Skip to main content
×
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Gvion, Yari and Apter, Alan 2017. Handbook of Suicidal Behaviour. p. 91.

    Gan, Chin- Chin and Kok, Jin-Kuan 2013. Color Identification on Death Perception of Teenagers. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, p. 350.

    Miranda, Regina Tsypes, Aliona Gallagher, Michelle and Rajappa, Kristin 2013. Rumination and Hopelessness as Mediators of the Relation Between Perceived Emotion Dysregulation and Suicidal Ideation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, Vol. 37, Issue. 4, p. 786.

    Gvion, Yari and Apter, Alan 2011. Aggression, Impulsivity, and Suicide Behavior: A Review of the Literature. Archives of Suicide Research, Vol. 15, Issue. 2, p. 93.

    Mullany, Britta Barlow, Allison Goklish, Novalene Larzelere-Hinton, Francene Cwik, Mary Craig, Mariddie and Walkup, John T. 2009. Toward Understanding Suicide Among Youths: Results From the White Mountain Apache Tribally Mandated Suicide Surveillance System, 2001–2006. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 99, Issue. 10, p. 1840.

    Carlson, Karen Townsend 2006. Mood Variability in Adolescent Suicide: Importance in Domains of Self-Schemas in Adolescent Suicide. Child and Youth Care Forum, Vol. 35, Issue. 2, p. 79.

    Patel, Nina and Hodes, Matthew 2006. Violent deliberate self-harm amongst adolescent refugees. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 15, Issue. 6, p. 367.

    Zemaitiene, Nida and Zaborskis, Apolinaras 2005. Suicidal tendencies and attitude towards freedom to choose suicide among Lithuanian schoolchildren: results from three cross-sectional studies in 1994, 1998, and 2002. BMC Public Health, Vol. 5, Issue. 1,

    Kyte, Zoe A. Goodyer, Ian M. and Sahakian, Barbara J. 2005. Selected executive skills in adolescents with recent first episode major depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 46, Issue. 9, p. 995.

