Skip to main content Accesibility Help
  • Print publication year: 2018
  • Online publication date: March 2018

Chapter 13 - Explanatory Models in Psychiatry

from Section 2 - Culture and Mental Health
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Textbook of Cultural Psychiatry
  • Online ISBN: 9781316810057
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Aggarwal, N. K., Nicasio, A. V., Desilva, R., Boiler, M. and Lewis-Fernandez, R. (2013). Barriers to implementing the DSM-5 cultural formulation interview: a qualitative study. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 37, 505533.
Alarcon, R. D. (2009). Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis: review and projections. World Psychiatry, 8, 131139.
Alarcon, R. D. and Leetz, K. L. (1998). Cultural intersections in the psychotherapy of borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 52, 176190.
Alarcon, R. D., Westermeyer, J., Foulks, E. F. and Ruiz, P. (1999). Clinical relevance of contemporary cultural psychiatry. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187, 465471.
American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edn (DSM-5). Washington, DC: APA.
Atilola, O. and Olayiwola, F. (2013). Frames of mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies: implications for orthodox mental health care. Transcultural Psychiatry, 50, 442454.
Bhikha, A., Farooq, S., Chaudhry, N., Naeem, F. and Husain, N. (2015). Explanatory models of psychosis amongst British South Asians. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 16, 4854.
Bhugra, D. and Flick, G. R. (2005). Pathways to care for patients with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 7, 236245.
Bhui, K. and Bhugra, D. (2002). Explanatory models for mental distress: implications for clinical practice and research. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 67.
Bhui, K., Rudell, K., and Priebe, S. (2006). Assessing explanatory models for common mental disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67, 964971.
Blumhagen, D. (1980). Hyper-tension: a folk illness with a medical name. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 4, 197224.
Blumhagen, D. W. (1981). On the nature of explanatory models. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 5, 337340.
Broome, M. (2002). Explanatory models in psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 351352.
Callan, A. and Littlewood, R. (1998). Patient satisfaction: ethnic origin or explanatory model? International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 44, 111.
Charles, H., Manoranjitham, S. D., and Jacob, K. S. (2007). Stigma and explanatory models among people with schizophrenia and their relatives in Vellore, south India. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 53, 325332.
Chipimo, P. J., Tuba, M. and Fylkesnes, K. (2011). Conceptual models for mental distress among HIV-infected and uninfected individuals: a contribution to clinical practice and research in primary-health-care centers in Zambia. BMC Health Services Research, 11, 7.
Chowdhury, A. N., Sanyal, D., Bhattacharya, A., Dutta, S. K., De, R., Banerjee, S. et al. (2001). Prominence of symptoms and level of stigma among depressed patients in Calcutta. Journal of the Indian Medical Association, 99, 2023.
Chowdhury, A. N., Banerjee, S., Brahma, A., Hazra, A. and Weiss, M. G. (2013). Sociocultural context of suicidal behaviour in the Sundarban region of India. Psychiatry Journal, 2013, 486081.
Costain, W. F. (2008). The effects of cannabis abuse on the symptoms of schizophrenia: patient perspectives. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 17, 227235.
Downs, M., Small, N. and Froggatt, K. (2006). Explanatory models of dementia: links to end-of-life care. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 12, 209213.
Eisenberg, L. (1977). Disease and illness. Distinctions between professional and popular ideas of sickness. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 1, 923.
Eisenbruch, M. (1990). Classification of natural and supernatural causes of mental distress. Development of a Mental Distress Explanatory Model Questionnaire. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 178, 712719.
Engel, G. L. (1977). The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196, 129136.
Fabrega, H. Jr (1975). The need for an ethnomedical science. Science, 189, 969975.
Faure-Delage, A., Mouanga, A. M., M’belesso, P., Tabo, A., Bandzouzi, B., Dubreuil, C. M. et al. (2012). Socio-cultural perceptions and representations of dementia in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo: the EDAC Survey. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 2, 8496.
Ghane, S., Kolk, A. M. and Emmelkamp, P. M. (2012). Direct and indirect assessment of explanatory models of illness. Transcultural Psychiatry, 49, 325.
Giduthuri, J. G., Maire, N., Joseph, S., Kudale, A., Schaetti, C., Sundaram, N. et al. (2014). Developing and validating a tablet version of an illness explanatory model interview for a public health survey in Pune, India. PLoS One, 9, e107374.
