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A Sea of Debt
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  • Cited by 4
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    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Sabban, Rima 2019. Slavery in the Islamic World. p. 125.

    Keller, Sara 2019. Knowledge and the Indian Ocean. p. 1.

    Bishara, Fahad Ahmad 2018. Imagining Oceans of Law: Oman and East Africa, circa 1910. Itinerario, Vol. 42, Issue. 2, p. 168.

    Moustafa, Tamir and Sachs, Jeffrey Adam 2018. Law and Society Review Special Issue Introduction: Islamic Law, Society, and the State. Law & Society Review, Vol. 52, Issue. 3, p. 560.


Book description

In this innovative legal history of economic life in the Western Indian Ocean, Bishara examines the transformations of Islamic law and Islamicate commercial practices during the emergence of modern capitalism in the region. In this time of expanding commercial activity, a mélange of Arab, Indian, Swahili and Baloch merchants, planters, jurists, judges, soldiers and seamen forged the frontiers of a shared world. The interlinked worlds of trade and politics that these actors created, the shared commercial grammars and institutions that they developed and the spatial and socio-economic mobilities they engaged in endured until at least the middle of the twentieth century. This major study examines the Indian Ocean from Oman to India and East Africa over an extended period of time, drawing together the histories of commerce, law and empire in a sophisticated, original and richly textured history of capitalism in the Islamic world.


'… essential reading for anyone interested in the Indian Ocean world, Islam, economic life, and of course, the law.'

Johan Mathew Source: H-IslamInAfrica

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  • Miscellaneous Arabic Deeds

  • R/15/1: Political Resident, Bushire

  • R/15/2: Political Agency, Bahrain

  • R/15/3: Political Agency, Bahrain: Court Records

  • R/15/5: Political Agency, Kuwait

  • R/15/6: Political Agency, Muscat

  • Judicial Department

  • Political Department

  • Miscellaneous Arabic Deeds

  • Date Trade Files

  • AA 2: General Correspondence, 1837–1890

  • AA 3: Bombay Correspondence, 1840–1884

  • AA 4: Government of India Correspondence, 1874–1887

  • AA 7: Court Records, 1855–1891

  • AA 12: Miscellaneous, 1837–1914

  • AB 3: Executive and Legislative Council, 1908–1964

  • AB 14: Banks and Currency, 1909–1960

  • AB 27: World Wars and Treaties, 1886–1956

  • AB 40: Land and Survey Records, 1910–1959

  • AB 47: Mortgage and Debt Settlement, 1920–1957

  • AB 62: Judicial and Legal Departments, 1900–1964

  • AM 1: General Deed Register, 1865–1920

  • AM 3: General Deeds, 1877–1881

  • HC 2: High Court: Insolvency, 1887–1962

  • HC 3: High Court: Civil Cases, 1908–1948

  • HC 5: High Court: Civil Appeals, 1898–1949

  • HC 6: High Court: Criminal Appeals, 1897–1940

  • HC 7: H.B.M. and Consular Court: Civil Cases, 1875–1939

  • HC 8: H.H. the Sultan’s Court: Civil Cases, 1898–1924

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