    ×
  • Print publication year: 2003
  • Online publication date: December 2009

3 - Adolescent attempted suicide

    • By Alan Apter, Professor of Psychiatry, Sackler School of Medicine, University of Tel-Aviv Medical School; Chairman, Dept. of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, 14 Kaplan St. Petah Tikva, Israel 49202 e-mail: eapter@clalit.org.il, Danuta Wasserman, Professor of Psychiatry and Suicidology and Chairmen of the Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute; Head of the Swedish National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Illness, National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine; Director of the WHO Collaborating, Centre for Suicide research and promotion of mental health, Karolinska Institute, Box 230, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden e-mail: danuta.wasserman@ipm.ki.se tel: +46-8-7287026, fax: +46-8-30-64-39
  • Edited by Robert A. King, Yale University, Connecticut, Alan Apter, Tel-Aviv University
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511550423.004
  • pp 63-85
Summary
Attempted suicide is relatively rare under 12 years of age, although there may be isolated cases under the age of five. The repetition rate for referred attempted suicide may be estimated by the ratio of the number of suicide-attempt events to the number of people involved. In the World Health Organization (WHO) study, more than one-third of the young patients included in the study at the index-attempted suicide had a history of prior attempted-suicide behaviour. Data from the Stockholm WHO center illustrated reasons for suicide attempts. Among many young suicide attempters seen, instability in family situation and childhood circumstances was notable. A history of suicidal behavior is one of the most significant risk factors for completed suicide among adolescents. The extensive material from the WHO study on attempted suicide provides available information on the provision of aftercare treatment recommendations made to young people aged 15-19 following attempted suicide.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Suicide in Children and Adolescents
  • Online ISBN: 9780511550423
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511550423
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
REFERENCES
Allgulander, C., and Lavori, P. W., (1991). Excess mortality among 3302 patients with “pure” anxiety neurosis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 599–602
American Academy of Pediatrics. (1980). Committee on adolescence. Teenage suicide. Pediatrics, 66(1), 144–146
Andrews, J. A., and Lewinsohn, P. M., (1992). Suicidal attempts among older adolescents: prevalence and co-occurrence with psychiatric disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 655–662
Angle, C. R., O'Brien, T. P., and McIntire, M. S., (1983). Adolescent self poisoning. A nine year follow up. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 4, 83–87
Apter, A., Bleich, A., Plutchik, R., Mendelsohn, S., and Tyano, S., (1988a). Suicidal behavior, depression, and conduct disorder in hospitalized adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 696–699
Apter, A., Bleich, A., and Tyano, S., (1988b). Psychotic and affective psychopathology in hospitalized adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 116–120
Apter, A., Praag, H. M., Plutchik, R., Serg, S., Korn, M., and Brown, S. (1990). Interrelationships among anxiety, aggression, impulsivity, and mood: a serotonergically linked cluster?Psychiatry Research, 32, 191–199
Apter, A., Bleich, A., King, R. A., Kron, S., Fluch, A., Kotler, M., and Cohen, D. J. (1993a). Death withoutwarning? A clinical postmortem study of suicide in 43 Israeli adolescent males. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 138–142
Apter, A., Plutchik, R., and Praag, H. M. (1993b). Anxiety, impulsivity and depressed mood in relation to suicidal and violent behavior. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 87, 1–5
Apter, A., Gothelf, D., Orbach, I., Har-Even, D., Weizman, R., and Tyano, S. (1995). Correlation of suicidal and violent behavior in different diagnostic categories in hospitalized adolescent patients. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(7), 912–918
Beautrais, A. L. (1998). Risk factors for serious suicide attempts among young people: a case control study. In Kosky, R. J., Eshkevari, H. S., et al. (eds.) Suicide Prevention: The Global Context (pp. 167–181). New York, NY: Plenum Press
Beautrais, A. L., Joyce, P. R., and Mulder, R. (1996). Risk factors for serious suicide attempts among youths aged 13 through 24 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1174–1182
Bettes, B. A., and Walker, E. (1986). Symptoms associated with suicidal behavior in children and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14(4), 591–604
