Skip to main content
Taxation without Representation in Contemporary Rural China
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 102
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Zhang, Jing and Cai, Yongshun 2018. Medical Disputes and Mediation in China: Government and Responsibility Shifting. China Information, p. 0920203X1881103.

    Lebow, Richard Ned 2018. The Rise and Fall of Political Orders.

    Li, Huiping Wang, Qingfang and Zheng, Chunrong 2018. Urbanization and Urban Governance in China. p. 215.

    Guan, Yichen 2018. Demand for democracy in resilient authoritarianism: evidence from rural China. Democratization, Vol. 25, Issue. 7, p. 1073.

    Hu, Jieren Wang, Guoqin and Fei, Jingyan 2018. Policy Capacity and Governance. p. 359.

    Han, Rongbin and Jia, Linan 2018. Governing by the Internet: local governance in the digital age. Journal of Chinese Governance, Vol. 3, Issue. 1, p. 67.

    Gao, Yan and Fennell, Shailaja 2018. China’s Rural–Urban Inequality in the Countryside. p. 25.

    Zhang, Changdong 2018. Business, Government and Economic Institutions in China. p. 139.

    Ong, Lynette H. 2018. Thugs and Outsourcing of State Repression in China. The China Journal, Vol. 80, Issue. , p. 94.

    Goldstein, Joshua 2017. A Pyrrhic Victory? The Limits to the Successful Crackdown on Informal-Sector Plastics Recycling in Wenan County, China. Modern China, Vol. 43, Issue. 1, p. 3.

    Meng, Tianguang Pan, Jennifer and Yang, Ping 2017. Conditional Receptivity to Citizen Participation. Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 50, Issue. 4, p. 399.

    Zhang, Changdong 2017. A Fiscal Sociological Theory of Authoritarian Resilience. Sociological Theory, Vol. 35, Issue. 1, p. 39.

    Wang, Ruoyu and Zhang, Qi 2017. Local Governments' Fiscal Pressure and the Dependence on Polluting Industries in China. China & World Economy, Vol. 25, Issue. 4, p. 109.

    Sheng, Zhiming 2017. Organizational mobilization, action strategy and opportunity structure: Factors affecting the results of homeowners’ collective actions. Chinese Journal of Sociology, Vol. 3, Issue. 4, p. 548.

    Duckett, Jane and Wang, Guohui 2017. Why do Authoritarian Regimes Provide Public Goods? Policy Communities, External Shocks and Ideas in China’s Rural Social Policy Making. Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 69, Issue. 1, p. 92.

    Lorentzen, Peter 2017. Designing Contentious Politics in Post-1989 China. Modern China, Vol. 43, Issue. 5, p. 459.

    Ang, Yuen Yuen 2017. Beyond Weber: Conceptualizing an alternative ideal type of bureaucracy in developing contexts. Regulation & Governance, Vol. 11, Issue. 3, p. 282.

    Pepinsky, Thomas B. Pierskalla, Jan H. and Sacks, Audrey 2017. Bureaucracy and Service Delivery. Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 20, Issue. 1, p. 249.

    Day, Alexander F. and Schneider, Mindi 2017. The end of alternatives? Capitalist transformation, rural activism and the politics of possibility in China. The Journal of Peasant Studies, p. 1.

    Bhalla, A. S. and Luo, Dan 2017. Poverty and Exclusion of Minorities in China and India. p. 285.


Book description

The financial burden imposed upon the Chinese farmer by local taxes has become a major source of discontent in the Chinese countryside and a worrisome source of political and social instability for the Chinese government. Bernstein and Lü examine the forms and sources of heavy, informal taxation, and shed light on how peasants defend their interests by adopting strategies of collective resistance (both peaceful and violent). Bernstein and Lü also explain why the central government, while often siding with the peasants, has not been able to solve the burden problem by instituting a sound, reliable financial system in the countryside. While the regime has, to some extent, sought to empower farmers to defend their interests - by informing them about tax rules, expanding the legal system, and instituting village elections, for example, these attempts have not yet generated enough power from 'below' to counter powerful, local official agencies.


Review of the hardback:‘… a powerful argument … Readers will learn just as much about how to study China as they will about China itself in this fascinating book.’

Source: Journal of China Quarterly

Review of the hardback:'The authors of this book tackle a subject crucial to understanding contemporary China.'

Source: Journal of East Asian Studies 4

Review of the hardback:‘… its startling revelations and bold analysis should be compulsory reading for leaders in China and other developing countries who are genuinely interested in social reform and preventing the suffering of a critical sector of the working class.‘

Source: Development Policy Review

Review of the hardback:‘… comprehensive … its startling revelations and bold analysis should be compulsory reading for leaders in China and other developing countries who are genuinely interested in social reform and who seek to prevent suffering of a critical sector of the working class.‘

