG-based wind generation to improve interarea oscillation damping. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 24, pp. 415–422.
Michel, J., Dunagan, H., Boring, C., Healy, E., Evans, W., Dean, J.M., McGillis, A., and Hain, J. (2007). Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf. US Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Herndon, VA, USA.
Migliore, P., and Oerlemans, S. (2004). Wind tunnel aeroacoustic tests of six airfoils for use on small wind turbines. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 126, pp. 974–985.
Miketa, A., and Schrattenholzer, L. (2004). Experiments with a methodology to model the role of R&D expenditures in energy technology learning processes; first results. Energy Policy, 32, pp. 1679–1692.
Milborrow, D. (2009). Quantifying the impacts of wind variability. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Energy, 162, pp. 105–111.
Milborrow, D. (2010). Annual power costs comparison: What a difference a year can make. Windpower Monthly, 26, pp. 41–47.
Milligan, M., and Kirby, B. (2008). The impact of balancing area size and ramping requirements on wind integration. Wind Engineering, 32, pp. 379–398.
Milligan, M., Lew, D.J., Corbus, D., Piwko, P., Miller, N., Clark, K., Jordan, G., Freeman, L., Zavadil, B., and Schuerger, M. (2009). Large-Scale Wind Integration Studies in the United States: Preliminary Results. In: 8th International Workshop on Large Scale Integration of Wind Power and on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, Bremen, Germany, 14–15 October 2009, pp. 1–8.
Mills, A., Wiser, R., and Porter, K. (2009a). The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA, 66 pp.
Mills, A., Wiser, R., Milligan, M., and O'Malley, M. (2009b). Comment on “Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power”. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, pp. 6106–6107.
Miranda, M.S., and Infield, D. (2002). A wind-powered seawater reverse-osmosis system without batteries. Desalination, 153, pp. 9–16.
MOE (2009). Development of Noise Setbacks for Wind Farms. Proposed Content for the Renewable Energy Approval Regulation - Section 47.3(1) - under the Environmental Protection Act. Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE), Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 8 pp.
Morales, J.M., Conejo, A.J., and Perez-Ruiz, J. (2011). Simulating the impact of wind production on locational marginal prices. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 26(2), pp. 820–828.
Moriarty, P., and Migliore, P. (2003). Semi-Empirical Aeroacoustic Noise Prediction Code for Wind Turbines. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 39 pp.
Morren, J., deHaan, S.W.H., Kling, W.L., and Ferreira, J. (2006). Wind turbines emulating inertia and supporting primary frequency control. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 21, pp. 433–434.
Morthorst, P.E. (2003). Wind power and the conditions at a liberalized power market. Wind Energy, 6, pp. 297–308.
Mostafaeipour, A. (2010). Feasibility study of offshore wind turbine installation in Iran compared with the world. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, pp. 1722–1743.
Mukora, A., Winskel, M., Jeffrey, H.F., and Mueller, M. (2009). Learning curves for emerging energy technologies. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Energy, 162, pp. 151–159.
Mullane, A., and O'Malley, M. (2005). The inertial response of induction-machinebased wind turbines. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 20, pp. 1496–1503.
Murawski, S.A. (2007). Ten myths concerning ecosystem approaches to marine resource management. Marine Policy, 31, pp. 681–690.
Musgrove, P. (2010). Wind Power. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 338 pp.
Musial, W. (2007). Offshore wind electricity: a viable energy option for the coastal United States. Marine Technology Society Journal, 41, pp. 32–43.
Musial, W., and Ram, B. (2010). Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 240 pp.
Naaijen, P., and Koster, V. (2007). Performance of auxiliary wind propulsion for merchant ships using a kite. In: 2nd International Conference on Marine Research and Transportation, Naples, Italy, 28–30 June 2007, pp. 45–53.
NABCI (2010). The State of the Birds: 2010 Report on Climate Change. North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI), US Committee, US Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, USA.
Nadaï, A., and Labussiere, O. (2009). Wind power planning in France (Aveyron), from state regulation to local planning. Land Use Policy, 26, pp. 744–754.
Neij, L. (1997). Use of experience curves to analyse the prospects for diffusion and adoption of renewable energy technology. Energy Policy, 25, pp. 1099–1107.
Neij, L. (1999). Cost dynamics of wind power. Energy, 24, pp. 375–389.