Bille-Brahe, U., Bjerke, T., Crepet, P., De Leo, D., Haring, C., Hawton, K., Kerkhof, A., Lönnqvist, J., Michel, K., Philippe, A., Pommereau, X., Querejeta, I., Salander-Renberg, E., Schmidtke, A., Temesváry, B., Wasserman, D., and Sampaio-Faria, J. G. (1993). WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Parasuicide. Facts and Figures. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe
Brent, D. A., Perper, J. A., and Allman, C. J., (1987). Alcohol, firearms, and suicide among youth. Temporal trends in Allegheny County. Pennsylvania, 1960 to 1983. Journal of the American Medical Association, 257(24), 3369–3372
Brent, D. A., Johnson, B., Bartle, S., Bridge, J., Rather, C., Matta, J., Connolly, J., and Constantine, D., (1993). Personality disorder, tendency to impulsive violence and suicidal behavior in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(1), 69–75
Carlson, C. A., and Cantwell, D. P., (1982). Suicidal behavior and depression in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 361–368
Center for Disease Control (1995). Suicide among children, adolescents and young adults. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 44(15), 289
Center for Disease Control (2002). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(31), 657-630
Cohen-Sandler, R., Berman, A. L., and King, R. A. (1982). A follow-up study of hospitalized suicidal children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 21(4), 398-403
Crumley, F. E. (1979). Adolescent suicide attempts. Journal of the American Medical Association, 241(22), 2404-2407
Crumley, F. E. (1981). Adolescent suicide attempts and borderline personality disorder: clinical features. Southern Medical Journal, 74, 546–549
Wilde, E. J., Kienhorst, I. C. W. M., Diekstra, R. F. W., and Wolters, W. H. G. (1993). The specificity of psychological characteristics of adolescent suicide attempters. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 51–59
Diekstra, R. F. W. (1989a). Suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults: the international picture. Crisis, 10, 16–35
Diekstra, R. F. W. (1989b). Suicide and the attempted suicide: an international perspective. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 80 (suppl. 354), 1-24
Diekstra, R. (1994). On the burden of suicide. In Kelleher, M. (ed.) Divergent Perspectives on Suicidal Behavior (pp. 2–27). Cork: O'Leary Ltd.
Dycian, A., Fishman, G., and Bleich, A. (1994). Suicide and self inflicted injuries. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 16–19
Farbstein, I., Dycian, A., King, R., Cohen, D. J., Kron, A., and Apter, A. (2002). A follow-up study of adolescent attempted suicide in Israel and the effects of mandatory general hospital admission. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 41, 1342-1349
Fawcett, J., Scheftner, W. A., Fogg, L., Clark, D. C., Young, M. A., Hedeker, D., and Gibbons, R. (1990). Time-related predictors of suicide in major affective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1189–1194
Felice, M. E. (1981). Letter to the editor. Pediatrics, 67, 934–935
Friedman, R. C., Arnoff, M. S., and Charkin, J. F. (1983). History of suicidal behavior in depressed borderline adolescent inpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 1023–1026
Garfinkel, B., Froese, A., and Hood, J. (1982). Suicide attempts in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 1257–1261
Garnefski, N., and Diekstra, R. F. W. (1997). Adolescents from one parent, stepparent and intact families: emotional problems and suicide attempts. Journal of Adolescence, 20, 201–208
Garrison, C. Z. (1983). The study of suicidal behavior in schools. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 19(1), 120-130
Garrison, C. Z., Schlucter, M. D., Schoenbach, V. J., and Kaplan, B. K. (1989). Epidemiology of depressive symptoms in young adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 343–351
Garrison, C. Z., McKeown, R. E., Valois, R. F., and Vincent, M. L. (1993). Aggression, substance use and suicidal behavior in high school students. American Journal of Public Health, 83(2), 179-184
Goldacre, M., and Hawton, K. (1985). Repetition of self poisoning and subsequent death in adolescents who take overdose. British Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 395–398
Goldney, R. D., and Pilowsky, I. (1981). Depression in young women who have attempted suicide. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 14, 203–211
Hassanyeh, F., O'Brien, G., Holton, A. R., Hurren, K., and Watt, L. (1989). Repeat self harm: an 18-month follow-up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 79, 265–267
Hawton, K., and Catalan, J. (1987). Attempted Suicide. A Practical Guide to its Nature and Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Hawton, K., O'Grady, J., Osborn, M., and Cole, D. (1982). Adolescents who take overdoses: their characteristics, problems and contacts with helping agencies. British Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 118–123