Source: Development and Change

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Alitto, Guy S. 1979. The Last Confucian: Liang Shu-ming and the Chinese Dilemma of Modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press
Alpermann, Bjoern. 2001. “The Post-Election Administration of Chinese Villages.” China Journal, No. 46 (July: 45–67)
Amsden, Alice. 1989. Asia's Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization. New York: Oxford University Press
Aoki, Masahiko. 2001. Toward a Comparative Institutional Analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
At China's Table. 1997. Washington DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank
Bai, Gang. 1999. “Woguo cunmin zizhi buru guifanhua fazhan jieduan” (China's village self-rule has entered the stage of regularization). Neibu Canyue, No. 13: 7–9
Bai, Gang. 1998a. “Woguo jiceng minzhu zhengzhi jianshe de zhanlüe yu celüe” (Strategy and tactics of building basic-level democracy in China). Neibu Canyue, No. 24: 7–10
Bai, Gang. 1998b. “Zhongguo cunmin zizhi fazhi jianshe pingyi” (Villager self-governance and rule of law in China). Zhongguo Shehui Kexue, No. 3: 88–104
Bates, Robert. 1987. “Agrarian Politics,” in Myron Weiner and Samuel Huntington, eds., Understanding Political Development. Boston: Little Brown, 160–95
Bates, Robert and Roerson, William P.. 1989. “Agriculture in Development: A Coalitional Analysis.” Public Choice, 35: 513–27
Becker, Jasper. 2000. “Might Is Right.” China Forum (Spring): 4–9
Beidou Falü Shiwusuo Yanjiu Shi, eds. 1995. Da guansi 400 wen (400 questions about lawsuits). Beijing: Xueyuan chubanshe
Bernhardt, Kathryn. 1992. Rents, Taxes, and Peasant Resistance. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Bernstein, Thomas P. 1999. “Farmer Discontent and Regime Responses,” in Merle Goldman and Roderick MacFarquhar, eds., The Paradox of China's Post-Mao Reforms. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 197–219
Bernstein, Thomas P. 1992. “Ideology and Rural Reform: The Paradox of Contingent Stability,” in Arthur Rosenbaum, ed., State and Society: The Consequences of Reform. Boulder, CO: Westview, 143–66
Bernstein, Thomas P. 1984. “Stalinism, Famine, and Chinese Peasants: Grain Procurements during the Great Leap Forward.” Theory and Society 13, No. 3: 339–77
Bernstein, Thomas P. 1970. “Keeping the Revolution Going: Problems of Village Leadership After Land Reform,” in J. W. Lewis, ed., Party Leadership and Revolutionary Power. New York: Cambridge University Press, 239–67
Bi, Jingquan, Xiong, Zhongcai, and Wang, Caiming. 1996. “Shandong, Henan nongmin fudan wenti diaoyan baogao” (Investigation report on peasant burden problem in Shandong and Henan). Zhongguo Wujia (China Price), No. 10: 16–21
Bianco, Lucien. 2001. Peasants without the Party: Grassroots Movements in Twentieth Century China. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe
Bianco, Lucien. 1995. “Peasant Responses to CCP Mobilization Policies, 1937–1945,” in Tony Saich and Hans van de Ven, eds., New Perspectives on the Chinese Communist Revolution. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 175–87
Bianco, Lucien. 1978. “Peasant Movements,” in J. K. Fairbank and A. Feuerwerker, eds., The Cambridge History of China–Republican China, 1912–1949, Vol. 13. New York: Cambridge University Press, 280–301
Blecher, Marc and Vivienne Shue. 1996. Tethered Deer: Government and Economy in a Chinese County. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Brockett, Charles D. 1991. “The Structure of Political Opportunities and Peasant Mobilization in Central America.” Comparative Politics 23, No. 3: 253–74
Burns, John P. 1988. Political Participation in Rural China. Berkeley: University of California Press
Cai, Yongshun. 2000. “Between Supervisors and Peasants: Local Cadres and Statistical Reporting in Rural China.” China Quarterly, No. 163 (Sept.): 783–805
Caizheng nianjian (Finance yearbook). 1935. Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan
Caizhengbu (Ministry of Finance): Zhongguo nongmin fudan shi (A history of peasant burden in China). Vol. 1 (1991), Vol. 2 (1994), and Vol. 4 (1994). Beijing: Zhongguo caizheng jingji chubanshe
Cao, Weiqiu, et al. 2000. Qianfada diqu qingnian nongmin suzhi de diaocha (A survey on the quality of young farmers in less developed areas). Qingnian Yanjiu (Youth Study), No. 2, 34–8
Carter Center Report on Chinese Elections. 2000. Observations of Chinese Village Elections in Hebei Province, January 4–13, 2000. Atlanta, GA
Chalmers, Douglas. 1991. “Corporatism and Comparative Politics,” in Howard J. Wiarda, ed., New Directions in Comparative Politics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Chebub, José Antonio. 1998. “Political Regimes and the Extractive Capacity of Governments: Taxation in Democracies and Dictatorships,” World Politics 50, No. 3 (April): 349–76
Chen, Dajie and Wu, Zunpei. 1994. Nongcun Caizheng (Rural public finance). Beijing: Nongcun chubanshe
Chen, Daolong. 1994. “Xiangcun zai huhan” (Cries from the countryside). Yuhua, special reportage issue: 2–22
Chen, Junqi, 1987. Yan'an shiqi caikuai gongzuo de huigu (Recollections of the financial and accounting work in Yan'an). Beijing: Zhongguo caizheng jingji chubanshe
Chen, Weihua. 1998. “Cong xinfang gongzuo jiaodu dui dangqian jianqing nongmin fudan wenti de zai sikao” (Reexamination of the question of lightening the peasants' burden from the vantage point of letters and visits). Renmin Xinfang, No. 9: 28–31
Chen, Wenmin. 1993. “Peasant burdens are an invisible knapsack.” Xin Shiji, No. 50: 17, FBIS, No. 116
Chen, Xi. 1999. “The Role of the State in the Development of Village Self-Government in China,” unpublished paper, Columbia University. May
Chen, Xiwen. 1998. Zhongguo Shichang Jingjibao, May 28, in SWB-FE, 3263, S 1–7
Chen, Yimin. 1983. “Nongmin fudan ji dai jianqing” (It is urgently necessary to reduce peasant burdens). Nongcun Gongzuo Tongxun, No. 8: 19–20
Chen, Yizi. 1989. Zhongguo: Shinian gaige yu bajiu minyun (China: Ten years of reform and the '89 popular movement). Taibei: Lienjing Chubanshe
Chen, Youfu. 1994. “Nongmin fudan wenti de shenceng toushi” (Deep perspective on the peasant burden question). Gaige yu Lilun, No. 1: 52–5
Chen, Yun. 1982. “Tiaozheng guomin jingji, jianchi an bili fazhan” (Adjust the national economy; adhere to proportionate development, March 21,1979), in Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiu Shi Bian, Sanzhong Quanhui yilai, Vol. 1 Beijing: Renmin Chubanshe: 74–9
Chen, Yung-fa.1995. “The Blooming Poppy under the Red Sun: The Yan'an Way and the Opium Trade,” in Tony Saich and Hans van de Van, eds., New Perspectives on the Chinese Communist Revolution. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 263–98
Chou, Wen-tao. 1993. “A look at the agricultural crisis through ‘popular rebellion’ caused by officials' tyranny.” Hsin Pao (April 20, FBIS 81: 10–12)
Chung, Jae Ho. 1995. “Central-Provincial Relations,” in Lo Chi Kin, Suzanne Pepper, and Tsui Kai Yuen, eds., China Review 1995. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press
Class Action Litigation in China.” 1998. Harvard Law Review 111, No. 6: 1523-41
Clubb, O. E. 1964. Twentieth Century China. New York: Columbia University Press
Cochrane, Willard. 1979. The Development of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press
Cohen, Myron L. 1993. “Cultural and Political Inventions in Modern China: The Case of the Chinese Peasants.” Daedalus (Spring): 151–70
Cohen, Myron L. 1991. “Being Chinese: The Peripheralization of Traditional Identity.” Daedalus (Spring): 113–34
Cui, Bo. 1999. “Yi piao zhi cha: Yuanhe wei huo tonggu.” (One vote short: Why it didn't pass). Minzhu yu Fazhi, No. 12: 10–11
Dang, Guoying. 2001. “Qingnian nongmin shi dangjin Zhongguo” (Young peasants are the China of today). Zhongguo Guoqing Guoli, No. 5