Neij, L. (2008). Cost development of future technologies for power generation – A study based on experience curves and complementary bottom-up assessments. Energy Policy, 36, pp. 2200–2211.
Nemet, G.F. (2009). Interim monitoring of cost dynamics for publicly supported energy technologies. Energy Policy, 37, pp. 825–835.
NERC (2009). Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation. North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), Princeton, NJ, USA, 104 pp.
Neuhoff, K., Ehrenmann, A., Butler, L., Cust, J., Hoexter, H., Keats, K., Kreczko, A., and Sinden, G. (2008). Space and time: Wind in an investment planning model. Energy Economics, 30, pp. 1990–2008.
NHMRC (2010). Wind Turbines and Health: A Rapid Review of the Evidence. National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of the Australian Government, Canberra, Australia, 11 pp.
Nielsen, F.G., Argyriadis, K., Fonseca, N., Boulluec, M. Le, Liu, P., Suzuki, H., Sirkar, J., Tarp-Johansen, N.J., Turnock, S.R., Waegter, J., and Zong, Z. (2009). Specialist Committee V.4: Ocean, wind and wave energy utilization. In: 17th International Ship and Offshore Structures Congress, Seoul, Korea, 16-21 August 2009, pp. 201–257.
Nielsen, S.R. (1996). Wind energy planning in Denmark. Renewable Energy, 9, pp. 776–771.
Nielson, P., Lemming, J.K., Morthorst, P.E., Lawetz, H., James-Smith, E.A., Clausen, N.E., Strøm, S., Larsen, J., Bang, N.C., and Lindboe, H.H. (2010). The Economics of Wind Turbines. EMD International, Aalborg, Denmark, 86 pp.
Nikolaev, V.G., Ganaga, S.V., and Kudriashov, K.I. (2008). National Kadastr of Wind Resources of Russia and Methodological Grounds for their Determination. Atmograph, Moscow, Russia, 590 pp.
Nikolaev, V.G., Ganaga, S.V., Kudriashov, K.I., Walter, R., Willems, P., and Sankovsky, A. (2010). Prospects of Development of Renewable Power Sources in Russian Federation. The results of TACIS project. Europe Aid/116951/C/SV/RU. Atmograph, Moscow, Russia.
NRC (2007). Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects. National Research Council, The National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, 394 pp.
NRC (2010a). Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use. National Research Council, The National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, 506 pp.
NRC (2010b). Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and Impediments. National Research Council, The National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, 388 pp.
O'Rourke, R. (2006). Navy Ship Propulsion Technologies: Options for Reducing Oil Use – Background for Congress. Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC, USA, 41 pp.
Owen, A.D. (2004). Environmental externalities, market distortions and the economics of renewable energy technologies. The Energy Journal, 25, pp. 127–156.
Palutikof, J.P., Guo, X., and Halliday, J.A. (1992). Climate variability and the UK wind resource. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 39, pp. 243–249.
Palutikof, J.P., Kelly, P.M., Davies, T.D., and Halliday, J.A. (1987). Impacts of spatial and temporal windspeed variability on wind energy output. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 26, pp. 1124–1133.
Pasqualetti, M.J., Gipe|R.W., P. Righter (2002). Wind Power in View: Energy Landscapes in a Crowded World. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, 248 pp.
Pasqualetti, M.J., Richter, R., and Gipe, P. (2004). History of wind energy. In: Encyclopaedia of Energy. Cleveland, C.J. (ed.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, pp. 419–433.
Passon, P., and Kühn, M. (2005). State-of-the-art and development needs of simulation codes for offshore wind turbines. In: Copenhagen Offshore Wind Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 26-28 October, 2005, pp. 1–12.
Pedersen, E., and Waye, K. (2004). Perception and annoyance due to wind turbine noise – a dose-response relationship. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 116, pp. 3460.
Pedersen, E., and Waye, K.P. (2007). Wind turbine noise, annoyance and self-reported health and well-being in different living environments. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 64, pp. 480–486.
Pedersen, E., and Waye, K.P. (2008). Wind turbines – low level noise sources interfering with restoration?Environmental Research Letters, 3, pp. 1–5.