Hawton, K., Fagg., J.Simkin, S., Bale, E., and Bond, A. (1997). Trends in deliberate self-harm in Oxford, 1985–1995. Implications for clinical services and the prevention of suicide. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 556–560
Hawton, K., Fagg, J., Simkin, S., Bale, E., and Bond, A. (2000). Deliberate self-harm in adolescents in Oxford, 1985–1995. Journal of Adolescence, 23(1), 47-55
Hultén, A. (2000). Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents in Sweden and some European countries. Epidemiological and clinical aspects. Doctoral Dissertation, Karolinska Institut, Stockholm. ISBN: 91- 628- 4254-4
Hultén, A., and Wasserman, D. (1995). Suicide and attempted suicide among children and adolescents. In Beskow, J. (ed.) Right to Life; Lust for Life. Suicidal Behavior in the Child and Adolescent Population. Stockholm: Forskningsrådsnämnden, Rapport 95:4
Hulten, A., Wasserman, D., Hawton, K., Jiang, G. X., Salander-Renberg, E., Schmidtke, A., Bille-Brahe, U., Bjerke, T., Kerkhkof, A., Michel, K., and Querejeta, I. (2000). Recommended care for young people (15–19 years) after suicide attempts in certain European countries. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 9(2), 100-108
Hultén, A., Wasserman, D., Jiang, G. K., Hawton, K., Hjelmeland, H., Deleo, D., Ostamo, A., Salander-Renberg, E., and Schmidtke, A. (2001). Repetition of attempted suicide among teenagers in Europe; frequency, timing, and risk factors, European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 10, 161–169
ICD 10, Geneva, WHO, 1994
Inmadar, S. E., Lewis, D. O., Siomopolous, G., Shanock, S. S., and Lamella, M. (1982). Violent and suicidal behavior in psychotic adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139(7), 932-935
Kann, L., Kinchen, S. A., Williams, B. I., Ross, J. G., Lowry, R., Grunbaum, J. A., and Kolbe, L. J. (2000). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 1999. State and local YRBSS Coordinators. Journal of School Health, 70(7), 271-285
Kienhorst, C. W. M., Wolters, W. H. G., Diekstra, R. F. W., and Otte, E. (1987). A study of the frequency of suicidal behavior in children aged 5 to 14. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 28, 153–165
Kienhorst, C. W., de Wilde, E. J., Bont, J., Diekstra, R. F., and Wolters, W. H. (1990). Characteristics of suicide attempters in a populaion-based sample of Dutch adolescents. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 243–248
Kingsbury, S., Hawton, K., Steinhardt, K., and James, A. (1999). Do adolescents who take overdoses have specific psychological characteristics? A comparative study with psychiatric and community controls. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(9), 1125-1131
Kolbe, L. J., Kann, L., and Collins, J. L. (1993). Overview of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Public Health Reports, 108 (supplement 1), 2-10
Kosky, R., Silburn, S., and Zubrick, S. R. (1986). Symptomatic depression and suicidal ideation: a comparative study with 628 children. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 523–528
Kotila, L. (1989). Age-specific characteristics of attempted suicide in adolescence. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 79, 436–443
Kotila, L., and Lonnquist, J. (1988). Adolescent suicide attempts: sex differences predicting suicide. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 77, 264–270
Kreitman, N. (1979). Reflections on the management of parasuicide. British Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 275
Levy, J. C., and Deykin, E. Y. (1989). Suicidality, depression and substance abuse in adolescence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1462–1467
Litt, I. F., Cuskey, W. R., and Rudd, S. (1983). Emergency room evaluation of the adolescent who attempts suicide: Compliance with follow-up. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 4, 106–108
Mannuzza, S., Aronowitz, B., Chapman, T., Klein, D. F., and Fyer, A. J. (1992). Panic disorder and suicide attempts. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 6, 261–274
Marks, P. A., and Haller, D. L. (1977). Now I lay down for keeps: a study of adolescent suicide attempts. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 390–400
Massion, A. O., Warshaw, M. G., and Keller, M. B. (1993). Quality of life and psychiatric morbidity in panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 600–607
Mattson, A., Seese, L. R., and Hawkins, J. W. (1969). Suicidal behavior as a child psychiatric emergency. Archives of General Psychiatry 20, 100–109
McIntire, M. S., Angle, C. R., Wikoff, R. L., and Schlicht, M. L. (1997). Recurrent adolescent suicidal behavior. Pediatrics, 60, 605–608