Dang, Guoying. 1999. “Zhongguo xuyao chongjian nonghui” (China must reestablish a peasant association). Zhongguo Guoqing Guoli, No. 7
Davis, Deborah and Ezra Vogel, eds. 1990. Chinese Society on the Eve of Tiananmen. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Decisions of the Central Committee of the CPC on some questions concerning the acceleration of agricultural development” (draft: Jan. 11, 1979). Issues and Studies (July 1979): 104–5
Deng, Sanlong. 1998. “Jiceng wenti de baogao” (Reports from the grass roots). Zhongguo Gaigebao (June 17)
Dong, Yongyu and Shi, Binghai, eds. 1998. Zhengzhi Zhongguo: Mianxiang xin tizhi xuanze de shidai (Political China: Facing the era of choosing a new structure). Beijing: Jinri Zhongguo Chubanshe
Du, Ying. 1992. “Recommendations for focus in rural reform,” Zhongguo Nongcun Jingji, October, in JPRS No. 8, 1993: 37
Duan, Chinglin. 1998. “Woguo nongye shuishou jiqi tidai jizhi de ruohua yu gaige wenti yanjiu” (A study on China's agricultural tax system and its replacement). ZNJ, No. 2: 49–56
Dui ‘nongmin caichan quanli yu shenfen ziyou shuangchong jiefang’ de zhiyi yu zhuisu” (Searching for the ‘double liberation of the peasants' property rights and personal freedom’). NJW, No. 3 (1989): 49–51
Eastman, Lloyd E. 1984. Seeds of Destruction: Nationalist China in War and Revolution, 1937–1949. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Eastman, Lloyd E. 1974. The Abortive Revolution: China under Nationalist Rule, 1927–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Editorial Department. 1991. NJW, No. 10 (Oct. 23, 1991): 32–6, JPRS-CAR-92-009, February 16: 43
Elections and Democracy in Greater China,” special issue. 2000. China Quarterly, No. 162 (June)
Epstein, Amy. 1996. “Village Elections in China: Experimenting with Democracy,” in U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, China's Economic Future: Challenges to US Policy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office
Evans, Peter. 1995. Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Evans, Peter, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Theda Skocpol. 1985. Bringing the State Back In. New York: Cambridge University Press
Falkenheim, Victor. 1982. “Political Reform in China.” Current History (September)
Fan, Gang. 1998. “Market-Oriented Economic Reform and the Growth of Off-Budget Local Public Finance,” in Donald J. S. Brean, ed., Taxation in Modern China. New York: Routledge, 209–28
Fang, Xiancang. 1998. “Nongmin fudan jianer buqing de zengjie hezai” (What's behind the persistence of the peasant burden?), Nongye Jingji, No. 7
Fewsmith, Joseph. 1994. Dilemmas of Reform in China: Economic Debate and Political Conflict. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe
Gadsden, Amy Epstein and Anne F. Thurston. n.d. Village Elections in China: Progress, Problems and Prospects. Washington DC: International Relations Institute
Gamble, Sidney. 2000. “The People's Middle Kingdom: Tax Evasion in China.” Foreign Affairs, November–December, 16–20
Gansu Sheng Tongji Ju and Nongyeweiyuanhui. 1997. Gansu Nongcun Tongji Nianjian-1997. Beijing: Zhongguo Tongji Chubanshe
Gao, Shangquan and Chi, Fulin, eds. 1997. The Reform and Development of China's Rural Economy. Beijing: Foreign Language Press
Gao, Xiaosheng. 1979. “Li Shunda Zaowu” (Li Shunda builds a house). Yuhua, No. 7
General Offices of the Central Committee and State Council. 1998. “Transparent and democratic management of village affairs.” Xinhua (June 10), SWB-FE3252, G/5–8, June 13
Gilley, Bruce. 2001. “A Plot for the Farmers.” FEER, August 2: 24–5
Goldman, Merle. 1994. Sowing the Seeds of Democracy in China: Political Reform in the Deng Xiaoping Era. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Goldman, Merle and Roderick MacFarquhar, eds. 1999. The Paradox of China's Post-Mao Reforms. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Gu, Kang, et al. 1999. “Liudong guiwei – ‘feigaishui’ de jiben silu” (Basic thoughts on the integration and distribution of funds by means of substituting taxes for fees). Neibu Canyue, No. 22: 2–7
Gu, Wenshao. 1993. “Jianli nongmin zuzhi, baohu nongmin liyi” (Establish a peasant organization to protect peasants interests). Neibu Wengao, No. 1: 24–6
Gu, Yanwu. 1879. Tianxia Junguo Libingshu (A treatise on the strength and weaknesses of nations). Sichuan: Tonghua Books
Guan, Jie. 1996. “Peasant Riots in Shanxi, Henan, and Hunan.” Dongxiang, No. 124 (1995): 18–19, trans. in China Perspective, No. 3 (Jan./Feb.): 6–9
Guo, Zhenglin. 2000. “The Village Party Branch after Elections: Confusion, Struggles, and Configurations of Power,” unpublished paper, Lund Center for Chinese Studies, Sweden, May
Guo, Zhenglin. 1999. “Shishi cunmin zizhi: Guangdong nongcun guanli tizhi de zhuanxing” (Implementing villager autonomy: the transformation of the administrative system in Guangdong), unpublished paper, Zhongshan Daxue, July
Guojia Shuiwu Zongju Nongshuiju Ketizu. 2000. “Nongmin fudan yu nongye shuizhi gaige wenti” (Peasant burdens and the issue of reform of the agricultural tax system). Shuiwu Yanjiu, No. 4: 22–32
Guojia Tongjiju (State Statistical Bureau), ed. 1993, 1998, 1999. Zhongguo Tongji Zhaiyao. Beijing: Zhongguo Tongji Chubanshe
Han, Hongjie. 1997. “Nongmin fudan yu xiangzhen fuzhai” (Peasant burdens and township debts). Nongcun Jingji (Rural Economy), No. 6
He, Huiyuan. 1934. “Lun tianfu fujia” (On land tax and surtaxes). Duli Pingjia (Independent Review), No. 89: 6
He, Xuefeng. 1998. “Cunweihui xuanju weihe chuxian daotui?” (Why do village elections give rise to retrogression?). Zhongguo Nongcun Guancha, No. 4: 49–53
Heilongjiang Nianjian (Heilongjiang Yearbook).1997. Har'erbin: Heilongjiang Nianjianshe
Henan civil affairs official. 1998. “Xuchang shi shishi cunmin zizhi shi nian de huigu he sikao” (Recalling and reflecting on ten years of Xuchang city villager autonomy), August 28
Hopcroft, Rosemary. 1999. “Maintaining the Balance of Power: Taxation and Democracy in England and France, 1340–1688.” Sociological Perspectives 42, No. 1: 69–95
Hu, Angang. 2002. “Jiaru WTO hou yingshi 8 yi nongmin shouyi zui da hua, fengxian zui xiaohua” (After entry into WTO the 800 million peasants should benefit the most and incur the least risk), unpublished paper
Hu, Jiayong. 1998. “Woguo zhengfu guimo weishenme chixu pengzhang?” (Why does the Chinese government size keeps growing?). Gaige (Reform), No. 3: 87–92
Hua, Sheng. 1993. “Wuguan butan daozhi wushang bujian” (The corruption of officials has led to the illicit behaviors of businessmen). Tansuo (Probe), (April): 84–7
Huang, Jizeng. 1990. “Hebei nongcun jinzhang dangqun ganqun guanxi zhuangkuang ji dai jiejue” (The tensions between the masses and Party and non-Party cadres must be speedily resolved). Neican Xuanbian, No. 123: 3
Huang, Mab and James D. Seymour. 1980. “Introduction” in Seymour, ed., The Fifth Modernization: China's Human Rights Movement, 1978–1979
Huang, Mengdi and Li, Ning, eds. 1990. Nongcun falü duben (Rural legal reader). Jinan: Shandong Kexue Jishu Chubanshe
Huang, Philip. 1990. The Peasant Family and Rural Development in the Yangze Delta, 1350–1988. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Huang, Yanxin. 1994. “Nongmin fudan guozhong de zhiduxing genyuan yu duice” (The systemic sources and remedy for heavy peasant burdens). Zhongguo Nongcun Jingji, No. 5
Huang, Yasheng, 1996. Inflation and Investment Controls in China: The Political Economy of Central-local Relations during the Reform Era. New York: Cambridge University Press
Hubei Nianjian (Hubei Yearbook). 1997. Wuhan: Hubei Nianjianshe
Hunter, Guy. 1969. Modernizing Peasant Societies. New York: Oxford University Press
Information Centre of Human Rights and Democracy, Hong Kong, November 2, 1999. SWB-FE/3683, G/8–9, November 4, 1999