Giebel, C., Challis, D., Worden, A., Jolley, D., Bhui, K. S., Lambat, A. et al. (2016a). Perceptions of self-defined memory problems vary in South Asian minority older people who consult a GP and those who do not: a mixed-method pilot study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31, 375383.
Giebel, C. M., Jolley, D., Zubair, M., Bhui, K. S., Challis, D., Purandare, N. et al. (2016b). Adaptation of the Barts Explanatory Model Inventory to dementia understanding in South Asian ethnic minorities. Aging and Mental Health, 20, 594602.
Good, B. J. (1977). The heart of what’s the matter: the semantics of illness in Iran. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 1, 2558.
Groleau, D., Young, A. and Kirmayer, L. J. (2006). The McGill Illness Narrative Interview (MINI): an interview schedule to elicit meanings and modes of reasoning related to illness experience. Transcultural Psychiatry, 43, 671691.
Guzder, J., Yohannes, S. and Zelkowitz, P. (2013). Helpseeking of immigrant and native born parents: a qualitative study from a Montreal child day hospital. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22, 275281.
Hagaman, A. K., Wagenaar, B. H., McLean, K. E., Kaiser, B. N., Winskell, K. and Kohrt, B. A. (2013). Suicide in rural Haiti: clinical and community perceptions of prevalence, etiology, and prevention. Social Science and Medicine, 83, 6169.
Headland, T. N., Pike, K. L. and Harris, M. (1990). Emics and Etics: The Insider/Outsider Debate. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Henningsen, P., Jakobsen, T., Schiltenwolf, M. and Weiss, M. G. (2005). Somatization revisited: diagnosis and perceived causes of common mental disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193, 8592.
Hinton, L., Franz, C. E., Yeo, G., and Levkoff, S. E. (2005). Conceptions of dementia in a multiethnic sample of family caregivers. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, 14051410.
Jacob, K. S. (2010). The assessment of insight across cultures. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 373377.
Jacob, K. S., Bhugra, D., Lloyd, K. R. and Mann, A. H. (1998). Common mental disorders, explanatory models and consultation behaviour among Indian women living in the UK. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 91, 6671.
James, C. C., Carpenter, K. A., Peltzer, K. and Weaver, S. (2014). Valuing psychiatric patients’ stories: belief in and use of the supernatural in the Jamaican psychiatric setting. Transcultural Psychiatry, 51, 247263.
Joel, D., Sathyaseelan, M., Jayakaran, R., Vijayakumar, C., Muthurathnam, S. and Jacob, K. S. (2003). Explanatory models of psychosis among community health workers in South India. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 108, 6669.
Johnson, S., Sathyaseelan, M., Charles, H., Jeyaseelan, V. and Jacob, K. S. (2012). Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study. BMC Psychiatry, 12, 159.
Katz, M. H. (2003). Multivariable analysis: a primer for readers of medical research. Annals of Internal Medicine, 138, 644650.
Kendler, K. S. (2008). Explanatory models for psychiatric illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 695702.
Kenna, J. C. (1962). Sensory deprivation phenomena: critical review and explanatory models. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 55, 10051010.
Kirmayer, L. J. and Jarvis, E. (1998). Cultural psychiatry: from museums of exotica to the global agora. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 11, 183189.
Kleinman, A. M. (1977a). Depression, somatization and the ‘new cross-cultural psychiatry’. Social Science and Medicine, 11, 310.
Kleinman, A. (1977b). Culture, and illness: a question of models. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 1, 229231.
Kleinman, A. (1978a). Clinical relevance of anthropological and cross-cultural research: concepts and strategies. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 427431.
Kleinman, A. (1978b). Concepts and a model for the comparison of medical systems as cultural systems. Social Science and Medicine, 12, 8595.
Kleinman, A. (1980). Patients and Healers in the Context of Culture: An Exploration of the Borderland between Anthropology, Medicine, and Psychiatry. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kleinman, A. (1981). On illness meanings and clinical interpretation: not ‘rational man’, but a rational approach to man the sufferer/man the healer. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 5, 373377.
Kleinman, A. (1995). Writing at the Margin: Discourse between Anthropology and Medicine. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kleinman, A., Eisenberg, L. and Good, B. (1978). Culture, illness, and care: clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. Annals of Internal Medicine, 88, 251258.
Larsen, J. A. (2004). Finding meaning in first episode psychosis: experience, agency, and the cultural repertoire. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 18, 447471.
Leavey, G., Loewenthal, K. and King, M. (2016). Locating the social origins of mental illness: the explanatory models of mental illness among clergy from different ethnic and faith backgrounds. Journal of Religion and Health, 55(5), 16071622.
Lewis-Fernandez, R. (1996). Cultural formulation of psychiatric diagnosis. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 20, 133144.
Lewis-Fernandez, R., Aggarwal, N. K., Bäärnhielm, S., Rohlof, H., Kirmayer, L. J., Weiss, M. G. et al. (2014). Culture and psychiatric evaluation: operationalizing cultural formulation for DSM-5. Psychiatry, 77, 130154.
Lewis-Fernandez, R., Aggarwal, N. K., Lam, P. C., Galfalvy, H., Weiss, M. G., Kirmayer, L. J. et al. (2017). Feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the Cultural Formulation Interview: mixed-methods results from the DSM-5 international field trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 210, 290297.
Lin, S. Y. (2013). Beliefs about causes, symptoms, and stigma associated with severe mental illness among ‘highly acculturated’ Chinese-American patients. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 59, 745751.
Littlewood, R. (1990). From categories to contexts: a decade of the ‘new cross-cultural psychiatry’. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 308327.
Littlewood, R. (1991). From disease to illness and back again. The Lancet, 337, 10131016.
Lloyd, K. R., Jacob, K. S., Patel, V., St Louis, L. L., Bhugra, D. and Mann, A. H. (1998). The development of the Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI) and its use among primary-care attenders with common mental disorders. Psychological Medicine, 28, 12311237.
Loewe, R. and Freeman, J. (2000). Interpreting diabetes mellitus: differences between patient and provider models of disease and their implications for clinical practice. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 24, 379401.
Mathew, A. J., Samuel, B. and Jacob, K. S. (2010). Perceptions of illness in self and in others among patients with bipolar disorder. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 56, 462470.
Mathews, M. (2011). Assessment and comparison of culturally based explanations for mental disorder among Singaporean Chinese youth. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 57, 317.
Mavundla, T. R., Toth, F., and Mphelane, M. L. (2009). Caregiver experience in mental illness: a perspective from a rural community in South Africa. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 18, 357367.
McCabe, R. and Priebe, S. (2004). Explanatory models of illness in schizophrenia: comparison of four ethnic groups. British Journal of Psychiatry, 185, 2530.
Nadkarni, A., Dabholkar, H., McCambridge, J., Bhat, B., Kumar, S., Mohanraj, R. et al. (2013). The explanatory models and coping strategies for alcohol use disorders: an exploratory qualitative study from India. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 6, 521527.
Okello, E. S. and Neema, S. (2007). Explanatory models and help-seeking behavior: pathways to psychiatric care among patients admitted for depression in Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Qualitative Health Research, 17, 1425.
Owiti, J. A., Greenhalgh, T., Sweeney, L., Foster, G. R. and Bhui, K. S. (2015). Illness perceptions and explanatory models of viral hepatitis B and C among immigrants and refugees: a narrative systematic review. BMC Public Health, 15, 151.
Paralikar, V., Agashe, M., Sarmukaddam, S., Deshpande, S., Goyal, V. and Weiss, M. G. (2011). Cultural epidemiology of neurasthenia spectrum disorders in four general hospital outpatient clinics of urban Pune, India. Transcultural Psychiatry, 48, 257283.
Paralikar, V. P., Sarmukaddam, S. B., Patil, K. V., Nulkar, A. D. and Weiss, M. G. (2015). Clinical value of the cultural formulation interview in Pune, India. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 57, 5967.
Parkar, S. R., Nagarsekar, B. and Weiss, M. G. (2009). Explaining suicide in an urban slum of Mumbai, India: a sociocultural autopsy. Crisis, 30, 192201.
Patel, V. and Mann, A. (1997). Etic and emic criteria for non-psychotic mental disorder: a study of the CISR and care provider assessment in Harare. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 32, 8489.
Patel, V., Todd, C., Winston, M., Gwanzura, F., Simunyu, E., Acuda, W. et al. (1997). Common mental disorders in primary care in Harare, Zimbabwe: associations and risk factors. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 6064.