Pedersen, E., Berg, F., Bakker, R., and Bouma, J. (2010). Can road traffic mask sound from wind turbines? Response to wind turbine sound at different levels of road traffic sound. Energy Policy 38, pp. 2520–2527.
Peeters, J.L.M., Vandepitte, D., and Sas, P. (2006). Analysis of internal drive train dynamics in a wind turbine. Wind Energy, 9, pp. 141–161.
Pehnt, M., Oeser, M., and Swider, D.J. (2008). Consequential environmental system analysis of expected offshore wind electricity production in Germany. Energy, 33, pp. 747–759.
Petersen, E.L., Mortensen, N.G., Landberg, L., Højstrup, J., and Frank, H.P. (1998). Wind power meteorology. Part I: Climate and turbulence. Wind Energy, 1, pp. 2–22.
M., Pettersson, Ek, K., Söderholm, K., and Söderholm, P. (2010). Wind power planning and permitting: Comparative perspectives from the Nordic countries. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, pp. 3116–3123.
Poore, R., and Lettenmaier, T. (2003). Alternative Design Study Report: WindPACT Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 556 pp.
Prospathopoulos, J.M., and Voutsinas, S.G. (2005). Noise propagation issues in wind energy applications. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 127, pp. 234–241.
Pryor, S.C., and Barthelmie, R.J. (2010). Climate change impacts on wind energy: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, pp. 430–437.
Pryor, S.C., and Ledolter, J. (2010). Addendum to: Wind speed trends over the contiguous USA. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, D10103.
Pryor, S.C., and Schoof, J.T. (2010). Importance of the SRES in projections of climate change impacts on near-surface wind regimes. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 19, pp. 267–274.
Pryor, S.C., Barthelmie, R.J., and Kjellström, E. (2005). Potential climate change impact on wind energy resources in northern Europe: analyses using a regional climate model. Climate Dynamics, 25, pp. 815–835.
Pryor, S.C., Schoof, J.T., and Barthelmie, R.J. (2006). Winds of change? Projections of near-surface winds under climate change scenarios. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L11702.
Pryor, S.C., Barthelmie, R.J., Young, D.T., Takle, E.S., Arritt, R.W., Flory, D., Gutowski, W. Jr., Nunes, A., and Roads, J. (2009). Wind speed trends over the contiguous United States. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 114, D14105.
Punt, M.J., Groeneveld, R.A., Ierland, E.C., and Stel, J.H. (2009). Spatial planning of offshore wind farms: A windfall to marine environmental protection?Ecological Economics, 69, pp. 93–103.
Purohit, P. (2007). Financial evaluation of renewable energy technologies for irrigation water pumping in India. Energy Policy, 35, pp. 3134–3144.
Quarton, D.C. (1998). The evolution of wind turbine design analysis – a twenty year progress review. Wind Energy, 1, pp. 5–24.
Rahimzadeh, F., Noorian, A., Pedram, M., and Kruk, M. (2011). Wind speed variability over Iran and its impact on wind power potential: A case study of Esfehan Province. Meteorological Applications, doi:10.1002/met.229.
Rasmussen, F., Hansen, M.H., Thomsen, K., Larsen, T.J., Bertagnolio, F., Johansen, J., Madsen, H.A., Bak, C., and Hansen, A.M. (2003). Present status of aeroelasticity of wind turbines. Wind Energy, 6, pp. 213–228.
REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010: Global Status Report. Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century Secretariat, Paris, France, 80 pp.
Rivier Abbad, J. (2010). Electricity market participation of wind farms: the success story of the Spanish pragmatism. Energy Policy, 38, pp. 3174–3179.
Riziotis, V.A., Voutsinas, S.G., Politis, E.S., and Chaviaropoulos, P.K. (2004). Aeroelastic stability of wind turbines: the problem, the methods and the issues. Wind Energy, 7, pp. 373–392.
Roberts, B.W., Shepard, D.H., Caldeira, K., Cannon, M.E., Eccles, D.G., Grenier, A.J., and Freidin, J.F. (2007). Harnessing high-altitude wind power. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 22, pp. 136–144.
B., Rockel, and Woth, K. (2007). Extremes of near-surface wind speed over Europe and their future changes as estimated from an ensemble of RCM simulations. Climatic Change, 81, pp. 267–280.
Rogner, H.-H., Barthel, F., Cabrera, M., Faaij, A., Giroux, M., Hall, D., Kagramanian, V., Kononov, S., Lefevre, T., Moreira, R., Nötstaller, R., Odell, P., Taylor, M. (2000). Energy resources. In: World Energy Assessment. Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability. United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, and World Energy Council, New York, NY, USA, pp. 135–171.
Sáenz de Miera, G., del Río González, P., and Vizcaíno, I. (2008). Analysing the impact of renewable electricity support schemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity in Spain. Energy Policy, 36, pp. 3345–3359.
Sailor, D.J., Smith, M., and Hart, M. (2008). Climate change implications for wind power resources in the Northwest United States. Renewable Energy, 33, pp. 2393–2406.
Schreck, S.J., and Robinson, M.C. (2003). Boundary layer state and flow field structure underlying rotational augmentation of blade aerodynamic response. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 125, pp. 448–457.
Schreck, S.J., Robinson, M.C., Hand, M.M., and Simms, D.A. (2000). HAWT dynamic stall response asymmetries under yawed flow conditions. Wind Energy, 3, pp. 215–232.
Schreck, S.J., Robinson, M.C., Hand, M.M., and Simms, D.A. (2001). Blade dynamic stall vortex kinematics for a horizontal axis wind turbine in yawed conditions. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 123, pp. 272.
Schreck, S.J., Lundquist, J., and Shaw, W. (2008). U.S. Department of Energy Workshop Report: Research Needs for Wind Resource Characterization. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 116 pp.
Schumacher, A., Fink, S., and Porter, K. (2009). Moving beyond paralysis: How states and regions are creating innovative transmission policies for renewable energy projects. The Electricity Journal, 22, pp. 27–36.
Schwartz, M., Heimiller, D., Haymes, S., and Musial, W. (2010). Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resource for the United States. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 104 pp.
Sensfus, F., Ragwitz, M., and Genoese, M. (2008). The merit-order effect: A detailed analysis of the price effect of renewable electricity generation on spot market prices in Germany. Energy Policy, 36, pp. 3086–3094.
Shafer, D.A., Strawmyer, K.R., Conley, R.M., Guidinger, J.H., Wilkie, D.C., Zellman, T.F., and Bernadett, D.W. (2001). WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies: Technical Area 4 – Balance-of-Station Cost; 21 March 2000-15 March 2001. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 219 pp.
Shen, W.Z., and Sorensen, J.N. (2007). Aero-acoustic modelling using large eddy simulation. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 75, pp. 012085.
Siegfriedsen, S., Lehnhoff, M., and Prehn, A. (2003). Primary markets for offshore wind energy outside the European Union. Wind Engineering, 27, pp. 419–429.
Sieros, G., Chaviaropoulos, P., Sorensen, J., Bulder, B., and Jamieson, P. (2011). Upscaling wind turbines: theoretical and practical aspects and the impact on the cost of energy. Wind Energy, accepted for publication.
Simms, D.A., Schreck, S., Hand, M., and Fingersh, L.J. (2001). NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment in the NASA-Ames Wind Tunnel: A Comparison of Predictions to Measurements. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 51 pp.
Simons, R. (2006). Peer reviewed evidence on property value impacts by source of contamination. In: When Bad Things Happen To Good Property. Environmental Law Institute Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 63–112.
Simons, R.A., and Saginor, J.D. (2006). A meta-analysis of the effect of environmental contamination and positive amenities on residential real estate values. Journal of Real Estate Research, 28, pp. 71–104.
Sims, S., and Dent P, P. (2007). Property stigma: wind farms are just the latest fashion. Journal of Property Investment & Finance, 25, pp. 626–651.
Sims, S., Dent, P., and Oskrochi, G.R. (2008). Modelling the impact of wind farms on house prices in the UK. International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 12, pp. 251–269.
Sinden, G. (2007). Characteristics of the UK wind resource: long-term patterns and relationship to electricity demand. Energy Policy, 35, pp. 112–127.
Singh, B., and Singh, S.N. (2009). Wind power interconnection in power system: A review of grid code requirements. The Electricity Journal, 22, pp. 54–63.
Smallwood, K.S., and Thelander, C. (2008). Bird mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California. Journal of Wildlife Management, 72, pp. 215–223.
Smith, D.A. (2001). WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 2: Turbine, Rotor, and Blade Logistics; March 27, 2000 to December 31, 2000. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 224 pp.
Smith, J.C., Milligan, M.R., DeMeo, E.A., and Parsons, B. (2007). Utility wind integration and operating impact state of the art. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 22, pp. 900–908.
Snel, H. (2003). Review of aerodynamics for wind turbines. Wind Energy, 6, pp. 203–211.
Snel, H., Schepers, J.G., and Siccama, N. (2009). Mexico Project: the database and results of data processing and interpretation. In: 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), Orlando, Florida, 5-8 January 2009, pp. 2009–1217.
Snyder, B., and Kaiser, M.J. (2009a). A comparison of offshore wind power development in Europe and the US: Patterns and drivers of development. Applied Energy, 86, pp. 1845–1856.
Snyder, B., and Kaiser, M.J. (2009b). Ecological and economic cost-benefit analysis of offshore wind energy. Renewable Energy, 34, pp. 1567–1578.
Soder, L., and Holttinen, H. (2008). On methodology for modelling wind power impact on power systems. International Journal of Global Energy Issues, 29, pp. 181–198.
Soder, L., Hofmann, L., Orths, A., Holttinen, H., Wan, Y., and Tuohy, A. (2007). Experience from wind integration in some high penetration areas. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 22, pp. 4–12.
Soderholm, P., and Sundqvist, T. (2007). Empirical challenges in the use of learning curves for assessing the economic prospects of renewable energy technologies. Renewable Energy, 32, pp. 2559–2578.
South, P., Mitchell, R., and Jacobs, E. (1983). Strategies for the Evaluation of Advanced Wind Energy Concepts. Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO, USA, 153 pp.
Sovacool, B.K. (2009). Contextualizing avian mortality: A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity. Energy Policy, 37, pp. 2241–2248.
Spera, D. (ed.) (2009). Wind Turbine Technology: Fundamental Concepts of Wind Turbine Engineering. American Society of Mechanical Engineers Press, New York, NY, USA, 638 pp.
Sta. Maria, M.R.V., and Jacobson, M.Z. (2009). Investigating the effect of large wind farms on energy in the atmosphere. Energies, 2, pp. 816–838.
Stewart, G.B., Pullin, A.S., and Coles, C.F. (2007). Poor evidence-base for assessment of windfarm impacts on birds. Environmental Conservation, 34, pp. 1–11.
Stol, K.A., and Balas, M.J. (2003). Periodic disturbance accommodating control for blade load mitigation in wind turbines. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 125, pp. 379.
Stoner, A.M.K., Hayhoe, K., and Wuebbles, D.J. (2009). Assessing general circulation model simulations of atmospheric teleconnection patterns. Journal of Climate, 22, pp. 4348.
Summers, E. (2000). Operational effects of windfarm developments on air traffic control (ATC) radar procedures for Glasgow Prestwick International Airport. Wind Engineering, 24, pp. 431–435.
Sundqvist, T. (2004). What causes the disparity of electricity externality estimates?Energy Policy, 32, pp. 1753–1766.
Swider, D.J., Beurskens, L., Davidson, S., Twidell, J., Pyrko, J., Pruggler, W., Auer, H., Vertin, K., and Skema, R. (2008). Conditions and costs for renewables electricity grid connection: Examples in Europe. Renewable Energy, 33, pp. 1832–1842.
Swofford, J., and Slattery, M. (2010). Public attitudes of wind energy in Texas: Local communities in close proximity to wind farms and their effect on decisionmaking. Energy Policy, 38, pp. 2508–2519.
Tan, X. (2010). Clean technology R&D and innovation in emerging countries – Experience from China. Energy Policy, 38, pp. 2916–2926.
Teske, S., Pregger, T., Simon, S., Naegler, T., Graus, W., and Lins, C. (2010). Energy [R]evolution 2010–a sustainable world energy outlook. Energy Efficiency, 4, pp. 409–433.
Thayer, R.L., and Freeman, C.M. (1987). Altamont: Public perceptions of a wind energy landscape. Landscape and Urban Planning, 14, pp. 379–398.
Thayer, R.L., and Hansen, H. (1988). Wind on the land: Renewable energy and pastoral scenery vie for dominance in the siting of wind energy developments. Landscape Architecture, 78, pp. 69–73.
Thomsen, K., and Sorensen, P. (1999). Fatigue loads for wind turbines operating in wakes. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 80, pp. 121–136.
Toke, D. (2006). Explaining wind power planning outcomes: Some findings from a study in England and Wales. Energy Policy, 33, pp. 1527–1539.
Toke, D., Breukers, S., and Wolsink, M. (2008). Wind power deployment outcomes: How can we account for the differences?Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12, pp. 1129–1147.
Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J., Teilmann, J., Skov, H., and Rasmussen, P. (2009). Pile driving zone of responsiveness extends beyond 20 km for harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena (L.)). The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 126, pp. 11–14.
Tradewind (2009). Integrating Wind. Developing Europe's Power Market for the Large Scale Integration of Wind. Tradewind, Brussels, Belgium, 104 pp.
Troy, N., Denny, E., and O'Malley, M.J. (2010). Base load cycling on a system with significant wind penetration. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 25, pp. 1088–1097.
Tuohy, A., Meibom, P., Denny, E., and O'Malley, M. (2009). Unit commitment for systems with significant wind penetration. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 24, pp. 592–601.
Twidell, J., and Gaudiosi, G. (eds.) (2009). Offshore Wind Power. Multi-Science Publishing, Brentwood, UK, 425 pp.
UKERC (2010). Great Expectations: The Cost of Offshore Wind in UK Waters – Understanding the Past and Projecting the Future. UK Energy Research Centre, London, UK, 112 pp.
US DOE (2008). 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply. US Department of Energy, Washington, DC, USA, 248 pp.
Usaola, J. (2009). Probabilistic load flow in systems with wind generation. IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, 3, pp. 1031–1041.
Vajjhala, S.P., and Fischbeck, P.S. (2007). Quantifying siting difficulty: A case study of US transmission line siting. Energy Policy, 35, pp. 650–671.
Valentine, S.V. (2010). A STEP toward understanding wind power development policy barriers in advanced economies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, pp. 2796–2807.
Bussel, G.J.W., and Bierbooms, W. (2003). The DOWEC Offshore Reference Windfarm: analysis of transportation for operation and maintenance. Wind Engineering, 27, pp. 381–391.
van den Berg, GP. (2004). Effects of the wind profile at night on wind turbine sound. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 277, pp. 955–970.
van den Berg, G.P. (2005). The beat is getting stronger: the effect of atmospheric stability on low frequency modulated sound of wind turbines. Noise Notes, 4, pp. 15–40.
van den Berg, G.P. (2008). Wind turbine power and sound in relation to atmospheric stability. Wind Energy, 11, pp. 151–169.
Horst, D. (2007). NIMBY or not? Exploring the relevance of location and the politics of voiced opinions in renewable energy siting controversies. Energy Policy, 35, pp. 2705–2714.
Hoven, I. (1957). Power spectrum of horizontal wind speed in the frequency range from 0.0007 to 900 cycles per hour. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 14, pp. 160–164.
Vittal, E., O'Malley, M.J., and Keane, A. (2010). A steady-state voltage stability analysis of power systems with high penetrations of wind. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 25, pp. 433–442.
Wagner, S., Bareiss, R., and Guidati, G. (1996). Wind Turbine Noise. Springer-Verlag Telos, Emeryville, CA, USA, 204 pp.
Wahlberg, M., and Westerberg, H. (2005). Hearing in fish and their reactions to sounds from offshore wind farms. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 288, pp. 295–309.
Walter, A., Keuler, K., Jacob, D., Knoche, R., Block, A., Kotlarski, S., Muller-Westermeier, G., Rechid, D., and Ahrens, W. (2006). A high resolution reference dataset of German wind velocity 1951-2001 and comparison with regional climate model results. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 15, pp. 585–596.
Wan, Y., and Bucaneg, D. Jr. (2002). Short-term power fluctuations of large wind power plants. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 124, pp. 427.
Wan, Y., Milligan, M., and Parsons, B. (2003). Output power correlation between adjacent wind power plants. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 125, pp. 551–554.
Wang, C., and Prinn, R.G. (2010). Potential climatic impacts and reliability of very large-scale wind farms. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, pp. 2053–2061.
Wang, X.L., Zwiers, F.W.Swail, V.R., and Feng, Y. (2009). Trends and variability of storminess in the Northeast Atlantic region, 1874–2007. Climate Dynamics, 33, pp. 1179–1195.
Warren, C., Lumsden, C., O'Dowd, S., and Birnie, R. (2005). ‘Green on Green’: Public perceptions of wind power in Scotland and Ireland. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 48, pp. 853–875.
Watson, S.J., Landberg, L., and Halliday, J.A. (1994). Application of wind speed forecasting to the integration of wind energy into a large scale power system. IEE Proceedings - Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 141, pp. 357–362.
WBGU H., Graßl, Kokott, J., Kulessa, M., Luther, J., Nuscheler, F., Sauerborn, R., Schellnhuber, H.J., Schubert, R., Schulze, E.D. (2004). World in Transition: Towards Sustainable Energy Systems. German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU), Earthscan, London, UK and Sterling, VA, USA, 352 pp.
Weber, C. (2010). Adequate intraday market design to enable the integration of wind energy into the European power systems. Energy Policy, 38, pp. 3155–3163.
WEC (1994). New Renewable Energy Resources: A Guide to the Future. World Energy Council, Kogan Page, London, UK, 391 pp.
Wene, C.O. (2000). Experience curves for energy technology policy. International Energy Agency and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France, 127 pp.
WHO (1999). Guidelines for Community Noise. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 141 pp.
WHO (2009). Night Noise Guidelines for Europe. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 162 pp.
Wiesenthal, T., Leduc, G., Schwarz, H., and Haegeman, K. (2009). R&D Investment in the Priority Technologies of the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Luxembourg, 84 pp.
Wiggelinkhuizen, E., Verbruggen, T., Braam, H., Rademakers, L., Xiang, J., and Watson, S. (2008). Assessment of condition monitoring techniques for offshore wind farms. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 130, 031004.
Wilhelmsson, D., and Malm, T. (2008). Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 79, pp. 459–466.
Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T., and Ohman, M.C. (2006). The influence of offshore windpower on demersal fish. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 63, pp. 775.
Wilson, J.C., and Elliott, M. (2009). The habitat-creation potential of offshore wind farms. Wind Energy, 12, pp. 203–212.
Wiser, R., and Bolinger, M. (2010). 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report. US Department of Energy, Washington, DC, USA, 88 pp.
Wiser, R.H., and Pickle, S.J. (1998). Financing investments in renewable energy: the impacts of policy design. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2, pp. 361–386.
Wolsink, M. (1989). Attitudes and expectancies about wind turbines and wind farms. Wind Engineering, 13, pp. 196–206.
Wolsink, M. (2000). Wind power and the NIMBY-myth: institutional capacity and the limited significance of public support. Renewable Energy, 21, pp. 49–64.
Wolsink, M. (2007). Planning of renewables schemes: Deliberative and fair decision-making on landscape issues instead of reproachful accusations of noncooperation. Energy Policy, 35, pp. 2692–2704.
Wright, A.D. (2004). Modern Control Design for Flexible Wind Turbines. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 233 pp.
Wustenhagen, R., Wolsink, M., and Burer, M. (2007). Social acceptance of renewable energy innovation: An introduction to the concept. Energy Policy, 35, pp. 2683–2691.
Wyngaard, J.C. (2004). Toward numerical modeling in the “Terra Incognita”. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 61, pp. 1816–1826.
Xiao, Z., Rong, Z., and Song, L. (2010). China Wind Energy Resource Assessment 2009. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, China, 150 pp.
Xue, H., Zhu, R.Z., Yang, Z.B., and Yuan, C.H. (2001). Assessment of wind energy reserves in China. Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica, 22, pp. 168–170.
Yu, C., Sark, W., and Alsema, E. (2011). Unraveling the photovoltaic technology learning curve by incorporation of input price changes and scale effects. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, pp. 324–337.
Zhu, W.J., Shen, W.Z., and Sorensen, J.N. (2007). Computational aero-acoustic using high-order finite-difference schemes. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 75, pp. 012084.
Zhu, W.J., Heilskov, N.Shen, W.Z., and Sorensen, J.N. (2005). Modeling of aerodynamically generated noise from wind turbines. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 127, pp. 517.