Jakobson, Linda. 2001. “Pursuing More Effective Governance: Village Elections and Their Implications in China,” paper presented at ISA Convention, Hong Kong, July 27
Jia, Kang, Bai, Jingming, and Shaoling, Ma. 1999. “Fenliu guiwei – Fei gai shui de jiben silu” (The basic road of transforming fees into taxes is to end dispersion). Neibu Canyue, No. 22 (June 9): 2–7
Jianchabu. 1995. Xingzheng Jiancha Wenjian Xuanbian 1992–94 (Documents on administrative supervision 1992–4). Beijing: Zhongguo jiancha chubanshe
Jiang, Ming'an. 1998. Zhongguo xingzheng fazhi fazhan jincheng diaocha baogao (A study of the development of the administrative legal system in China). Beijing: Fazhi chubanshe
Jiang, Xiaowei. 1997. “Woguo caizheng kunnan de yuanyin yu duice” (Causes and solutions to the financial difficulties). Zhongguo Jingji Wenti, No. 1: 59–64
Jiang, Zuoping and Sunyun, Yang. 2000. “Chuanhuan siwei ‘lingxiu’ xingcheng yichang fengbo” (Summoning four ‘heroes’ to court creates a storm). Banyuetan-neibuban, No. 2: 15–16
Jiangsu Nianjian (Jiangsu yearbook). 1997. Nanjing: nianjianshe
Jiangsu Sheng Tongji Ju, ed. 1997. Jiangsu Nongcun Jingji Ziliao (Materials on Jiangsu's rural economy). Ninjing: Jiangsu Sheng Tonji Ju
Jianqing nongmin fudan, zuo hao xinfang gongzuo – Sichuan shengwei shuji Xie Shijie zai sheng jianqing nongmin fudan zuotanhui de jianghua.” 1998. (Lower peasant burdens and do well the letters and visits work – speech by Sichuan provincial Party secretary Xie Sihjie at a provincial conference on reducing burdens). Renmin Xinfang, No. 2: 14–15
Johnson, Chalmers. 1987. “Political institutions and economic performance: the government-business relationship in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan,” in Frederick C. Deyo, ed., The Political Economy of the New Asian Industrialism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 136–64
Johnston, Bruce and Peter Kilby. 1975. Agricultural and Structural Transformation. New York: Oxford University Press
Jowitt, Kenneth. 1992. New World Disorder: The Leninist Extinction. Berkeley: University of California Press
Jowitt, Kenneth. 1970. “Time and Development under Communism,” in Dwight Waldo, ed., Temporal Dimensions of Development Administration. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 233–63
Kamenitsa, Lynn. 1998. “The Process of Political Marginalization: East German Social Movements after the Wall.” Comparative Politics 30, No. 3: 313–33
Kau, Michael Y. M. and John K. Leung, eds. 1986. The Writings of Mao Zedong, 1949–1976, Vol. I. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe
Keeler, John. 1981. “Corporatism and official union hegemony: The case of French agricultural syndicalism,” in Suzanne Berger, ed., Organizing Interests in Western Europe: Pluralism, Corporatism, and the Transformation of Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press
Kelliher, Daniel. 1993. “Keeping Democracy Safe from the Masses: Intellectuals and Elitism in the Chinese Protest Movement.” Comparative Politics 25, No. 4: 379–96
Ketizu, . 1998a. “Xiangzhen tongchou zijin zhidu gaige yanjiu” (A study of reforming township unified funds). Caizheng Yanjiu, No. 10: 21–30
Ketizu, . 1998b. “Xianji caizheng weiji ji qi duice” (County fiscal crisis and its solution). Caizheng Yanjiu, No. 5: 55–9
Ketizu, . 1997. “Jiaqiang xiangzhen yusuanwai zijin guanli yanjiu” (How to improve the management of extrabudgetary funds of townships). Caizheng Yanjiu, No. 7: 40–5
Khan, Azizur Rahman and Riskin, Carl. 1998. “Income and Inequality in China, Composition, Distribution and Growth of Household Income, 1988 to 1995.” China Quarterly, No. 154: 221–53
Kuhn, Philip. 1980. Rebellion and Its Enemies in Late Imperial China: Militarization and Social Structure, 1796–1864. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press
Lardy, Nicholas. 1983. Agriculture in China's Modern Economic Development. New York: Cambridge University Press
Lee, Ching Kwan. 1999. “The politics of working class transition in China,” paper prepared for Conference on Wealth and Labour in China: Cross-cutting Approaches to Present Development, Paris, December 6–7
Lee, Pak K. 2000. “Into the Trap of Strengthening State Capacity: China's Tax Assignment Reform.” China Quarterly, No. 164: 1007–24
Lee, Sing and Arthur Kleinman. 2000. “Suicide as resistance in Chinese society,” in Elizabeth Perry and Mark Selden, eds., Chinese Society: Change, Conflict, and Resistance. New York: Routledge, 221–40
Levi, Margaret. 1988. Of Rule and Revenue. Berkeley: University of California Press
Levine, Steven I. 1987. Anvil of Victory. New York: Columbia University Press
Li, Changping. 2002. Wo xiang zongli shuo shihua (I spoke the truth to the premier). Beijing: Guangming Ribao Chubanshe
Li, Cheng. 2001. China's Leaders: The New Generation. Boulder, CO: Rowman and Littlefield
Li, Cheng. 1997. Rediscovering China: Dynamics and Dilemmas of Reform. New York: Rowman and Littlefield
Li, Chien-pin. 1998. “Domestic Bargaining in Taiwan's International Agricultural Negotiations.” Asian Survey 38, No. 6 (June): 585–602
Li, Chun and Lingji, Guo. 1999. “Shixing cunmin zizhi xu chuli hao sanzhong guanxi” (Three important relations have to be resolved in implementing villager autonomy). Neibu Canyue, No. 30 (Aug. 4): 209
Li, Jingtian. 1991. “Miqie nongcun ganqun guanxi” (Close relations between rural cadres and masses). Zhongguo Minzheng, No. 6: 11–12
Li, Kang, ed. 1992. Zhongguo nongcun jiceng shequ zuzhi jianshe xin tansuo (A new study of grass roots community organizations in rural China). Beijing: Zhongguo kexue jishu chubanshe
Li, Kang. 1990. “Jiceng zhengquan yu jiceng shequ” (Grass roots government and community). Shehui Gongzuo Yanjiu (Social Work Study), No. 3
Li, Lianjiang. 2001.”Peasant Views of the Chinese Party-State,” unpublished paper
Li, Lianjiang, 2000. “Elections and Popular Resistance in Rural China,” unpublished paper, Hong Kong
Li, Lianjiang. 1999. “The Two-Ballot System in Shanxi Province: Subjecting Village Party Secretaries to a Popular Vote.” China Journal, No. 42: 103–18
Li, Lianjiang and Kevin O'Brien. 1999. “The Struggle for Village Elections,” in Merle Goldman and Roderick MacFarquhar, eds., The Paradox of China's Post-Mao Reforms. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 129–44
Li, Lianjiang and O'Brien, Kevin. 1996. “Villagers and Popular Resistance.” Modern China 22, No. 1: 28–61
Li, Qin. 1992. “Dui woguo nongmin fudan zhuangkuang de fenxi” (Analysis of the condition of peasant burdens). Zhongguo Nongcun Jingji, No. 8: 47–51
Li, Renshi and Chen, Daichang. 1998. “Sichuan nongcun shixing cunwu caiwu gongkai de diaocha” (A report on the transparent village finance and governance in Sichuan). Lilun Yu Gaige (Theory and Reform), No. 4: 9–12
Li, Shengping. 1996. “Jianfu' jiandu zai Qingheng cun gaojie” (Burden reduction supervision is victorious in Qingheng village). Minzhu yu Fazhi, No. 11: 18–20
Li, Wenxue. 1997. “Guanyu nongmin fudan wenti de yanjiu baogao” (A research report on the peasant burden problem). Jingji Yanjiu Cankao, No. 21: 2–36
Li, Xiande. 2000. “Rethinking the peasant burden: Evidence from a Chinese village,” paper prepared for the Sixth Conference on Agricultural and Rural Development in China, Leiden, January 5–7
Li, Xiuyi. 1992a. “‘Nongmin Xiehui’ fanying le shenhua nongcun gaige de yaoqiu” (A ‘Farmers’ Association reflects the demands of the deepening of rural reform). Hebei Nongcun Gongzuo (October): n. p
Li, Xiuyi. 1992b. “Guanyu shiban ‘Nongmin Xiehui’ de ruogan wenti” (Several questions pertaining to the experimental establishment of “farmers' associations”). ZNJ, No. 6: 15–18
Li, Xueju, Wang, Zhenyao, and Tang, Jinsu, eds. 1994. Zhongguo xiangzhen zhengquan de xianzhuang yu gaige (Current state of township government and its reform). Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe
Li, Zhuanshui. 1998. “Guanyu jianqing nongmin fudan de liangdian lifa jianyi” (Two suggestions for two types of legislation for lightening the burdens of the peasants). Xingzheng yu Fa, No. 1: 56
Li, Zijing. 1998. “Duifu jihui shiwei de xin zhengling” (New government decree on dealing with demonstrations). Cheng Ming (May): 17–18
Li, Zijing. 1997. “Si sheng wushiwan nongmin kangzheng” (Half a million peasants resist in four provinces), Cheng Ming (April): 19–21
Lian, Jimin. 1999. “Qiangkou buneng zhi xiang qunzhong” (The gun can't be pointed at the masses). Minzhu yu fazhi, February 21: 10–12, in SWB-FE/3520, G/7–8
Liao, Kai-lung. 1981. “Historical Experiences and our Road to Development.” Issues and Studies, No. 12: 91–2
Lieberthal, Kenneth. 1995. Governing China: From Revolution through Reform. New York: W. W. Norton
Lindsay, A. D. 1943. The Modern Democratic State. New York: Oxford University Press
Lipton, Michael. 1977. Why People Stay Poor. London: Temple Smith
Liu, Binyan. 1989. Tell the World: What Happened in China and Why. New York: Pantheon
Liu, Guoguang, et al. 1998. Zhongguo kuashiji sanda gaige (Three major Chinese reforms that straddle the millennium), Vol. 3. Beijing: Zhongyang dangxiao chubanshe
Liu, Huazhen. 1989. “Qie ji bu yao weibei nongmin de yiyuan” (Always remember not to violate peasant wishes). Nongcun Jingji Wenti, No. 6: 9–15, 21
Liu, Huazhen and Xu, Wenan. 1987. “Jianyi chengli geji nongmin xiehui” (Suggestion for the establishment of a peasant association at the various levels). Nongye Jingji Wenti, No. 11: 61
Liu, Jinghuai. 1992. “Jingbinjianzheng shizaibixing” (It is essential to cut the bureaucratic staff). Liaowang, No. 36 (Sept. 7): 18–19
Liu, Yawei. 1999. “The Buyun Election and its Meaning,” Appendix to Carter Center Report on Chinese Elections, “Observations on the Township People's Congress Elections, January 5–15 and Cooperative Activities with the Ministry of Civil Affairs, August 1, 1998–January 15, 1999. Atlanta, GA
Lo, Yi Ning Ge Erh (pseud.). 1994. Disan zhi yanjing kan zhongguo (Seeing China through the third eye), Wang Shan, trans., Taiyuan: Shanxi Chubanshe
Lu, Mai. 1999. “Developing the rural markets is a long-term strategy.” RMRB, (Sept. 20), SWB-FE/3687, G/4–5
Lu, Nong. 1994. “Nongcun bu wending qingkuang ehua” (The worsening of the unstable rural situation). Cheng Ming, No. 8: 28–9
Lü, Xiaobo. 2000a. Cadres and Corruption: The Organizational Involution of the Chinese Communist Party. Stanford: Stanford University Press
, Xiaobo. 2000b. “Booty Socialism, Bureau-preneurs, and the State in Transition: Organizational Corruption in China.” Comparative Politics 32, No. 3: 273–94
, Xiaobo. 1999. “From Rank-Seeking to Rent-Seeking: Changing Administrative Ethos and Corruption in Reform China.” Crime, Law and Social Change, 32: 347–70
Lü, Xiaobo. 1997a. “Minor Public Economy: Revolutionary Origins of the Danwei,” in Xiaobo Lü and Elizabeth Perry, eds., Danwei: The Changing Chinese Workplace in Historical and Comparative Perspective
, Xiaobo. 1997b. “The Politics of Peasant Burden in Reform China.” Journal of Peasant Studies 25, No. 1: 113–38
Lu, Yu-sha. 1993. “Wan Li Delivers Speech, Expressing Worry about Peasant Rebellion.” Tangtai, No. 25: 13–14, FBIS No. 72: 43
Lu, Zexiu. 2001. “Cunyiji de jichu diwei yu zuoyong jidai jiaqiang” (The state and role of the village must be enhanced), Nongcun Jingji Wenti, No. 2: 36–41
Luo, Fasheng and Sun, Zuohai, eds. 1993. Zhonghua renmin gongheguo nongye fa shiyi (Explication of the PRC Law on Agriculture). Beijing: Zhongguo Zhengfa daxue chubanshe
Luo, Haocai. 1996. “Wei jianqing nongmin fudan tigong falü baozhang” (Provide legal guarantees for burden reduction). Minzhu yu Fazhi, No. 24
MacFarquhar, Roderick, Timothy Cheek, and Eugene Wu, eds. 1989. The Secret Speeches of Chairman Mao: From the Hundred Flowers to the Great Leap Forward. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Madsen, Richard. 2000. “Understanding Falun Gong.” Current History 99, No. 638 (Sept.): 243–7
Manion, Melanie. 1996. “Policy Instruments and Political Context: Transforming a Culture of Corruption in Hong Kong,” paper delivered at the Forty-eighth Annual Meeting of the Association for Asian Studies, Honolulu, April 11–14
Mao, Zedong. 1992. “On the Ten Major Relationships,” in Michael Y. M. Kau and John K. Leung, eds. The Writings of Mao Zedong, 1949–1976, Vol. 2. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe: 43–66
Mao, Zedong. 1986. “Speech on the Victory in Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea Movement,” September 12, 1953, in The Writings of Mao Zedong, 1949–1976, Vol. 1. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 386–92
Mao, Zedong. 1976–7. “Speeches at the Chengchow Conference (February and March 1959).” Chinese Law and Government 9, No. 4
Mao, Zedong. 1949. Jingji yu caizheng wenti (On economic and financial problems). Hong Kong: Xinminzhu chubanshe
Mellor, John W. 1966. The Economics of Agricultural Development. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Migdal, Joel. 1988. Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Montinola, Gabriela, Qian, Yingyi, and Weingast, Barry. 1995. “Federalism, Chinese Style: The Political Basis for Economic Success in China.” World Politics 48 (1): 50–81
Moore, Mick. 1998. “Death without Taxes: Democracy, State Capacity, and Aid Dependence in the Fourth World,” in Gordon White and Mark Robinson, eds., The Democratic Developmental State. London: Oxford University Press
Nathan, Andrew J. 1985. Chinese Democracy. New York: Alfred Knopf
Nongmin Ribao. eds. 1998. Jianqing nongmin de fudan shouce (Handbook on peasant burden reduction). Beijing: Zhongguo Nongye Chubanshe
Nongyebu, . 1993. “Cong nongye dasheng kan nongcun zhengce de zhiding he zhixing” (Agricultural policy making and implementation as seen in the cases of large provinces). Zhongguo Nongcun Jingji, No. 9: 8–17
O'Brien, Kevin. 1996. “Rightful Resistance.” World Politics 49, No. 1: 31–55
O'Brien, Kevin. 1990. Reform without Liberalization: China's National People's Congress and the Politics of Institutional Change. New York: Cambridge University Press
O'Brien, Kevin and Li, Lianjiang. 2000. “Accommodating ‘Democracy’ in a One-Party State: Introducing Village Elections in China.” China Quarterly, No. 162: 465–89
O'Brien, Kevin and Li, Lianjiang. 1999. “Campaign Nostalgia in the Chinese Countryside.” Asian Survey 39, No. 3 (May/June): 375–93
O'Brien, Kevin and Li, Lianjiang. 1995. “The Politics of Lodging Complaints in Rural China.” China Quarterly, No. 143: 756–83
Oi, Jean C. 1999. Rural China Takes Off: The Institutional Foundations of Economic Reform. Berkeley: University of California Press
Oi, Jean C. 1990. “The Fate of the Collective after the Commune,” in Deborah Davis and Ezra Vogel, eds., Chinese Society on the Eve of Tiananmen. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Oi, Jean C. 1989. State and Peasant in Contemporary China: The Political Economy of Village Government. Berkeley: University of California Press
Oi, Jean C. and Scott, Rozelle. 2000. “Elections and Power: The Locus of Decision-making in Chinese Villages.” China Quarterly, No. 162: 756–83
Oksenberg, Michel. 1982. “Economic Policymaking in China: Summer 1981.” China Quarterly, No. 90 (June): 165–94
Pan, Wei. 1996. “Politics of Marketization in Rural China,” unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
Pei, Minxin. 1997. “Citizens vs. Mandarins: Administrative Litigation in China.” China Quarterly, No. 152 (Dec.): 832–62
Perry, Elizabeth. 1992. “Casting a Chinese ‘Democracy’ Movement: The Role of Students, Workers, and Entrepreneurs,” in Jeffrey Wasserstrom and Elizabeth Perry, eds., Popular Protest and Political Culture in China. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Perry, Elizabeth. 1985. “Rural Violence in Socialist China.” China Quarterly, No. 103 (Sept.): 414–40
