1. . La rétine des vertèbres. Cellule 1892; 9: 119–258.
2. . In vitro experiments on the factors determining the course of the outgrowing nerve fiber. J Exp Zoo 1934; 68: 393–448.
3. . The reaction of embryonic cells to solid structures. J Exp Zoo 1914; 17: 521–44.
4. . Self-differentiation of the basic patterns of coordination. Comp Psych Mono 1941; 17: 1–96.
5. . Chemoaffinity in the orderly growth of nerve fiber patterns and connections. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1963; 50: 703–10.
6. . À quelle époque apparaissent les expansions des cellules nerveuses de la moëlle épinière du poulet? Anat Anz 1890; 21–22: 609–39.
7. . Observations on the living developing nerve fiber. Anat Rec 1907; 1: 116–18.
8. . Studies of living nerves II. Activities of amoeboid growth cones, sheath cells and myelin segments, as revealed by prolonged observation of individual fibers in frog tadpoles. Am J Anat 1933; 52: 1–79.
9. , , , et al. Concentration of membrane antigens by forward transport and trapping in neuronal growth cones. Cell 1990; 61: 231–41.
10. , , . Pioneer growth cone steering decisions mediated by single filopodial contacts in situ. J Neurosci 1990; 10: 3935–46.
11. , . Actions of cytochalasins on the organization of actin filaments and microtubules in a neuronal growth cone. J Cell Biol 1988; 107: 1505–16.
12. , . Role of myosin II in axon outgrowth. J Histochem Cytochem 2003; 51: 421–8.
13. , . Regulated actin cytoskeleton assembly at filopodium tips controls their extension and retraction. J Cell Biol 1999; 146: 1097–106.
14. , , . Direct evidence that growth cones pull. Nature 1989; 340: 159–62.
15. , , . Traction on immobilized netrin-1 is sufficient to reorient axons. Science 2009; 325: 166.
16. , . An emerging link between cytoskeletal dynamics and cell adhesion molecules in growth cone guidance. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1998; 8: 106–16.
17. , . The molecular biology of axon guidance. Science 1996; 274: 1123–33.
18. , . A role for BMP heterodimers in roof plate-mediated repulsion of commissural axons. Neuron 2003; 38: 389–401.
19. , , , et al. BMPs as mediators of roof plate repulsion of commissural neurons. Neuron 1999; 24: 127–41.
20. , , , et al. VEGF mediates commissural axon chemoattraction through its receptor Flk1. Neuron 2011; 70: 966–78.
21. , , , et al. The morphogen sonic hedgehog is an axonal chemoattractant that collaborates with netrin-1 in midline axon guidance. Cell 2003; 113: 11–23.
22. , , , et al. Netrin-1 is required for commissural axon guidance in the developing vertebrate nervous system. Cell 1996; 87: 1001–14.
23. , , , et al. Netrins are diffusible chemotropic factors for commissural axons in the embryonic spinal cord. Cell 1994; 78: 425–35.
24. , , , et al. Interference with axonin-1 and NrCAM interactions unmasks a floor-plate activity inhibitory for commissural axons. Neuron 1997; 18: 209–21.
25. , , , et al. Sonic hedgehog guides commissural axons along the longitudinal axis of the spinal cord. Nat Neurosci 2005; 8: 297–304.
26. , , , et al. Anterior-posterior guidance of commissural axons by Wnt-frizzled signaling. Science 2003; 302: 1984–8.
27. , , , et al. Conserved roles for Slit and Robo proteins in midline commissural axon guidance. Neuron 2004; 42: 213–23.
28. , , , et al. Squeezing axons out of the gray matter: a role for slit and semaphorin proteins from midline and ventral spinal cord. Cell 2000; 102: 363–75.
29. , . Extracellular matrix molecules and their receptors: functions in neural development. Ann Rev Neurosci 1991; 14: 531–70.
30. , , . Extracellular matrix: functions in the nervous system. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2011; 3: a005108.
31. , , , et al. A simplified laminin nomenclature. Matrix Biol 2005; 24: 326–32.
32. , . Form and function: the laminin family of heterotrimers. Dev Dyn 2000; 218: 213–34.
33. , , , et al. Schwann cell basal lamina and nerve regeneration. Brain Res 1983; 288: 61–75.
34. , , , et al. Laminin overrides the inhibitory effects of peripheral nervous system and central nervous system myelin-derived inhibitors of neurite growth. J Neurosci Res 1995; 42: 594–602.
35. , , , et al. Distribution of the ten known laminin chains in the pathways and targets of developing sensory axons. J Comp Neurol 1997; 378: 547–61.
36. , , , et al. Laminin alpha subunits and their role in C. elegans development. Development 2003; 130: 3343–58.
37. , , , et al. Wing blister, a new Drosophila laminin alpha chain required for cell adhesion and migration during embryonic and imaginal development. J Cell Biol 1999; 145: 191–201.
38. , , , et al. The targeted deletion of the LAMC1 gene. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1998; 857: 283–6.
39. , , , et al. Growth cones turn and migrate up an immobilized gradient of the laminin IKVAV peptide. J Neurobiol 2005; 62: 134–47.
40. , , , et al. Gradients of substrate-bound laminin orient axonal specification of neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99: 12542–7.
41. , , , et al. Molecular gradient along the axon pathway is not required for directional axon growth. J Neurosci Res 1998; 53: 114–24.
42. . Growth cone behavior on gradients of substratum bound laminin*1. Dev Biol 1988; 130: 232–6.
43. , , , et al. A critical function of the pial basement membrane in cortical histogenesis. J Neurosci 2002; 22: 6029–40.
44. , , , et al. Cortical deficiency of laminin gamma1 impairs the AKT/GSK-3beta signaling pathway and leads to defects in neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration. Dev Biol 2009; 327: 158–68.
45. , , . The integrins. Genome Biol 2007; 8: 215.
46. , Stepp MA. Integrins as receptors for laminins. Microsc Res Tech 2000; 51: 280–301.
47. , , , et al. NGL family PSD-95-interacting adhesion molecules regulate excitatory synapse formation. Nat Neurosci 2006; 9: 1294–301.
48. , , , et al. Glycosaminoglycan-binding properties and secondary structure of the C-terminus of netrin-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000; 271: 287–91.
49. , , , et al. Widespread expression of netrin-1 by neurons and oligodendrocytes in the adult mammalian spinal cord. J Neurosci 2001; 21: 3911–22.
50. , , , et al. The netrins define a family of axon outgrowth-promoting proteins homologous to C. elegans UNC-6. Cell 1994; 78: 409–24.
51. , , , et al. Orientation of commissural axons in vitro in response to a floor plate-derived chemoattractant. Development 1990; 110: 19–30.
52. , , , et al. Chemotropic guidance of developing axons in the mammalian central nervous system. Nature 1988; 336: 775–8.
53. . Croissance des fibres nerveuses commissurales lors de lésions de la moelle épinière chez de jeunes embryons de poulet. Biomorphosis 1934; 1: 30–5.
54. . Textura del sistema nervioso del hombre y de los vertebrados estudios sobre el plan estructural y composición histológica de los centros nerviosos adicionados de consideraciones fisiológicas fundadas en los nuevos descubrimientos. Madrid: Imprenta y Librería de Nicolás Moya, 1899.
55. , , . The unc-5, unc-6, and unc-40 genes guide circumferential migrations of pioneer axons and mesodermal cells on the epidermis in C. elegans. Neuron 1990; 4: 61–85.
56. , , , et al. UNC-40, a C. elegans homolog of DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Cancer), is required in motile cells responding to UNC-6 netrin cues. Cell 1996; 87: 187–95.
57. , , , et al. UNC-5, a transmembrane protein with immunoglobulin and thrombospondin type 1 domains, guides cell and pioneer axon migrations in C. elegans. Cell 1992; 71: 289–99.
58. , , , et al. Phenotype of mice lacking functional Deleted in colorectal cancer (Dcc) gene. Nature 1997; 386: 796–804.
59. , , , et al. Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) encodes a netrin receptor. Cell 1996; 87: 175–85.
60. . Cloning of three mouse Unc5 genes and their expression patterns at mid-gestation. Mech Dev 2002; 118: 191–7.
61. , , , et al. The mouse rostral cerebellar malformation gene encodes an UNC-5-like protein. Nature 1997; 386: 838–42.
62. , , , et al. Vertebrate homologues of C. elegans UNC-5 are candidate netrin receptors. Nature 1997; 386: 833–8.
63. , , , et al. A ligand-gated association between cytoplasmic domains of UNC5 and DCC family receptors converts netrin-induced growth cone attraction to repulsion. Cell 1999; 97: 927–41.
64. , , , et al. Dscam guides embryonic axons by Netrin-dependent and -independent functions. Development 2008; 135: 3839–48.
65. , , , et al. DSCAM is a netrin receptor that collaborates with DCC in mediating turning responses to netrin-1. Cell 2008; 133: 1241–54.
66. , , , et al. Recognition of the neural chemoattractant Netrin-1 by integrins alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 regulates epithelial cell adhesion and migration. Dev Cell 2003; 5: 695–707.
67. , , , et al. Slit: an EGF-homologous locus of D. melanogaster involved in the development of the embryonic central nervous system. Cell 1988; 55: 1047–59.
68. , , . Mutations affecting the pattern of the larval cuticle in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Zygotic loci on the second chromosome. Roux’s Arch Dev Biol 1984; 193: 267–83.
69. , , , et al. Vertebrate slit, a secreted ligand for the transmembrane protein roundabout, is a repellent for olfactory bulb axons. Cell 1999; 96: 807–18.
70. , , . Slit is the midline repellent for the robo receptor in Drosophila. Cell 1999; 96: 785–94.
71. , , , et al. Slit: an extracellular protein necessary for development of midline glia and commissural axon pathways contains both EGF and LRR domains. Genes Dev 1990; 4: 2169–87.
72. , , , et al. Selecting a longitudinal pathway: Robo receptors specify the lateral position of axons in the Drosophila CNS. Cell 2000; 103: 1033–45.
73. , , , et al. Short-range and long-range guidance by Slit and its Robo receptors: a combinatorial code of Robo receptors controls lateral position. Cell 2000; 103: 1019–32.
74. , , , et al. Mutations affecting growth cone guidance in Drosophila: genes necessary for guidance toward or away from the midline. Neuron 1993; 10: 409–26.
75. , , , et al. Distinct but overlapping expression patterns of two vertebrate slit homologs implies functional roles in CNS development and organogenesis. Mech Dev 1998; 79: 57–72.
76. , , , et al. Cloning and expressions of three mammalian homologues of Drosophila slit suggest possible roles for Slit in the formation and maintenance of the nervous system. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 1998; 62: 175–86.
77. , , , et al. Slit proteins bind Robo receptors and have an evolutionarily conserved role in repulsive axon guidance. Cell 1999; 96: 795–806.
78. , , , et al. Cloning and functional studies of a novel gene aberrantly expressed in RB-deficient embryos. Dev Biol 1999; 207: 62–75.
79. , , , et al. Molecular cloning of novel leucine-rich repeat proteins and their expression in the developing mouse nervous system. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 1996; 35: 31–40.
80. , , . The slit receptor EVA-1 coactivates a SAX-3/Robo mediated guidance signal in C. elegans. Science 2007; 317: 1934–8.
81. , , , et al. Retinal ganglion cell axon guidance in the mouse optic chiasm: expression and function of robos and slits. J Neurosci 2000; 20: 4975–982.
82. , , , et al. Biochemical purification of a mammalian slit protein as a positive regulator of sensory axon elongation and branching. Cell 1999; 96: 771–84.
83. , , , et al. Slit2-mediated chemorepulsion and collapse of developing forebrain axons. Neuron 1999; 22: 463–73.
84. , , . Collapsin: a protein in brain that induces the collapse and paralysis of neuronal growth cones. Cell 1993; 75: 217–27.
85. , , , et al. Semaphorin III can function as a selective chemorepellent to pattern sensory projections in the spinal cord. Neuron 1995; 14: 949–59.
86. , , . Semaphorin regulation of cellular morphology. Ann Rev Cell Dev Biol 2007; 23: 263–92.
87. , , . Ectopic semaphorin-1a functions as an attractive guidance cue for developing peripheral neurons. Nat Neurosci 1999; 2: 798–803.
88. , , , et al. Conversion of neuronal growth cone responses from repulsion to attraction by cyclic nucleotides. Science 1998; 281: 1515–18.
89. , , . Transmembrane grasshopper Semaphorin I promotes axon outgrowth in vivo. Development 1997; 124: 3597–607.
90. , , . Semaphorin signaling: molecular switches at the midline. Trends Cell Biol 2010; 20: 568–76.
91. , , , et al. FAK-MAPK-dependent adhesion disassembly downstream of L1 contributes to semaphorin3A-induced collapse. EMBO J 2008; 27: 1549–62.
92. , , , et al. Dual functional activity of semaphorin 3B is required for positioning the anterior commissure. Neuron 2005; 48: 63–75.
93. , , , et al. Gating of Sema3E/PlexinD1 signaling by neuropilin-1 switches axonal repulsion to attraction during brain development. Neuron 2007; 56: 807–22.
94. , , , et al. VEGFR2 (KDR/Flk1) signaling mediates axon growth in response to semaphorin 3E in the developing brain. Neuron 2010; 66: 205–19.
95. , . Eph receptors and ephrins. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2003; 35: 130–4.
96. , , , et al. Bifunctional action of ephrin-B1 as a repellent and attractant to control bidirectional branch extension in dorsal-ventral retinotopic mapping. Neuron 2003; 130: 2407–18.
97. , , , et al. In vitro guidance of retinal ganglion cell axons by RAGS, a 25 kDa tectal protein related to ligands for Eph receptor tyrosine kinases. Cell 1995; 82: 359–70.
98. , , , et al. Sek4 and Nuk receptors cooperate in guidance of commissural axons and in palate formation. EMBO J 1996; 15: 6035–49.
99. , , , et al. Forward signaling mediated by ephrin-B3 prevents contralateral corticospinal axons from recrossing the spinal cord midline. Neuron 2001; 29: 85–97.
100. , , , et al. Ephrin-B3 is the midline barrier that prevents corticospinal tract axons from recrossing, allowing for unilateral motor control. Genes Dev 2001; 15: 877–88.
101. , , , et al. Development and reorganization of corticospinal projections in EphA4 deficient mice. J Comp Neurol 2001; 436: 248–62.
102. , . Eph/ephrin molecules–a hub for signaling and endocytosis. Genes Dev 2010; 24: 2480–92.
103. . Unified nomenclature for Eph family receptors and their ligands, the ephrins. Cell 1997; 90: 403–4.
104. , , . Dynamic signaling for neural stem cell fate determination. Cell Adh Migr 2009; 3: 107–17.
105. , , . BMP type I receptor complexes have distinct activities mediating cell fate and axon guidance decisions. Development 2008; 135: 1119–28.
106. , , , et al. Boc is a receptor for sonic hedgehog in the guidance of commissural axons. Nature 2006; 444: 369–73.
107. , . Neuronal chemotaxis: chick dorsal-root axons turn toward high concentrations of nerve growth factor. Science 1979; 206: 1079–80.
108. , , , et al. Adaptation in the chemotactic guidance of nerve growth cones. Nature 2002; 417: 411–18.
109. , , , et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the development of structural neuronal connectivity. Dev Neurobiol 2010; 70: 271–88.
110. , , , et al. Cranial sensory neuron development in the absence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in BDNF/Bax double null mice. Dev Biol 2004; 275: 34–43.
111. , , , et al. RGM is a repulsive guidance molecule for retinal axons. Nature 2002; 419: 392–5.
112. , , . Molecular biology, genetics and biochemistry of the repulsive guidance molecule family. Biochem J 2009; 422: 393–403.
113. , , , et al. Neogenin mediates the action of repulsive guidance molecule. Cell 2004; 6: 756–62.
114. , , , et al. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGMa), a DRAGON homologue, is a bone morphogenetic protein co-receptor. J Biol Chem 2005; 280: 29820–7.
115. , , , et al. Repulsive guidance molecule RGMa alters utilization of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type II receptors by BMP2 and BMP4. J Biol Chem 2007; 282: 18129–40.
116. , , , et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2: structure, function, intracellular signalling and therapeutic inhibition. Cell Signal 2007; 19: 2003–12.
117. , , , et al. VEGF signaling through neuropilin 1 guides commissural axon crossing at the optic chiasm. J Neurosci 2011; 70: 951–65.
118. , , , et al. Neuropilin-2, a novel member of the neuropilin family, is a high affinity receptor for the semaphorins Sema E and Sema IV but not Sema III. Neuron 1997; 19: 547–59.
119. . Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton. Science 1998; 279: 509–14.
120. , . Rho GTPases and their effector proteins. Biochem J 2000; 348: 241–55.
121. , , . The role of the Rho GTPases in neuronal development. Genes Dev 2005; 19: 1–49.
122. , , , et al. Comm sorts robo to control axon guidance at the Drosophila midline. Cell 2002; 110: 415–27.
123. , , , et al. The divergent Robo family protein rig-1/Robo3 is a negative regulator of slit responsiveness required for midline crossing by commissural axons. Cell 2004; 117: 157–69.
124. , , , et al. The slit receptor Rig-1/Robo3 controls midline crossing by hindbrain precerebellar neurons and axons. Neuron 2004; 43: 69–79.
125. , . Hierarchical organization of guidance receptors: silencing of netrin attraction by slit through a Robo/DCC receptor complex. Science 2001; 291: 1928–38.
126. , . Movement and extension of isolated growth cones. Exp Cell Res 1977; 104: 55–62.
127. , , . Retinal axons with and without their somata, growing to and arborizing in the tectum of Xenopus embryos: a time-lapse video study of single fibres in vivo. Development 1987; 101: 123–33.
128. , . Chemotropic responses of retinal growth cones mediated by rapid local protein synthesis and degradation. Neuron 2001; 32: 1013–26.
129. , , . Axonal protein synthesis provides a mechanism for localized regulation at an intermediate target. Cell 2002; 110: 223–35.
130. , . Cellular strategies of axonal pathfinding. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2010; 2: a001933
131. , , , et al. cAMP-dependent growth cone guidance by netrin-1. Neuron 1997; 19: 1225–35.
132. , , , et al. Growth-cone attraction to netrin-1 is converted to repulsion by laminin-1. Nature 1999; 401: 69–73.
133. , , , et al. Neuronal cyclic AMP controls the developmental loss in ability of axons to regenerate. J Neurosci 2001; 21: 4731–9.
134. , , , et al. Regeneration of sensory axons within the injured spinal cord induced by intraganglionic cAMP elevation. Neuron 2002; 34: 885–93.
135. , , , et al. Spinal axon regeneration induced by elevation of cyclic AMP. Neuron 2002; 34: 895–903.
136. , , , et al. Activated CREB is sufficient to overcome inhibitors in myelin and promote spinal axon regeneration in vivo. Neuron 2004; 44: 609–21.
137. , , , et al. Protein kinase A activation promotes plasma membrane insertion of DCC from an intracellular pool: a novel mechanism regulating commissural axon extension. J Neurosci 2004; 24: 3040–50.
138. , . Protein kinase A regulates the sensitivity of spinal commissural axon turning to netrin-1 but does not switch between chemoattraction and chemorepulsion. J Neurosci 2006; 26: 2419–23.
139. , , . Serine phosphorylation negatively regulates RhoA in vivo. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 19023–31.
140. , , , et al. Protein kinase A phosphorylation of RhoA mediates the morphological and functional effects of cyclic AMP in cytotoxic lymphocytes. EMBO J 1996; 15: 510–19.
141. , . Axonal elongation into peripheral nervous system “bridges” after central nervous system injury in adult rats. Science 1981; 214: 931–3.
142. , , , et al. Oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) is an inhibitor of neurite outgrowth. J Neurochem 2002; 82: 1566–9.
143. , , , et al. Oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein is a Nogo receptor ligand that inhibits neurite outgrowth. Nature 2002; 417: 941–4.
144. , , , et al. Nogo-A is a myelin-associated neurite outgrowth inhibitor and an antigen for monoclonal antibody IN-1. Nature 2000; 403: 434–9.
145. , , , et al. Identification of the Nogo inhibitor of axon regeneration as a Reticulon protein. Nature 2000; 403: 439–44.
146. , , , et al. Inhibitor of neurite outgrowth in humans. Nature 2000; 403: 383–4.
147. , , , et al. Identification of myelin-associated glycoprotein as a major myelin-derived inhibitor of neurite growth. Neuron 1994; 13: 805–11.
148. , , , et al. A novel role for myelin-associated glycoprotein as an inhibitor of axonal regeneration. Neuron 1994; 13: 757–67.
149. , . Degeneration and regeneration of axons in the lesioned spinal cord. Physiol Rev 1996; 76: 319–70.
150. , , , et al. P75 interacts with the Nogo receptor as a co-receptor for Nogo, MAG and OMgp. Nature 2002; 420: 74–8.
151. , , , et al. Myelin-associated glycoprotein as a functional ligand for the Nogo-66 receptor. Science 2002; 297: 1190–3.
152. , , , et al. Myelin-associated glycoprotein interacts with the Nogo66 receptor to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Neuron 2002; 35: 283–90.
153. , , . Identification of a receptor mediating Nogo-66 inhibition of axonal regeneration. Nature 2001; 409: 341–6.
154. , , , et al. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in neural development and regeneration. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2005; 15: 116–20.
155. , , . The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans neurocan and phosphacan are expressed by reactive astrocytes in the chronic CNS glial scar. J Neurosci 1999; 19: 10778–88.
156. , , . Changes in distribution, cell associations, and protein expression levels of NG2, neurocan, phosphacan, brevican, versican V2, and tenascin-C during acute to chronic maturation of spinal cord scar tissue. J Neurosci Res 2003; 71: 427–44.
157. , , . The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans neurocan, brevican, phosphacan, and versican are differentially regulated following spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol 2003; 182: 399–411.
158. , , , et al. Chondroitinase ABC promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Nature 2002; 416: 636–40.
159. , , , et al. Leukocyte common antigen-related phosphatase is a functional receptor for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan axon growth inhibitors. J Neurosci 2011; 31: 14051–66.
160. , , , et al. Corticospinal tract regeneration after spinal cord injury in receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma deficient mice. Glia 2010; 58: 423–33.
161. , , , et al. PTPsigma is a receptor for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, an inhibitor of neural regeneration. Science 2009; 326: 592–6.
162. , , , et al. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma inhibits axon regrowth in the adult injured CNS. Mol Cell Neurosci 2005; 28: 625–35.
163. , , , et al. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma inhibits axonal regeneration and the rate of axon extension. Mol Cell Neurosci 2003; 23: 681–92.
164. , , . Guidance molecules in axon regeneration. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2010; 2: a001867.
165. , . Can regenerating axons recapitulate developmental guidance during recovery from spinal cord injury? Nat Rev Neurosci 2006; 7: 603–16.
166. , , , et al. Eph/ephrin expression in the adult rat visual system following localized retinal lesions: localized and transneuronal up-regulation in the retina and superior colliculus. Eur J Neurosci 2005; 22: 1840–52.
167. , , , et al. EphB3: an endogenous mediator of adult axonal plasticity and regrowth after CNS injury. J Neurosci 2006; 26: 3087–101.
168. , , , et al. Upregulation of EphA3 receptor after spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma 2005; 22: 929–35.
169. , , , et al. Accumulation of the inhibitory receptor EphA4 may prevent regeneration of corticospinal tract axons following lesion. Eur J Neurosci 2006; 23: 1721–30.
170. , , , et al. Axonal regeneration and lack of astrocytic gliosis in EphA4-deficient mice. J Neurosci 2004; 24: 10064–73.
171. , , , et al. Expression of semaphorins in developing and regenerating olfactory epithelium. J Comp Neurol 2000; 423: 565–78.
172. , , , et al. Expression of the gene encoding the chemorepellent semaphorin III is induced in the fibroblast component of neural scar tissue formed following injuries of adult but not neonatal CNS. Mol Cell Neurosci 1999; 13: 143–66.
173. , , , et al. Evidence for a role of the chemorepellent semaphorin III and its receptor neuropilin-1 in the regeneration of primary olfactory axons. J Neurosci 1998; 18: 9962–76.
174. , , , et al. Semaphorin III can repulse and inhibit adult sensory afferents in vivo. Nat Med 1997; 3: 1398–401.
175. , , , et al. A selective Sema3A inhibitor enhances regenerative responses and functional recovery of the injured spinal cord. Nat Med 2006; 12: 1380–9.
176. , , , et al. In vitro and in vivo characterization of a novel semaphorin 3A inhibitor, SM-216289 or xanthofulvin. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 42985–91.
177. , , , et al. Gene expression profiling reveals multiple novel intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with axonal regeneration failure. Eur J Neurosci 2004; 19: 32–42.
178. , , , et al. The transmembrane semaphorin Sema4D/CD100, an inhibitor of axonal growth, is expressed on oligodendrocytes and up-regulated after CNS lesion. J Neurosci 2003; 23: 9229–39.
179. , , , et al. Expression of netrin-1, slit-1 and slit-3 but not of slit-2 after cerebellar and spinal cord lesions. Eur J Neurosci 2005; 22: 2134–44.
180. , , , et al. Netrin-1 is a novel myelin-associated inhibitor to axon growth. J Neurosci 2008; 28: 1099–108.
181. , , , et al. Positioned to inhibit: netrin-1 and netrin receptor expression after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci Res 2006; 84: 1808–20.
182. , , , et al. Expression of netrin-1 and its receptors DCC and UNC-5H2 after axotomy and during regeneration of adult rat retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci 2001; 168: 105–15.
183. , , , et al. Lesion-induced regulation of netrin receptors and modification of netrin-1 expression in the retina of fish and grafted rats. Mol Cell Neurosci 2000; 16: 350–64.
184. , , . Developmental shift in expression of netrin receptors in the rat spinal cord: predominance of UNC-5 homologues in adulthood. J Neurosci Res 2004; 77: 690–700.
185. , , . Behavioral recovery following spinal transection: functional regeneration in the lamprey CNS. Trends Neurosci 1988; 11: 227–31.
186. , . Expression of the netrin receptor UNC-5 in lamprey brain: modulation by spinal cord transection. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2000; 14: 49–58.
187. , , , et al. Application of neutralizing antibodies against NI-35/250 myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitory proteins to the adult rat cerebellum induces sprouting of uninjured Purkinje cell axons. J Neurosci 2000; 20: 2275–86.
188. , , . Rho activation patterns after spinal cord injury and the role of activated Rho in apoptosis in the central nervous system. J Cell Biol 2003; 162: 233–43.
189. , , . Rho kinase inhibition enhances axonal regeneration in the injured CNS. J Neurosci 2003; 23: 1416–23.
190. , , , et al. Characterization of new cell permeable C3-like proteins that inactivate Rho and stimulate neurite outgrowth on inhibitory substrates. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 32820–9.
191. , , , et al. Rho signaling pathway targeted to promote spinal cord repair. J Neurosci 2002; 22: 6570–7.
192. , , , et al. Inactivation of Rho signaling pathway promotes CNS axon regeneration. J Neurosci 1999; 19: 7537–47.
193. , , , et al Inhibition of lysophosphatidate- and thrombin-induced neurite retraction and neuronal cell rounding by ADP ribosylation of the small GTP-binding protein Rho. J Cell Biol 1994; 126: 801–10.
194. , , , et al. A p75(NTR) and Nogo receptor complex mediates repulsive signaling by myelin-associated glycoprotein. Nat Neurosci 2002; 5: 1302–8.
195. , , . Neurotrophin binding to the p75 receptor modulates Rho activity and axonal outgrowth. Neuron 1999; 24: 585–93.
196. , . The p75 receptor acts as a displacement factor that releases Rho from Rho-GDI. Nat Neurosci 2003; 6: 461–7.