Skip to main content
The Apology Ritual
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 34
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bennett, Christopher 2016. Penal Disenfranchisement. Criminal Law and Philosophy, Vol. 10, Issue. 3, p. 411.

    Björnsson, Gunnar and Hess, Kendy 2016. Corporate Crocodile Tears? On the Reactive Attitudes of Corporate Agents. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, p. n/a.

    Canton, Rob 2016. Mental Health, Crime and Criminal Justice.

    Chau, Peter 2016. Bennett’s Expressive Justification of Punishment. Criminal Law and Philosophy,

    Deering, John and Smith, Steven R. 2016. Revising Wolff’s support for retribution in theories of punishment: desistance, rehabilitation, and accommodating individual and social accounts of responsibility. Ethics and Social Welfare, p. 1.

    Hoskins, Zachary 2016. Punishment. Analysis, p. anw022.

    Klocke, Gabriele 2016. Healthy Justice.

    Sverdlik, Steven 2016. Giving Wrongdoers What They Deserve. The Journal of Ethics,

    Wringe, Bill 2016. Rethinking expressive theories of punishment: why denunciation is a better bet than communication or pure expression. Philosophical Studies,

    Holroyd, Jules 2015. Mark D. White (ed): Retributivism: Essays on Theory and Policy. Criminal Law and Philosophy, Vol. 9, Issue. 1, p. 177.

    Lacey, Nicola and Pickard, Hanna 2015. The Chimera of Proportionality: Institutionalising Limits on Punishment in Contemporary Social and Political Systems. The Modern Law Review, Vol. 78, Issue. 2, p. 216.

    McGeer, Victoria and Funk, Friederike 2015. Are ‘Optimistic’ Theories of Criminal Justice Psychologically Feasible? The Probative Case of Civic Republicanism. Criminal Law and Philosophy,

    Wringe, Bill 2015. Perp Walks as Punishment. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, Vol. 18, Issue. 3, p. 615.

    Armstrong, Jac 2014. Rethinking the restorative–retributive dichotomy: is reconciliation possible?. Contemporary Justice Review, Vol. 17, Issue. 3, p. 362.

    Bourne, Richard 2014. Communication, Punishment, and Virtue. Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 42, Issue. 1, p. 78.

    Bülow, William 2014. Treating Inmates as Moral Agents: A Defense of the Right to Privacy in Prison. Criminal Justice Ethics, Vol. 33, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Bülow, William 2014. The Harms Beyond Imprisonment: Do We Have Special Moral Obligations Towards the Families and Children of Prisoners?. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, Vol. 17, Issue. 4, p. 775.

    Radzik, Linda 2014. Desert of What? On Murphy’s Reluctant Retributivism. Criminal Law and Philosophy,

    Sverdlik, Steven 2014. Punishment and Reform. Criminal Law and Philosophy, Vol. 8, Issue. 3, p. 619.

    Winter, Stephen 2014. Transitional Justice in Established Democracies.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Apology Ritual
    • Online ISBN: 9780511487477
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Christopher Bennett presents a theory of punishment grounded in the practice of apology, and in particular in reactions such as feeling sorry and making amends. He argues that offenders have a 'right to be punished' - that it is part of taking an offender seriously as a member of a normatively demanding relationship (such as friendship or collegiality or citizenship) that she is subject to retributive attitudes when she violates the demands of that relationship. However, while he claims that punishment and the retributive attitudes are the necessary expression of moral condemnation, his account of these reactions has more in common with restorative justice than traditional retributivism. He argues that the most appropriate way to react to crime is to require the offender to make proportionate amends. His book is a rich and intriguing contribution to the debate over punishment and restorative justice.

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R. M.Adams, , ‘Involuntary Sins’, Philosophical Review 94 (1985), pp. 3–31.

A.Ashworth, , ‘Rights, Responsibilities and Restorative Justice’, British Journal of Criminology 42 (2002), pp. 578–95.

B.Baker, , ‘Penance as a Model for Punishment’, Social Theory and Practice 18 (1992), pp. 311–31.

R.Barnett, , ‘Restitution: A New Paradigm for Criminal Justice’, Ethics 87 (1977), pp. 279–301.

C.Bennett, , ‘The Varieties of Retributive Experience’, Philosophical Quarterly 52 (2002), pp. 145–63.

C.Bennett, , ‘Personal and Redemptive Forgiveness’, European Journal of Philosophy 11 (2003), pp. 127–44.

C.Bennett, , ‘A Problem Case for Public Reason’, Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 6 (2003), pp. 50–69.

C.Bennett, , ‘Recent Work on Punishment’, Philosophical Books 45 (2004), pp. 324–34.

C.Bennett, , ‘State Denunciation of Crime’, Journal of Moral Philosophy 3 (2006), pp. 288–304.

C.Bennett, , ‘Taking the Sincerity Out of Saying Sorry: Restorative Justice as Ritual’, Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (2006), pp. 127–43.

J. E.Bickenbach, , ‘Critical Notice of R. A. Duff, Trials and Punishments’, Canadian Journal of Philosophy 18 (1988), pp. 765–86.

R.Bittner, , ‘Is it Reasonable to Regret the Things One Did?Journal of Philosophy 89 (1992), pp. 262–73.

J.Braithwaite, , Crime, Shame and Reintegration (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).

J.Braithwaite, , ‘Restorative Justice: Assessing Optimistic and Pessimistic Accounts’, Crime and Justice: A Review of Research 25 (1999), pp. 1–127.

V.Brummer, , ‘Atonement and Reconciliation’, Religious Studies 28 (1992), pp. 435–52.

M.Clark, , ‘The Sanctions of the Criminal Law’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 97 (1997), pp. 25–39.