Perry, Elizabeth. 1980. Rebels and Revolutionaries in North China, 1845–1945. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Perry, Elizabeth. 1985. “Rural Collective Violence: The Fruits of Recent Reforms,” in Elizabeth Perry and Christine Wong, eds., The Political Economy of Reform in Post-Mao China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Potter, David C. 1986. India's Political Administrators, 1919–1983. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Potter, Pitman. 1991. “The Administrative Litigation Law of the PRC.” Chinese Law and Government 24, No. 3
Przeworski, Adam. 1997. “The State in a Market Economy,” in Nelson, Tilly, and Walker, eds. Transforming the Post-Communist Political Economy. National Academy Press
Qu, Liangsheng. 1997. “Xiangzhen zichou zijin guanli gaige chuyi” (A preliminary discussion on the reform of township self-raised funds). Zhongguo Nongcun Jingji, No. 3
Remick, Elizabeth. 1999. “Big Plans, Empty Pockets: Local Exactions in Republican and Post-Mao China.” Twentieth-Century China 25, No. 1: 43–70
Renwubu, . 1988. “Qing tingting nongmin de ‘laosaohua’” (Please listen to the complaints of peasants), NMRB, January 20
Riben nongxie jiankuan.” 1993. (Simple introduction to the Japanese Farmers' Association. No author. Neibu Wengao, No. 1: 27–8
Riskin, Carl et al., eds. 1999. China Human Development Report 1999: Transition and the State. Beijing: China Financial and Economic Publishing House
Rosen, Stanley. 1990. “The Chinese Communist Party and Chinese Society: Popular Attitudes Toward Party Membership and the Party's Image.” The Australian Journal of Chinese Studies, No. 24 (July): 76–8
Ruf, Gregory A. 1998. Cadres and Kin: Making a Socialist Village in West China, 1921–1991. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Rural Development Research Institute and Office for Rural Social Economic Statistics, SSB. 1997. “Increasing peasants' incomes is top priority in rural economic development.” Zhongguo Nongcun Jingji (April 20, SWB-FE/3020, Sept. 10, 1997, S/1–4)
Schumpeter, Joseph. 1991. “The Crisis of the Tax State” (1918). In R. Swedberg, ed., Joseph A. Schumpeter: The Economics and Sociology of Capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 99–140
Scott, James C. 1990. Domination and the Arts of Resistance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Selden, Mark. 1971. The Yenan Way in Revolutionary China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Seymour, James, ed. 1980. The Fifth Modernization: China's Human Rights Movement, 1978–1979. Stanfordville, NY: Human Rights Publishing Group
Sha, Qiu and Jiang, Nan. 1993. “Jiangsu nongcun shehui yanglao baoxian jishi” (Record of rural social insurance for the aged in Jiangsu). Zhongguo Qingnian, No. 3: 24–7
Shanghai Lingdian Shichang Diaocha Youxian Gongsi. 1998. “Miaodian: huanjie pinkun guocheng” (Miaodian: the process of reducing poverty). Zhongguo Qingnian Yanjiu, No. 1: 24–8
Shangyebu Shangye Jingji Yanjiusuo. 1984. Geming genjudi shangye huiyilu (Recollections of commerce in the revolutionary bases). Beijing: Zhongguo shangye chubanshe
Shanin, Teodor. 1971. “Peasantry as a Political Factor,” in Shanin, ed. Peasants and Peasant Societies: Selected Readings. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 238–63
Sheng, Jung. 1993. “Great Impact of Agricultural Issue – Tracking Incident of Peasant Riots in Sichuan's Renshou County.” Hsin Pao, Hong Kong (June 10), FBIS, No. 111: 10–15
Shi, Tianjian. 1999a. “Village Elections in China: Institutionalist Tactics for Democracy.” World Politics 51, No. 3: 385–412
Shi, Tianjian. 1999b. “Economic Development and Village Elections in Rural ChinaJournal of Contemporary China 8, No. 2: 425–42
Shirk, Susan L. 1993. The Political Logic of Economic Reform in China. Berkeley: University of California Press
Shixing cunmin zizhi xu chuli hao sanzhong guanxi” (In order to implement villager autonomy it is necessary to deal well with the three relations). 1999. Neibu Canyue, No. 30: 2–9
Shu, Hua. 1987. “Liangshi dinggou hetong falü yiju de zhiyi yu duice” (Querying the legal basis of grain contracts and providing countermeasures). Nongcun Jingji Wenti, No. 11: 44–7
Shu, Szu. 1993. “CPC works out anti-riot contingency plan.” Cheng Ming (April): 34–5, in FBIS, No. 63: 28–30
Shue, Vivienne. 1995. “State sprawl: The regulatory state and social life in a small Chinese city,” in Deborah Davis et. al., eds. Urban Spaces in Contemporary China. New York: Cambridge University Press
Shue, Vivienne. 1988. The Reach of the State. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Sichuan Nianjian (Yearbook of Sichuan). 1997. Chengdu: Sichuan nianjianshe
Sicular, Terry. 1988a. “Agricultural Planning and Pricing in the Post-Mao Period.” China Quarterly, No. 116 (Dec.): 671–705
Sicular, Terry. 1988b. “Grain Pricing: A Key Link in Chinese Economic Policy.” Modern China 14, No. 4
Solinger, Dorothy. 1999. Contesting Citizenship in Urban China: Peasant Migrants, the State, and the Logic of the Market. Berkeley: University of California Press
Solinger, Dorothy. 1998. “The Impact of Openness on Integration and Control in China: Migrants, Layoffs, Market Formation and the Antinomies of Market Reform in Guangzhou, Shenyang, and Wuhan,” unpublished paper, December. University of California, Irvine
Solinger, Dorothy. 1991. From Lathes to Looms: China's Industrial Policy in Comparative Perspective, 1979–1982. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Song, Lixiao. 1996. “Jianqing nongmin fudan, yunyong falü shouduan” (Use the legal method to reduce peasant burdens). Liaowang, No. 47: 22–3
State, Council. 1990. “Notice on Practical Measures to Reduce Peasant Burdens” (Document No. 12). Xinhua (Oct. 15), FBIS, No. 202: 31–5
Steinmo, Sven. 1993. Taxation and Democracy: Swedish, British, and American Approaches to Financing the Modern State. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Su, Ming. 1998. “Chonggou wo guo nongcun tongchou zijin zhidu de zongti silu” (General thoughts on restructuring our village comprehensive fund system). Jingji Gaige yu Fazhan, No. 8: 58–62
Sun, Jun and Li, Yuchen. 1998. “Nongcun jiti jingji zuzhi caiwu wenti yuanyin ji duice” (Problems and solutions of rural financial management). Nongye Jingji, No. 8: 38
Sun, Meijun. 1998. “Nongmin fudan de xianzhuang ji qi guozhong de genyuan” (Peasant burdens and the causes of their excessive heaviness). Zhongguo Nongcun Jingji, No. 4: 7–12
Sun, Xiaocun. 1934. “Kejuan zashui baogao” (A report on informal taxes and levies). Nongcun Fuxing Weiyuanhui Huibao (Bulletin of the Rural Revitalization Commission), No. 12 (May)
Sun, Zhe. 1999. “The Remaking of the National People's Congress in China, 1979–99,” unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Columbia University
Sun, Zifeng. 2001. “Xiangcun zhaiwu heshi le? Yi dui Anhui sheng xiangcun zhaiwu de fenxi” (When did townships and villages become indebted? An analysis from Anhui). Diaoyan Shijie, No. 3
Tang, Ping. 1992. “Increasing Burdens of Peasants Examined,” in Zhonguo Tongji Xinxi Bao (Sept. 10), JPRS-92-86: 32–4
Tang, Yinsu. 1991. “Jianjue, renzhen de zhengdun ruanruo huansan de cunji zuzhi” (Resolutely and earnestly rectify village organizations that are weak and lax). Zhongguo Minzheng, No. 9: 18–19
Tanner, Murray Scot. 1999. The Politics of Lawmaking in China: Institutions, Processes, and Democratic Prospects. New York: Oxford University Press
Tanner, Murray Scot, et al. 2000. “Central-Local Relations and State Legal-Coercive Power: Decentralized Policing, Social Control, and Rule by Law in China,” paper presented to Midwest Conference on Asian Affairs, Indiana University
Tarrow, Sidney. 1994. Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press