Patel, V., Xiao, S., Chen, H., Hanna, F., Jotheeswaran, A. T., Luo, D. et al. (2016). The magnitude of and health system responses to the mental health treatment gap in adults in India and China. The Lancet, 388(10063), 30743084.
Pattanayak, R. D. and Sagar, R. (2012). A qualitative study of perceptions related to family risk of bipolar disorder among patients and family members from India. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 58, 463469.
Penka, S., Heimann, H., Heinz, A. and Schouler-Ocak, M. (2008). Explanatory models of addictive behaviour among native German, Russian-German, and Turkish youth. European Psychiatry, 23(Suppl 1), 3642.
Pike, K. L. (1967). Etic and emic standpoints for the description of behavior. In Language in Relation to a Unified Theory of the Structure of Human Behavior, 2nd rev. edn. The Hague, the Netherlands: Mouton and Co., pp. 3772.
Raguram, R., Weiss, M. G., Channabasavanna, S. M. and Devins, G. M. (1996). Stigma, depression, and somatization in South India. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 10431049.
Rudell, K., Bhui, K. and Priebe, S. (2009). Concept, development and application of a new mixed method assessment of cultural variations in illness perceptions: Barts Explanatory Model Inventory. Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 336347.
Savarimuthu, R. J., Ezhilarasu, P., Charles, H., Antonisamy, B., Kurian, S. and Jacob, K. S. (2010). Post-partum depression in the community: a qualitative study from rural south India. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 56, 94102.
Scheper-Hughes, N. (1987). ‘Mental’ in ‘Southie’: individual, family, and community responses to psychosis in South Boston. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 11, 5378.
Shackelton-Piccolo, R., McKinlay, J. B., Marceau, L. D., Goroll, A. H. and Link, C. L. (2011). Differences between internists and family practitioners in the diagnosis and management of the same patient with coronary heart disease. Medical Care Research and Review, 68, 650666.
Sheikh, S. and Furnham, A. (2000). A cross-cultural study of mental health beliefs and attitudes towards seeking professional help. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35, 326334.
Siegler, M. and Osmond, H. (1966). Models of madness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 112, 11931203.
Stein, H. F. (1986). ‘Sick people’ and ‘trolls’: a contribution to the understanding of the dynamics of physician explanatory models. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 10, 221229.
Stern, L. and Kirmayer, L. J. (2004). Knowledge structures in illness narratives: development and reliability of a coding scheme. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41, 130142.
Taieb, O., Chevret, S., Moro, M. R., Weiss, M. G., Biadi-Imhof, A., Reyre, A. et al. (2012). Impact of migration on explanatory models of illness and addiction severity in patients with drug dependence in a Paris suburb. Substance Use and Misuse, 47, 347355.
Thomas, A. (1978). Discussion on Arthur Kleinman’s paper. Social Science and Medicine, 12B, 95.
Twumasi, P. A. (1972). Ashanti traditional medicine and its relation to present-day psychiatry. Transition, 5063.
Weiss, M. G. (1997). Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC): framework for comparative study of illness. Transcultural Psychiatry, 34, 235263.
Weiss, M. G. (2001). Cultural epidemiology: an introduction and overview. Anthropology and Medicine, 8, 529.
Weiss, M. G. (2017). The promise of cultural epidemiology. Taiwanese Journal of Psychiatry (Taipei). 31, 824.
Weiss, M. G., Raguram, R. and Channabasavanna, S. M. (1995). Cultural dimensions of psychiatric diagnosis: a comparison of DSM-III-R and illness explanatory models in south India. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 353359.
William, B. and Healy, D. (2001). Perceptions of illness causation among new referrals to a community mental health team: ‘explanatory model’ or ‘exploratory map’? Social Science and Medicine, 53, 465476.
Ying, Y. W. (1990). Explanatory models of major depression and implications for help-seeking among immigrant Chinese-American women. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 14, 393408.
Young, A. (1981). When rational men fall sick: an inquiry into some assumptions made by medical anthropologists. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 5, 317335.
Young, A. (1982). The anthropologies of illness and sickness. Annual Review of Anthropology, 11, 257285.
Zadravec, T., Grad, O. and Socan, G. (2006). Expert and lay explanations of suicidal behaviour: comparison of the general population’s, suicide attempters’, general practitioners’ and psychiatrists’ views. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 52, 535551.