R.Dagger, , ‘Playing Fair With Punishment’, Ethics 103 (1993), pp. 473–88.

K.Daly, , ‘Restorative Justice: The Real Story’, Punishment and Society 4 (2002), pp. 55–79.

I.Dilman, , Morality and the Inner Life (London: Macmillan, 1979).

R. A.Duff, , ‘Penal Communications’, Crime and Justice: A Review of Research 20 (1996), 1–97.

R. A.Duff, , ‘Law, Language and Community: Some Preconditions of Criminal Liability’, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 18 (1998), pp. 189–206.

J.Finnis, , ‘The Restoration of Retribution’, Analysis 32 (1972), pp. 131–5.

H.Frankfurt, , ‘Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person’, Journal of Philosophy 68 (1971), pp. 5–20.

J.Gardner, , ‘Rationality and the Rule of Law in Offences against the Person’, in J. Gardner, Offences and Defences (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

D.Garland, , Punishment and Modern Society (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990).

P.Greenspan, , ‘Guilt and Virtue’, Journal of Philosophy 91 (1994), pp. 57–70.

L.Hulsman, , ‘Critical Criminology and the Concept of Crime’, Contemporary Crises 10 (1986), pp. 63–80.

H.Jensen, , ‘Morality and Luck’, Philosophy 59 (1984), pp. 323–30.

E.Kelly, , ‘Doing Without Desert’, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 83 (2002), pp. 180–205.

J.Kleinig, , ‘Punishment and Moral Seriousness’, Israel Law Review 25 (1991), pp. 401–21.

A.Kolnai, , ‘Forgiveness’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 74 (1973/4), pp. 91–106.

C.Korsgaard, , ‘Skepticism about Practical Reason’, Journal of Philosophy 83 (1986), pp. 5–25.

C.Korsgaard, , ‘The Right to Lie: Kant on Dealing with Evil’, in Creating the Kingdom of Ends (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 133–58.

C.Larmore, , Patterns of Moral Complexity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).

N.Levy, , ‘Cultural Membership and Moral Responsibility’, Monist 86 (2003), pp. 145–63.

R. J.Lipkin, , ‘Punishment, Penance and Respect for Autonomy’, Social Theory and Practice 14 (1988), pp. 87–104.

D.MacNaughton, , ‘Reparation and Atonement’, Religious Studies 28 (1992), pp. 129–44.

J. L.Mackie, , ‘Morality and the Retributive Emotions’, Criminal Justice Ethics 1 (1982), pp. 3–9.

M.Matravers, , Justice and Punishment: The Rationale of Coercion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).

H.Morris, , ‘Persons and Punishment’, Monist 52 (1968), pp. 475–501.

H.Morris, , ‘The Decline of Guilt’, Ethics 99 (1988), pp. 62–76.

J. G.Murphy, , ‘Three Mistakes about Retributivism’, Analysis 31 (1971), pp. 166–70.

J. G.Murphy, , ‘Hatred: A Qualified Defense’, in J. G. Murphy and J. Hampton, Forgiveness and Mercy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 88–110.

J.O'Leary-Hawthorne, and P. Pettit, ‘Strategies for Free-Will Compatibilists’, Analysis 56 (1996), pp. 191–201.

P.Pettit, and M. Smith, ‘Freedom in Belief and Desire’, Journal of Philosophy 93 (1996), pp. 429–49.

I.Primoratz, , ‘Punishment as Language’, Philosophy 64 (1989), pp. 187–205.

J.Rawls, , ‘Two Concepts of Rules’, Philosophical Review 64 (1955), pp. 3–13.

J.Rawls, , ‘The Idea of an Overlapping Consensus’, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 7 (1987), pp. 1–25.

W.Sadurski, , ‘Theory of Punishment, Social Justice and Liberal Neutrality’, Law and Philosophy 7 (1989), pp. 351–73.

S.Scheffler, , ‘Relationships and Responsibilities’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 26 (1997), pp. 189–209.

A. J.Skillen, , ‘How to Say Things with Walls’, Philosophy 55 (1980), pp. 509–23.

J.Skorupski, , ‘Welfare and Self-Governance’, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (2006), pp. 289–309.

J. J. C.Smart, , ‘Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism’, Philosophical Quarterly 6 (1956), pp. 344–54.

J. J. C.Smart, and B. Williams, Utilitarianism: For and Against (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973).

L.Stern, , ‘Freedom, Blame and Moral Community’, Journal of Philosophy 71 (1974), pp. 72–84.

G.Strawson, , ‘The Impossibility of Moral Responsibility’, Philosophical Studies 75 (1994), pp. 5–24.

J.Tasioulas, , ‘Punishment and Repentance’, Philosophy 81 (2006), pp. 279–322.

C.Taylor, , Hegel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975).

C.Taylor, , ‘Self-interpreting Animals’, in Human Agency and Language: Philosophical Papers, vol. I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), pp. 45–76.

C.Taylor, , ‘Social Theory as Practice’, in Philosophy and the Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers, vol. II (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), pp. 91–115.

A. Hirsch Von, and A. AshworthProportionate Sentencing: Exploring the Principles (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

G.Watson, , ‘Free Agency’, Journal of Philosophy 72 (1975), pp. 205–20.

G.Watson, , ‘Two Faces of Responsibility’, Philosophical Topics 24 (1996), pp. 227–48.

L.Wenar, , ‘Political Liberalism: An Internal Critique’, Ethics 106 (1995), pp. 32–62.

L.Wenar, , ‘The Unity of Rawls's Work’, Journal of Moral Philosophy 1 (2004), pp. 265–75.

B.Williams, , ‘Moral Luck’, in Moral Luck (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), pp. 20–39.