Thornton, Patricia. 1999. “Beneath the Banyan Tree: Popular Views of Taxation and the State during the Republican and Reform Eras.” Twentieth-Century China 25, No. 1: 1–42
Tian, Zelin and Zou, Haisen. 1989. “Gaishan nongcun ganqun guanxi yao zuli gaige zonghe chili” (Improving cadre-mass relations must be based on comprehensive reform of governance). Nongcun Jingji Wenti, No. 5: 44–7
Tilly, Charles. 1978. From Mobilization to Revolution. New York: Random House
Unger, Jonathan and Chan, Anita. 1995. “China, Corporatism, and the East Asian Model.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, No. 33: 29–54
Varshney, Ashutosh. 1995. Democracy, Development, and the Countryside: Rural-Urban Struggles in India. New York: Cambridge University Press
Varshney, Ashutosh, ed. 1993. “Beyond Urban Bias.” Special issue, Journal of Development Studies 29, No. 4 (July)
Walder, Andrew. 1998. Zouping in Transition: The Process of Reform in Rural North China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Wang, Chongru. 1990. “Weixian de liehen: Nongcun dangqun guanxi shuli” (The danger of a rift: Estranged relations between the Party and masses). Shehui, No. 2: 9–11
Wang, Dagao. 1991. “Gaige zhong de nongmin xinli daoxiang” (The psychological guidance of farmers during the reforms). Zhongguo Jingji Tizhi Gaige, No. 4: 40–2
Wang, Haian. 1998. “Shangfang nongmin: Weihe shang fating” (Why do peasants appealing to higher levels go to court?). Zhengfu fazhi, No. 11: 15–17
Wang, Qixiang. 1997. “Guanyu yusuanwai zijin de xingzhi cunzai de wenti ji duice” (Nature and solutions to the problem of extrabudgetary funds). Jingji Pinglun (Economic Forum), No. 7: 61–7
Wang, Rentian, ed. 1999. Xiangcun Zhengzhi: Zhongguo Cunmin Zizhi de diaocha yu sikao (Rural politics: Investigation and reflections on China's village autonomy). Nanchang: Jiangxi renmin daxue
Wang, Shaoguang. 1995. “The Rise of the Regions: Fiscal Reform and the Decline of Central State Capacity in China,” in Andrew Walder, ed., The Waning of the Communist State. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 87–113
Wang, Shaoguang and Hu, Angang. 1999. The Political Economy of Uneven Development: The Case of China. Armonk NY: M. E. Sharpe
Wang, Shaohuang and Wang, Youqiang. 2001. “Gongmin quan, suodeshui yü yusuanjiandu: jiantan nongcun feigaishui de silu” (Citizenship, income tax, and budgetary oversight: Some ideas about fee-into-tax reform in rural China). Zhanlue yu Guanli (Strategy and Management), No. 3
Wang, Xijia. 1991. “The Reasons for Strained Relationships between Rural Cadres and the Masses.” Shehui, No. 11, JPRS- 92–016, March 20, 1992: 11–13
Wang, Yanbin. 1995. “Nongmin fudan: Anxia hulu qilai piao” (Peasant burdens: Solving one problem only to have another crop up). Minzhu yu Fazhi, No. 13: 11–13
Wang, Yanbin. 1993. “Nongmin fudan toushi” (Examining peasant burdens), Banyuetan, No. 10: 16
Wang, Yaoxin and Lu, Xianzhen. 1997. “Nongmin fudan wenti jian zhe” (Simple analysis of the peasant burden problem), Tongji Yanjiu. No. 6: 7–12
Wang, Yeh-chien. 1971. “The Fiscal Importance of the Land Tax During the Ch'ing Period.” Journal of Asian Studies 30, No. 4: 829–42
Wang, Yuexin. 1995. “Dui nongmin fudan wenti de sikao” (Examining the peasant burden problem). Zhongguo Nongcun Jingji, No. 1: 33–6
Wang, Yushao. 1997. “Yingdang zhengshi ‘nongmin fudan kongzhi guiding’ suo cunzai de biduan” (Attention should be paid to malpractices that arise from the directives on peasant burden control). Liaowang, No. 7: 30
Wank, David L. 1999. Commodifying Communism: Business, Trust, and Politics in Xiamen. New York: Cambridge University Press
Wasserstrom, Jeffrey and Elizabeth Perry, eds. 1992. Popular Protest and Political Culture in China. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Wedeman, Andrew. 1997a. “Looters, Rent-Scrapers and Dividend-Collectors: Corruption and Growth in Zaire, South Korea and the Philippines.” Journal of Developing Areas, 31 (Summer): 457–78
Wedeman, Andrew. 1997b. “Stealing from the Farmers: Institutional Corruption and the 1992 IOU Crisis.” China Quarterly, No. 152: 805–31
Wegren, Stephen K. 2002. “Democratization and Urban Bias in Post-Communist Russia.” Comparative Politic 34, No. 4: 457–75
Wei, Hongyun. 1990. Jin-Cha-Ji kangri genjudi caizheng jingji shigao (A short history of economy and finance in the Jin-Cha-Ji base area). Beijing: Dangan chubanche
Wei, Houkai and Yang, Dali. 1998. “Decentralization and Disparities in Local Education in China.” Social Sciences in China, No. 3: 13–31
West, Loraine A. 1997. “Provision of Public Services in Rural PRC,” in Christine P. W. Wong, ed., Financing Local Government in the People's Republic of China. Hong Kong and New York: Oxford University Press, 213–82
White, Tyrene. 1990. “Post-revolutionary Mobilization in China: The One-Child Policy Reconsidered.” World Politics 43 (October): 53–77
Whiting, Susan. 2001. Power and Wealth in Rural China: The Political Economy of Institutional Change. New York: Cambridge University Press
Whiting, Susan. 1998. “The Cadre Evaluation System at the Grassroots: The Paradox of Party Rule,” unpublished paper presented at University of California, San Diego
Wong, Christine P. W. 1997. “Rural Public Finance,” in Christine P. W. Wong, ed., Financing Local Government in the People's Republic of China. Hong Kong and New York: Oxford University Press, 167–212
Wong, R. Bin. 1997. China Transformed: Historical Change and the Limits of European Experience. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Wright, Teresa. 1999. “State Repression and Student Protest in Contemporary China.” China Quarterly, No. 157: 142–72
Wu, Jieh-min. 1998. “Local Property Rights Regimes in Socialist Reforms: A Case Study of China's Informal Industrialization.” Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University
Xiang, Guang and Zhang, Yang. 1988. Kangri zhanzheng shiqi Shaan-Gan-Ning bianqu caizheng jingji shigao (A short history of the economy and finance in Shaan-Gan-Ning border region during the Anti-Japanese War). Xi'an: Xibei daxue chubanshe
Xiang, Guang and Zhang Yang. 1989. Jiefang zhanzheng shiqi Shan Gan Ning bianqu caizheng jingjishi ziliao xuanbian (Selected materials on the history of finance and economy in Shan Gan Ning border region during the liberation war), Xi'an: Sanqi Chubanshe
Xu, Baojian. 1993. “He yi jian er bu qing” (Why the reduction cannot alleviate the burden), JJRB, Feb. 26. JPRS-CAR-93-027, 29 April: 41
Xu, Gongmei. 1993. “Zoufang Songshuyu” (Visiting Songshuyu). Tansuo (April)
Xu, Hongbing. 1992. “Danwei sishe ‘xiaojinku’ xingwei dingxing chutan” (A preliminary study of illicit danwei small coffers). Zhengzhi yü Falü, No. 1: 32–3
Xu, Kunrong. 1990. “Jingji zhengce de zhongyaoxing cong jiao xiaoyi kan tiaozheng nongcun” (The importance of economic policy seen from the comparative effectiveness of agricultural readjustment). Jingji Guanli, No. 11: 52–5
Xu, Xing, ed. 1987. Fang Lizhi–Zhongguo de Sahelofu (Fang Lizhi, China's Sakharov). Hong Kong: Tianyuan Shuwu
Xu, Yong. 1998a. “Lun cunmin zizhi beijing xia dang zuzhi yu zizhi zuzhi de xietiao” (On coordinating Party and self-governing organizations against the background of villager autonomy). Xuexi yu Tansuo, No. 1: 89–92
Xu, Yong. 1998b. “Minzhuhua jincheng zhong de lujing xuanze” (Choice of paths in democratization). Shehui Kexue, No. 10: 26–30
Xu, Yong. 1997. Zhongguo Nongcun Cunmin Zizhi (Rural self-governance in China). Wuhan: Huazhong Shifan Daxue Chubanshe
Yan, Zhongping. 1989. Zhongguo jindai jingji shi (Modern Chinese economic history). Vol. 2. Beijing: Renmin chubanshe
Yang, Dali. 1996. Calamity and Reform in China. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Yang, Hao. 1999. “Nongmin de huhan” (Peasants' cries). Dang Dai, No. 6: 63–90
Yang, Lianbai and Li, Xuezeng. 1980. “The Relations between Agriculture, Light Industry, and Heavy Industry in China.” Social Sciences in China, No. 2: 182–214