Meehan, P. J., Lamb, J. A., Saltzman, L. E., and O'Carroll, P. W. (1992). Attempted suicide among young adults. Progress toward a meaningful estimate of prevalence. American Journal of Psychiatry 149, 41–44
Mehlum, L. (1994). Young male suicide attempters 20 years later: the suicide mortality rate. Military Medicine, 159(2), 138–141
Mehr, M., Zeltzer, L. K., and Robinson, R. (1982). Continued self destructive behaviors in adolescent suicide attempters, part II. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 2, 183–187
Menninger, K. (1933). Man Against Himself.New York, NY: Harcourt Brace
Morrison, G. C., and Collier, J. G. (1969). Family treatment approaches to suicidal children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 8, 140–153
Moscicki, E. K. (1995). Epidemiology of suicide. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 25(1), 22–35
Moscicki, E. K., Locke, B. Z., Rae, D. S., and Boyd, J. H. (1989). Depressive symptoms among Mexican Americans: the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. American Journal of Epidemiology, 130(2), 348–360
Motto, J. A. (1984). Suicide in male adolescents. In Sudak, H. S., Ford, A. B., and Rushforth, N. B. (eds.) it Suicide in the Young (pp. 224–244). Boston, MA: John Wright PSG, Inc.
Newson-Smith, J. G., and Hirsch, S. R. (1979). Psychiatric symptoms in self-poisoning patients. Psychological Medicine, 9(3), 493–500
Oei, T. I., Verhoeven, W. M. A., Westenberg, H. G. M., Zwart, F. M., and Ree, J. M. (1990). Anhedonia, suicide ideation and dexamethasone non-suppression in depressed patients. Journal of Psychiatry Research, 24, 25–35
Otto, U. (1972). Suicidal acts by children and adolescents: a follow-up study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, 233, 5–123
Paerregaard, G. (1975). Suicide among attempted suicides: a 10-year follow-up. Suicide, 5(3), 140–144
Paykel, E. S., Myers, J. K., Lindenthal, J. J., and Tanner, J. (1974). Suicidal feelings on the general population: a prevalence study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 460–469
Pfeffer, C. R., Plutchik, R., and Mizruchi, S. (1983). Suicidal and assaultive behavior in children, classification, measurement and interrelation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 154–157
Pfeffer, C. R., Newcorn, J., Kaplan, G., Mizruchi, M. S., and Plutchik, R. (1988). Suicidal behavior in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(3) 357–361
Pfeffer, C. R., Klerman, G. L., Hurt, S. W., Lesser, M., Peskin, J. R., and Siefker, C. A. (1991). Suicidal children grow-up: demographic and clinical risk factors for adolescent suicide attempts. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(4), 609–616
Piacentini, J., Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Gillis, J. R., Graae, F., Trautman, P., Cantwell, C., Garcia-Leeds, C., and Shaffer, D. (1995). Demographic predictors of treatment attendance among adolescent suicide attempters. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(3), 469–473
Pillay, A. L., and Wassenaar, D. R. (1997). Family dynamics, hopelessness and psychiatric disturbance in parasuicidal adolescents. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 227–230
Platt, S., Bille-Brahe, U., Kerkhof, A., et al. (1992). Parasuicide in Europe: the WHO/EURO Multi-centre Study on Parasuicide. Introduction and preliminary analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 85, 97–104
Plutchik, R., and van Praag, H. M. (1986). The measurement of suicidality, aggressivity and impulsivity. Paper presented at the International College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 1986
Plutchik, R., van Praag, H. M., and Conte, H. R. (1985). Suicide and violence risk in psychiatric patients. In Shagass, C. (ed.) Biological Psychiatry. New York, NY: Elsevier
Ramberg, I. L., and Wasserman, D. (1995). Suicidal thoughts, attempted suicide and attitudes towards suicidal behaviour among high school students. In Beskow, J. (ed.) Right to Life; Lust for Life. Suicidal Behavior in the Child and Adolescent Population. Stockholm: Forskningsrådsnämnden, Rapport 95:4
Ramberg, I. L., and Wasserman, D. (2000). Prevalence of reported suicidal behaviour in the general population and mental health-care staff. Psychological Medicine, 30(5), 1189–1196
Robbins, D. R., and Alessi, N. E. (1985). Depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior in adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 588–592
Schmidtke, A., Bille-Brahe, U., Leo, D., Kerkhof, A., Bjerke, T., Crepet, P. et al. (1996). Attempted suicide in Europe: rates, trends and sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempters during the period 1989–1992. Results of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Parasuicide. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 93, 327–328
Shaffer, D., and Fisher, P. (1981). The epidemiology of suicide in children and young adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20, 545–56
Shaffer, D., Garland, A., Gould, M., Fisher, P., and Trautman, P. (1988). Preventing teenage suicide: a critical review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(6), 675–687
Shafii, M., Carrigan, S., Whittinghill, J. R., and Derrik, A., (1985). Psychological autopsy of completed suicide in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 1061–1064
Skodal, A. E., and Karasu, T. B. (1978). Emergency psychiatry: the assault of patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 202–205
Slap, G., Vorters, D., Chaudhuri, S., and Centor, R. (1988). Risk factors for attempted suicide during adolescence. Poster presented at the American Society for Adolescent Medicine, New York
Smith, K., and Crawford, S. (1986). Suicidal behavior among “normal” high school students. Suicidal and Life-Threatening Behavior, 16, 313–325
Spirito, A. (1996). Improving treatment compliance among adolescent suicide attempters. Crisis, 17(4), 152–154
Spirito, A., Brown, L., Overholzer, J., and Fritz, G. (1989). Attempted suicide in adolescence: a review and critique of the literature. Clinical Psychological Review, 9, 335–363
Spirito, A., Plummer, B., Gispert, M., Levy, S., Kurkjan, J., Levander, W., Hagberg, S., and Devost, L. (1992). Adolescent suicide attempts: outcomes at follow up. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62(3), 464–468
Suokas, J., and Lonnquist, J. (1991). Outcome of attempted suicide and psychiatric consultation: risk factors and suicide mortality during a five-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 84, 545–549
Tardiff, K., and Sweillam, A. (1980). Assault suicide, and mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 164–169
Taylor, E. A., and Stansfeld, S. A. (1984). Children who poison themselves: I. A clinical comparison with psychiatric controls. British Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 127–132
Tomori, M., and Zalar, B. (2000). Characteristics of suicide attempters in a Slovenian high school population. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 30(3), 222–238
Trautman, P. D., Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Dopkins, S., and Lewin, N. (1991). Psychiatric diagnoses in minority female adolescent suicide attempters. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 30(4), 617–622
Trautman, P., Stewart, M., and Morishima, A. (1993). Are adolescent suicide attempters noncompliant with outpatient care?Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 89–94
Vandivort, D. S., and Locke, B. Z. (1979). Suicide ideation; its relation to depression, suicide and suicide attempt. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 9, 205–218
Velez, C., and Cohen, P. (1988). Suicidal behavior and ideation in a community sample of children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 349–356
von Knorring, A.-L., and Kristiansson, G. (1995). Depression och självmordsbeteende hos ungdomar (Depression and suicidal behavior in young people). In Beskow, J. (ed.) Rätt till liv lust till liv. Om självmordsbeteende bland barn och ungdomar. Stockholm: Forskningsrådsnämnden, Rapport 95:4:35–43. ISSN 0348–3991
Wagner, B. M. (1997). Family risk factors for child and adolescent suicidal behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 121(2), 246–298
Wasserman, D. (1993). Alcohol and suicidal behaviour. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry (Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidskrift), 47(4), 265–271
Wasserman, D., and Värnik, A. (1998). Suicide-preventive effects of perestroika in the former USSR: the role of alcohol restriction. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Supplementum, 394, 1–4
Wasserman, D., Dankowicz, M., Värnik, A., and Olsson, L. (1997). Suicide trends in Europe, 1984–1990. In Botsis, A. J., Soldatos, C. R., and Stefanis, C. N. (eds.) Suicide: Biopsychosocial Approaches. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science
Weissman, M., Fox, K., and Klerman, G. L. (1973). Hostility and depression associated with suicide attempts. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 450–455
Weissman, M. M., Klerman, G. L., Markowitz, J. S., and Ouellette, R. (1989). Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in panic disorder and attacks. New England Journal of Medicine, 321, 1209–1214
Williams, B. A. (1988). Reinforcement and response strength. In Steven's Handbook of Experimental Psychology, vol. 2. New York, NY: Wiley
Wolk-Wasserman, D. (1986). Attempted Suicide-The Patient's Family, Social Network and Therapy[Doctoral dissertation]. Stockholm: Graphic Systems. ISBN 91-7900-118
Zonda, T. (1991). A longitudinal follow-up study of 583 attempted suicides, based on Hungarian material. Crisis, 12(1), 48–57