Yang, Po. 1992. “Zhonggong yanfang minjian zuzhi” (The CCP strictly guards against popular organizations). Cheng Ming, No. 6: 26–7
Ye, Baozhu. 1997. “Guanyu wanshan xiangzhen caizheng yunxing jizhi de sikao” (Some reflections on perfecting the operation of township financial systems). Nongcun Jingji Wenti, No. 8: 53–5
Ye, Xingqing. 1997. “Lun nongcun gonggong chanpin tizhi de gaige” (The reform of the public goods provision regime in the countryside). Jingji Yanjiu, No. 6: 57–62
Yu, Shaoliang and Pu, Liye. 1997. “Jingbing jianzheng: jianqing nongmin fudan de xianshi chulu” (Reducing the size of the bureaucracy is a real way to reduce peasant burdens). Liaowang, No. 12: 32
Yu, Tianxing and Wang, Shisheng. 1999. “Zhengfu xingzheng guanli feiyong gaige de guoji bijiao” (An international comparison of the reforms in government administrative spending). Neibu Canyue, No. 15: 14–18
Yuan, Mu and Yang, Yongzhe. 1993. “Several Questions on the Current Rural Situation and in Rural Work.” RMRB (Sept. 17), FBIS, No. 199: 39
Yue, Shan. 2000. “Shehui zhuangkuang ehua de jingren shuzi” (Worsening of the social situation is indicated by alarming numbers). Cheng Ming, No. 2: 23–4
Yue, Shan. 1997. “Gan E wushiwan nongmin baodong” (Half a million peasants rebel in Jiangxi and Hubei). Cheng Ming, No. 9: 21–3
Zelin, Madeleine. 1984. The Magistrate's Tael: Rationalizing Fiscal Reform in Eighteenth Century Ch'ing China. Berkeley: University of California Press
Zhai, Liansheng. 1997. “Xiangzhen Zichou Zijin guanli gaige chuyi” (Opinions on the administration of township self-raised funds), ZNJ, No. 3: 26–9
Zhang, Heping and Ren, Yiqin. 1999. “Baohu nongmin hefa liyi – qieshi jianqing nongmin fudan” (Protect the peasants legitimate rights and interests – earnestly reduce their burdens). Shanxi Nongjing, No. 2: 40–6
Zhang, Jun and Jiang, Wei. 1998. “Gaige hou Zhongguo nongcun gonggong chanpin de gongji” (Public goods provision in China's countryside after the reforms). Shehui Kexue Zhanxian (Social Science Front), No. 1: 36–44
Zhang, Qi. 1989. “Dui ‘nongmin caichan quanli yu shenfen ziyou shuangzhong jiefang’ de zhiyi yu zhuisu” (Searching for the “double liberation of the peasants' property rights and personal freedom”). Nongcun Jingji Wenti, No. 3: 49–51
Zhang, Qingzhong. 1993a. “Accelerate Commodity Circulation System Reform; Foster Rural Markets.” Zhongguo Nongcun Jingji, No. 2 (Feb. 20), JPRS, No. 25 (April 20): 12
Zhang, Qinghong, ed. 1993b. “Peasant Income, Structural Adjustment, Market Development: China's Key Rural Reform in 1990s.” Zhongguo Nongcun Jingji, No. 11, JPRS No. 12 (1993): 38
Zhang, Shuhuai. 1998. “Zhiyue cunmin zizhi de yuanyin ji duice tanxi” (Analysis of the source of restrictions on village autonomy and of policy). Zhongguo Nongcun Guancha, No. 4: 60–2
Zhao, Shifeng, Gao, Lifeng, and Xu, Shaoyi. 1998. “Guanyu Hebeisheng nongcun caiwu guanli zhuangkuang de diaocha” (Investigation on rural financial management in Hebei province). Zhongguo Nongcun Jingji, No. 5: 47–50
Zhao, Xin. 1992. “Memorandum on Bringing ‘Three Irregulars’ under Control.” Minzhu yu Fazhi, No. 9 (1991): 4–8, in JPRS-92-002 (Jan. 22): 78
Zhao, Yining and Ye, Shudong. 1997. “Zhongguo Jigou gaige de xin qili” (A new turning point in China's bureaucratic structure). Liaowang, No. 39: 12–13
Zheng, Xuwei. 1997. “Dangqian woguo caizheng kunjing de chengyin ji duice” (Current financial difficulties and solutions). Jingji Tizhi Gaige (Economic system reform), No. 4: 88–91
Zheng, Ying. 1988. “Dalu minzhong saodong ciqibiluo” (People on the mainland stage more and more disturbances). Chiushi Nientai, No. 222: 38–40
Zhongguo caizheng nianjian. 1997. (Finance Yearbook of China). Beijing: Zhongguo caizheng zazhishe
Zhongguo Nongcun Tongji Nianjian (Rural Statistical Yearbook of China). Various years. Beijing: Zhongguo Tongji Chubanshe
Zhongguo Shehui Kexueyuan Nongcun Fazhan Yanjiusuo (Institute of Rural Development, CASS). 1999. Zhongguo nongcun jingji xingshi fenxi yu yuce 1998–1999 (Analyses and predictions of the situation in the Chinese countryside, 1998–9). Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe
Zhongguo Laodong Tongji Nianjian (Chinese labor statistical yearbook). Various years. Beijing: Zhongguo Tongji Chubanshe
Zhongguo Tongji Nianjian (China Statistical Yearbook). Various years. Beijing: Zhongguo Tongji Chubanshe
Zhongguo Zhonggong Zuzhibu Ketizu. 2001. Zhongguo Diaocha Baogao, 2000–2001: Xin Xingshi Xia Renmin Neibu Maodun Yanjiu (China Investigation Report, 2000–2001: Study of contradictions among the people in the new situation). Zhongyang Bianshi Chubanshe
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Guowuyuan Gongbao. 1993a. “Zhonggong Zhongyang Bangongting, Guowuyuan Bangongting guanyu qieshi jianqing nongmin fudan de jinji tongzhi” (Emergency notice by the General Offices of Party Central and the State Council concerning earnestly reducing peasant burdens). No. 7 (May 27): 286–8
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Guowuyuan Gongbao. 1993b. “Zhonggong Zhongyang Bangongting, Guowuyuan Bangongting guanyu sheji fongmin fudan xiangmu shenhe chuli yijian de tongzhi” (Notice of opinion concerning the management of the examination of peasant burdens by Party Central and the State Council General Offices). No. 18 (Sept. 2): 850–7
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Guowuyuan Gongbao. 1992. “Nongmin chengdan feiyong he laoli guanli tiaoli” (Administrative regulations on fees and labor services borne by the peasants). No. 41 (Jan. 7): 1430–5
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Guowuyuan Gongbao. 1985. “Zhonggong Zhongyang, Guowuyuan guanyu jinzhi xiang nongmin luan paikuan, luan shoufei de tongzhi” (Note by the CC and State Council on prohibiting random assessments and fee collection from the peasants). No. 31 (Nov. 20): 1043–6
Zhou, Xiang. 1994. “Increasing numbers of teachers, owed back wages, leave their profession.” Minzhu yu Fazhi, April 7, JPRS, No. 36, June 10: 50–2
Zhou, Yichun and Ai, Fuzhen. 1994. “Xin shiqi woguo ‘nongxie’ de jianli keburonghuan” (Establishment of a farmers' association for the contemporary era brooks no delay). Changbai Xuetan, No. 4: 52–4
Zhu, Baoping. 2001. “Nongcun feishui gaige shidian de jinzhan, nandian ji sigao” (Progress, difficulties, and reflections on the rural fee-into-tax experiment). Zhongguo Nongcun Jingji, No. 2: 12–16
Zhu, Guanglei. 1997. Dangdai Zhongguo Zhengfu Guocheng (The process of government in contemporary China). Tianjin: Tianjin Renmin Chubanshe
Zhu, Huaxin. 1998. “Caogen minzhu” (Grassroots democracy), in Dong Yongyu and Shi Binghai, eds. Zhengzhi Zhongguo: Mianxiang xin tizhi xuanze de shidai (Political China: Facing the era of choosing a new structure). Beijing: Jinki Zhongguo chubanshe
Zhu, Shouming. 1958. Guangxuchao donghualu (Historical records of the Guangxu emperor). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju
Zhu, Shouyin. 1998. “Nongye shuifei zhidu gaige shiyan yanjiu baogao” (Report on experimental research on reforming the agricultural tax-and-fee system). Guanli Shijie, No. 2: 143–53
Zong, Lanhai. 1993. “Dang kan ‘zuowen’ yuejin kouhao” (The leap slogan of a Party ‘leftist document’). Cheng Ming (July): 14–15
Zonghe Jihuasi, Nongyebu. 1990. “Guanyu nongmin fudan de diaocha” (Survey on farmers' burdens). Nongcun Jingji Wenti, No. 2: 57–60
Zongzhengzhibu. 1989. Zhongguo renmin jiefangjun qunzhong gongzuoshi (The history of mass work in the PLA). Beijing: Jiefangjun chubanshe
Zweig, David. 2000. “The ‘Externalities of Development’: Can New Political Institutions Manage Rural Conflicts?” in Elizabeth Perry and Mark Selden, eds., Chinese Society: Change, Conflict, and Resistance. New York: Routledge, 120–42
Zweig, David. 1997. Freeing China's Farmers. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed