Skip to main content
The Business of Projects
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 38
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ben Mahmoud-Jouini, Sihem Midler, Christophe and Silberzahn, Philippe 2016. Contributions of Design Thinking to Project Management in an Innovation Context. Project Management Journal, Vol. 47, Issue. 2, p. 144.

    Davies, Andrew Dodgson, Mark and Gann, David 2016. Dynamic Capabilities in Complex Projects: The Case of London Heathrow Terminal 5. Project Management Journal, Vol. 47, Issue. 2, p. 26.

    GRUBBAUER, MONIKA 2015. Circulating knowledge, marketization and norm-making: international developers and construction firms in Eastern Europe since 2000. Global Networks, Vol. 15, Issue. 3, p. 288.

    Howard, Mickey 2015. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management.

    Park, Tae-Young and Ji, Illyong 2015. From mass production to complex production: case of the Korean telecom equipment sector. Asia-Pacific Journal of Accounting & Economics, Vol. 22, Issue. 1, p. 78.

    CECI, FEDERICA and D'ANDREA, DAJANA 2014. KNOWLEDGE DYNAMICS IN FRAGMENTED INDUSTRIES. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, Vol. 11, Issue. 02, p. 1450004.

    Chen, Hong Long 2014. Innovation stimulants, innovation capacity, and the performance of capital projects. Journal of Business Economics and Management, Vol. 15, Issue. 2, p. 212.

    Morris, Peter W.G. 2014. Project management: a profession with a hole in its head or, why a change in the culture of academic support is needed for the profession. Engineering Project Organization Journal, Vol. 4, Issue. 2-3, p. 147.

    Widén, Kristian Olander, Stefan and Atkin, Brian 2014. Links between Successful Innovation Diffusion and Stakeholder Engagement. Journal of Management in Engineering, Vol. 30, Issue. 5, p. 04014018.

    Calabrese, Antonio 2013. Master in Strategic Project Management (European), a Worldwide Experience. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 74, p. 488.

    Gong, Limin Shen, Xiaobai Jiang, Shisong and Carr, Chris 2013. Technology progress in the Chinese construction industry under the iron-fist of government. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Vol. 25, Issue. 4, p. 387.

    Morris, Peter 2013. Reconstructing Project Management Reprised: A Knowledge Perspective. Project Management Journal, Vol. 44, Issue. 5, p. 6.

    Raja, Jawwad Z. Green, Stuart D. Leiringer, Roine Dainty, Andrew and Johnstone, Stewart 2013. Managing multiple forms of employment in the construction sector: implications for HRM. Human Resource Management Journal, Vol. 23, Issue. 3, p. 313.

    Zoiopoulos, Ioannis I. 2013. Organizational Configurations and Project Capability Development: Lessons from Construction. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 74, p. 81.

    Koch, Christian 2012. Contested overruns and performance of offshore wind power plants. Construction Management and Economics, Vol. 30, Issue. 8, p. 609.

    Landry, Réjean Amara, Nabil and Doloreux, David 2012. Knowledge-exchange strategies between KIBS firms and their clients. The Service Industries Journal, Vol. 32, Issue. 2, p. 291.

    Lice, Erida and Biba, Marenglen 2012. 2012 Sixth International Conference on Complex, Intelligent, and Software Intensive Systems. p. 76.

    Murray, Robin 2012. Global Civil Society 2012.

    Olausson, Daniel and Berggren, Christian 2012. Managing asymmetries in information flows and interaction between R&D, manufacturing, and service in complex product development. R&D Management, Vol. 42, Issue. 4, p. 342.

    Patanakul, Peerasit and Shenhar, Aaron J. 2012. What project strategy really is: The fundamental building block in strategic project management. Project Management Journal, Vol. 43, Issue. 1, p. 4.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Business of Projects
    • Online ISBN: 9780511493294
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The Business of Projects broke ground when it was first published in 2005, by showing how leading businesses create and implement projects to drive strategy and innovation. Projects are used to coordinate activities with customers and suppliers and ensure that organisations become more dynamic and adaptable. The book extends the resource-based view of the firm to focus on the business lessons learned from the design and production of high-value complex products and systems (CoPS), which have always been project-based. As well as frameworks and management tools, it provides case studies of high-technology industries - such as telecommunications, flight simulation and medical devices - to show how projects are used to achieve strategic objectives, perform systems integration, organise productive activities, manage software, achieve organisational learning and deliver solutions for customers. This book is essential reading for project professionals, academics, students, engineers, managers and policy makers seeking a strategic, innovative perspective on projects.


Review of the hardback:'This book has a very important message in proposing that, for many firms, project competence is a major precondition for competitive advantage. Building on a multitude of solid empirical studies within the COPS research programme, Davies and Hobday demonstrate convincingly the vital role of projects as a means of stimulating flexibility and effecting innovation. They present a comprehensive framework that accounts for the wider significance of projects for innovation and business strategy. For students within business and technology, as well as for managers, this book is a must read!'Lars Lindkvist Professor of Business Administration, Linköping University, Sweden

Review of the hardback:' … a major scholarly contribution to a rethinking of the role of projects in the management literature … moves beyond the orthodox view of projects as a set of operational planning and control tools and techniques, and instead demonstrates how projects are the fulcrum for organization-wide learning, innovation and business development.'Robert DeFillippi Suffolk University Business School, Boston

Review of the hardback:'The popularity of projects as a means for achieving competitive advantage in public and private organizations has become a well-recognized phenomenon, leading to a surge of interest in theory development and the practice of project management techniques. What has been missing, to date, is a work that places projects directly at the center of modern business practices, explaining clearly and concisely why projects are an effective means for achieving myriad organizational goals. This book addresses a critical and, until now, missing component in our understanding of the role of projects in successful business enterprises. Well-researched, provocative, and highly practical, The Business of Projects, is a welcome, and extremely timely addition to the project management literature.'Jeffrey K. Pinto Andrew Morrow and Elizabeth Lee Black Chair in Management of Technology, Sam and Irene Black School of Business

Review of the hardback:'Since the pioneering work of Joan Woodward and Alfred Chandler in the 1960s, researchers have tried to understand the relationships between strategy, organisation and technology. Davies and Hobday show how today’s complex new technologies and organizational structures have made this task even more complicated. Their answer to many of the strategic challenges posed by the new environment is the project business. This book provides a major contribution to our understanding of industrial organisation in the early 21st century.'Mark Dodgson Director, Technology and Innovation Management Centre, University of Queensland

Review of the hardback:'This book has a very important message in proposing that, for many firms, project competence is a major precondition for competitive advantage. Building on a multitude of solid empirical studies … , Davies and Hobday demonstrate convincingly the vital role of projects as a means of stimulating flexibility and effecting innovation. They present a comprehensive framework that accounts for the wider significance of projects for innovation and business strategy. For students within business and technology, as well as for managers, this book is a must read!'Lars Lindkvist Professor of Business Administration, Linköping University, Sweden

Review of the hardback:'… this book is 'highly original' … The authors … go furher by analysing the role of projects, and the actions of managers within them, from two viewpoints: that of complex products and systems as a particular class of undertaking and their role in stimulating and effecting innovations … The book is structured to take researchers, students and managers through the field step by step … This is a well organised and clearly written book on a subject of growing importance. It provides an excellent introduction for students, researchers and project managers.'Development Policy Review

Review of the hardback:'For the reader who wants to understand this important category of projects and the innovation and learning problems associated with project business, I truly recommend the book. I especially believe that the theoretical framework presented in the book is a welcome contribution to both the literature on management in general and to the knowledge of project management/organization/business in particular.'Jonas Söderlund School of Managment, Linköping University

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

W. J.Abernathy, and K. B.Clark, (1985). ‘Innovation: mapping the winds of creative destruction’, Research Policy, 14, 3–22.

V.Acha, , A.Davies, , M.Hobday, and A. J.Salter, (2004). ‘Exploring the capital goods economy: complex product systems in the UK’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 13 (3), 505–529.

P. S.Adler, and K. B.Clark, (1991). ‘Behind the learning curve: a sketch of the learning process’, Management Science, 37 (3), 267–281.

A. H.Amsden, and T.Hikino, (1994). ‘Project execution capability, organizational know-how and conglomerate corporate growth in late industrialization’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 3 (1), 111–147.

K.Arrow, (1962). ‘The economic implications of learning by doing’, Review of Economic Studies, June, 155–173.

K.Ayas, and N.Zeniuk, (2001). ‘Project-based learning: building communities of reflective practitioners’, Management Learning, 32 (1), 61–76.

M.Balconi, (2002). ‘Tacitness, codification of technological knowledge and the organisation of industry’, Research Policy, 31, 357–379.

J.Barney, (1991). ‘Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage’, Journal of Management, 17 (1), 99–120.

B. W.Boehm, (1988). ‘A spiral model of software development and enhancement’, IEEE Computer, May, 61–72.

B. W.Boehm, (1989a). Software Risk Management, Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society Press.

B. W.Boehm, (1989b). ‘Theory-w software project management: principles and examples’, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 15 (7), July, 902–916.

B. W.Boehm, (1991). ‘Software risk management: principles and practices’, IEEE Software, January, 32–41.

A.Bonaccorsi, and P.Giuri, (2000). ‘When shakeout doesn't occur: the evolution of the turboprop engine industry’, Research Policy, 29 (7–8), 847–870.

T.Brady, , H.Rush, , M.Hobday, , A.Davies, , D.Probert, and S.Banerjee, (1997). ‘Tools for technology management: an academic perspective’, Technovation, 17 (8), 417–425.

J. S.Brown, and P.Duguid, (1991). ‘Organizational learning and communities of practice: Towards a unified view of working, learning, and innovation’, Organization Science, 2 (1), 40–57.

S.Brusoni, , A.Prencipe, and K.Pavitt, (2001). ‘Knowledge specialization and the boundaries of the firm: why do firms know more than they make?’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 46, 597–621.

J. NBuxton, . and R.Malcolm, (1991). ‘Software technology transfer’, IEEE Software Engineering Journal, 6 (1), 17–23.

B.Carlsson, and G.Eliasson, (1994). ‘The nature and importance of economic competence’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 3 (4), 687–711.

G. LChambers, . (1986). ‘The systems engineering process: a technical bibliography’, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. SMC–16, No. 5, September/October, 712–722.

K. BClark, . (1985). ‘The interaction of design hierarchies and market concepts in technological evolution’, Research Policy, 14, 235–251.

K. B.Clark, and S. C.Wheelwright, (1992). ‘Organizing and leading “heavyweight” development teams’, Californian Management Review, Summer, 34 (3), 9–28.

R. H.Coase, (1937). ‘The nature of the firm’, Economica, 4, 386–405.

W. M.Cohen, and D. A.Levinthal, (1989). ‘Innovation and learning: the two faces of R&D’, The Economic Journal, 99, 569–596.

W. M.Cohen, and D. A.Levinthal, (1990). ‘Absorptive capacity: a new perspective on learning and innovation’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 128–152.

S. D. N.Cook, and J. S.Brown, (1999). ‘Bridging epistemologies: the generative dance between organizational knowledge and organizational knowing’, Organization Science, 10 (4), 381–400.

L.D'Adderio, (2001). ‘Crafting the virtual prototype: how firms integrate knowledge and capabilities across organisational boundaries’, Research Policy, 30 (9), 1409–1424.

A.Davies, (1996). ‘Innovation in large technical systems: the case of telecommunications’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 5 (4), 1143–1180.

A.Davies, (1997b). ‘The life cycle of a complex product system’, International Journal of Innovation Management, 1 (3), 229–256.

A.Davies, (2004). ‘Moving base into high-value integrated solutions: a value stream approach’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 13 (5), 727–756.

A.Davies, and T.Brady, (2000). ‘Organisational capabilities and learning in complex product systems: towards repeatable solutions’, Research Policy, 29, 931–953.

R. J.DeFillippi, (2001). ‘Introduction: project-based learning, reflective practices and learning outcomes’, Management Learning, 32 (1), 5–10.

R. J.DeFillippi, and M. B.Arthur, (1998). ‘Paradox in project-base enterprise: the case of film making’, California Management Review, 40 (2), Winter, 125–139.

T.DeMarco, and A.Miller, (1996). ‘Managing large software projects’, IEEE Software, July, 24–27.

L.Dickens, and K.Watkins, (1999). ‘Action research: rethinking Lewin’, Management Learning, 30 (2), 127–140.

S.Domberger, (1998). The Contracting Organization: A Strategic Guide to Outsourcing, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

D. H.Doty, and W. H.Glick, (1994). ‘Typologies as a unique form of theory building: towards improved understanding and modeling’, Academy of Management Review, 19 (2), 230–251.

D.Dvir, and T.Lechler, (2004): ‘Plans are nothing, changing plans is everything: the impact of changes on project success’, Research Policy, 33, 1–15.

K. M.Eisenhardt, (1989). ‘Building theories from case study research’, Academy of Management Review, 14 (4), 532–550.

M.Engwall, (2003): ‘No project is an island: linking projects to history and context’, Research Policy, 32, 798–808.

A. G.Fairburn, (1995). ‘A systems approach to ventures’, IEE Review, September, 195–198.

B.Flyvbjerg, , N.Bruzelius, and W.Rothengatter, (2003). Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

J. R.Galbraith, (1971): ‘Matrix organizational designs – how to combine functional and project forms’, Business Horizons, February, 29–40.

J.Galbraith, (1982). ‘The stages of growth’, Journal of Business Strategy, Summer, 70–79.

J. R.Galbraith, (2002a). ‘Organizing to deliver solutions’, Organizational Dynamics, 31 (2), 194–207.

D. M.Gann, (2000). Building Innovation: Complex Constructs in a Changing World, London: Thomas Telford.

D. M.Gann, and A. J.Salter, (1998). ‘Learning and innovation management in project-based, service-enhanced firms’, International Journal of Innovation Management, 2 (4), 431–454.

D. M.Gann, and A.Salter, (2000). ‘Innovation in project-based, service-enhanced firms: the construction of complex products and systems’, Research Policy, 29, 955–972.

P.Gardiner, and R.Rothwell, (1985). ‘Tough customers: good designs’, Design Studies, 6 (1), 7–17.

A.Geyer, and A.Davies, (2000). ‘Managing project-system interfaces: case studies of railway projects in restructured UK and German markets’, Research Policy, 29, 991–1013.

G.Grabher, (2001). ‘Ecologies of creativity: the village, the group, and the heterarchic organisation of the British advertising industry’, Environment and Planning A, 33, 351–374.

G.Grabher, (2002a). ‘Cool projects, boring institutions: temporary collaboration in social context’, Regional Studies, 36, 205–214.

O.Granstrand, , P.Patel, and K.Pavitt, (1997). ‘Multi-technology corporations: why they have “distributed” rather than “distinctive core” competencies’, California Management Review, 39 (4), 8–25.

O.Granstrand, and S.Sjölander, (1990). ‘Managing innovation in multi-technology corporations’, Research Policy, 19, 35–60.

R. M.Henderson, and K. B.Clark, (1990). ‘Architectural innovation: the reconfiguration of existing product technologies and the failure of established firms’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 9–30.

T.Hill, (1993). Manufacturing Strategy: The Strategic Management of the Manufacturing Function, 2nd edn, London: Macmillan.

A. O.Hirshman, and C. E.Lindblom, (1962). ‘Economic development, research and development, policy making: some converging views’, Behavioral Science, 7, 211–222, reprinted in F. E. Emery (1969) Systems Thinking, Harmondsworth, London: Penguin.

M.Hobday, (1994). ‘The limits of Silicon Valley: a critique of network theory’, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 6 (2), 231–244.

M.Hobday, (1998). ‘Product complexity, innovation and industrial organization’, Research Policy, 26, 689–710.

M.Hobday, (2000). ‘The project-based organisation: an ideal form for managing complex products and systems?’, Research Policy, 29 (7–8), 871–893.

M. G.Hobday, and T.Brady, (2000): ‘A fast method for analysing and improving complex software processes’, R&D Management, 30 (1), 1–21.

M.Hobday, and H.Rush, (1999). ‘Technology management in complex product systems (CoPS): ten questions answered’, International Journal of Technology Management, 17 (6), 618–638.

M.Iansiti, (1995). ‘Technology integration: managing technological evolution in a complex environment’, Research Policy, 24, 521–542.

M.Iansiti, and K. B.Clark, (1994). ‘Integration and dynamic capability: evidence from product development in automobiles and mainframe computers’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 3 (3), 557–605.

M.Iansiti, and Y.Khanna, (1995). ‘Technological evolution, system architecture and the obsolescence of firm capabilities’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 4 (2), 333–361.

C.Jones, (1996). ‘Our worst current development practices’, IEEE Software, March, 102–104.

R. M.Kanter, (1985). ‘Supporting innovation and venture development in established companies’, Journal of Business Venturing, 1, 47–60.

A.Keegan, and R. J.Turner, (2001). ‘Quantity versus quality in project-based learning practices’, Management Learning, 32 (1), 77–98.

A.Keegan, and R. J.Turner, (2002). ‘The management of innovation in project-based firms’, Long Range Planning, 35 (4), 367–388.

B.Klein, and W.Meckling, (1958). ‘Application of operations research to development decisions’, Operations Research, 6, 352–363.

K.Knight, (1976). ‘Matrix organization: a review’, The Journal of Management Studies, May, 111–130.

K.Kusunoki, , I.Nonaka, and A.Nagata, (1998). ‘Organizational capabilities in product development of Japanese firms: a conceptual framework and empirical findings’, Organization Science, 9 (6), November–December, 699–718.

J. G.Lake, (1992). ‘Systems engineering re-energized: impacts of the revised DoD acquisition process’, Engineering Management Journal, 4 (3), September, 8–14.

R. J.Langlois, (1992). ‘External economies and economic progress: the case of the microcomputer industry’, Business History Review, 66 (Spring), 1–50.

R. J.Langlois, and P. L.Robertson, (1989). ‘Explaining vertical integration: lessons from the American automobile industry’, Journal of Economic History, 49, 361–375.

E. W.Larson, and D. H.Gobeli, (1987). ‘Matrix management: contradictions and insights’, Californian Management Review, Summer, 29 (4), 126–138.

E. W.Larson, and D. H.Gobeli, (1989). ‘Significance of project management structure on development success’, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 36 (2), 119–125.

D.Leonard-Barton, (1988). ‘Implementation as mutual adaptation of technology and organization’, Research Policy, 17, 251–267.

D.Leonard-Barton, (1992). ‘Core capabilities and core rigidities: a paradox in managing new product development’, Strategic Management Journal, 13, 111–125.

C. E.Lindblom, (1959). ‘The science of “muddling through”’, Public Administration Review, 19, 79–88.

L.Lindkvist, (2004) ‘Governing project-based firms: promoting market-like processes within hierarchies’, Journal of Management and Governance, 8, 3–25.

L.Lindkvist, , J.Söderlund, and F.Tell, (1998) ‘Managing product development projects: on the significance of fountains and deadlines’, Organization Studies, 19 (6), 931–951.

R.Lipschitz, , M.Popper, and S.Oz, (1996). ‘Building learning mechanisms: the design and implementation of organizational learning mechanisms’, Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 32 (3), 292–305.

R. A.Lundin, and A.Söderholm, (1995). ‘A theory of the temporary organization’, Scandinavian Journal of Management, 11 (4), 437–455.

K. R.MacCrimmon, (1993). ‘Do firm strategies exist?’, Strategic Management Journal, 14, Winter, 113–130.

J. G.March, (1991). ‘Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning’, Organization Science, 2 (1), 71–87.

R. E.Miles, and C. C.Snow, (1986). ‘Organizations: new concepts for new forms’, Californian Management Review, Spring, 28 (3), 62–73.

R.Miller, , M.Hobday, , T.Leroux-Demers, and X.Olleros, (1995). ‘Innovation in complex systems industries: the case of flight simulation’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 4 (2), 363–400.

P. W. G.Morris, (1994). The Management of Projects, London: Thomas Telford.

D. C.Mowery, and N.Rosenberg, (1989). Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

D. C.Mueller, and J. E.Tilton, (1976). ‘Research and development costs as a barrier to entry’, Canadian Journal of Economics, 2, 570–579.

R. R.Nelson, (1991). ‘Why do firms differ, and how does it matter?’, Strategic Management Journal, 12, 61–74.

P.Nightingale, (2000). ‘Economies of scale in experimentation: knowledge and technology in pharmaceutical R&D’, Industrial Corporate Change, 9 (2), 315–359.

P.Nightingale, , T.Brady, , A.Davies, and J.Hall, (2003). ‘Capacity utilisation revisited: software, control and large technical systems’, Industrial Corporate Change, 12 (3), 477–517.

P.Nightingale, and R.Poll, (2000). ‘Innovation in investment banking: The dynamics of control systems within the Chandlerian firm’, Industrial Corporate Change, 9 (2), 315–359.

R.Oliva, and R.Kallenberg, (2003). ‘Managing the transition from products to services’, International Journal of Service Industry Management, 14 (2), 160–172.

W. J.Orlikowski, (2002). ‘Knowing in practice: enacting a collective capability in distributed organizing’, Organization Science, 13 (3), 249–273.

J.Packendorff, (1995). ‘Inquiring into the temporary organization: new directions for project management research’, Scandinavian Journal of Management, 11 (4), 319–333.

D. L.Parnas, and P. C.Clements, (1986). ‘A rational design process: how and why to fake it’, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, SE-12, February, 251–257.

M. C.Paulk, (1993). ‘Capability maturity model, version 1.1’, IEEE Software, 10 (4), 18–27.

K.Pavitt, and R.Rothwell, (1976). ‘A comment on “a dynamic model of process and product innovation”’, OMEGA, the International Journal of Management Science, 4 (4), 375–377.

E.Penrose, (1960). ‘The growth of the firm: a case study: the Hercules Powder Company’, Business History Review, 34 (1), Spring.

E.Penrose, (1995). ‘Forward to the third edition’, The Theory of the Growth of the Firm, Oxford University Press.

J. K.Pinto, and J. G.Covin, (1989). ‘Critical factors in project implementation: a comparison of construction and R&D projects’, Technovation, 9, 49–62.

J. K.Pinto, and O. P.Kharbanda, (1995). ‘Lessons for an accidental profession’, Business Horizons, March–April, 41–50.

J. K.Pinto, and J. E.Prescott, (1988). ‘Variations in critical success factors over the stages in the project life cycle’, Journal of Management, 14 (1), 5–18.

M. E.Porter, (1990). The Competitive Advantage of Nations, London: Macmillan Press.

A.Prencipe, (1997). ‘Technological competencies and product's evolutionary dynamics: a case study from the aero-engine industry’, Research Policy, 25, 1261–1276.

A.Prencipe, and F.Tell, (2001). ‘Inter-project learning: processes and outcomes of knowledge codification in project-based firms’, Research Policy, 30, 1373–1394.

G. B.Richardson, (1972). ‘The organisation of industry’, Economic Journal, 82, 883–896.

N.Rosenberg, (1963). ‘Technological change in the machine tool industry, 1840–1910’, The Journal of Economic History, 23 (4), 413–443.

N.Rosenberg, (1976). ‘Marx as a student of technology’, Monthly Review, 28, 56–77.

R.Rothwell, (1992). ‘Successful industrial innovation: critical factors for the 1990s’, R&D Management, 22 (3), 221–239.

R.Rothwell, and P.Gardiner, (1989). ‘The strategic management of re-innovation’, R&D Management, 19 (2), 147–160.

A. P.Sage, (1981). ‘Systems engineering: fundamental limits and future prospects’, Proceedings of the IEEE, 69 (2), February, 158–166.

D.Sahal, (1985). ‘Technological guideposts and innovation avenues’, Research Policy, 14, 61–82.

Sako, M. (2003). ‘Modularity and outsourcing: the nature of co-evolution of product architecture and organization architecture in the global automotive industry’, in A. Prencipe, A. Davies and M. Hobday (eds.) The Business of Systems Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 229–253.

H. M.Sapolsky, (1972). The Polaris System Development: Bureaucratic and Programmatic Success in Government, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

J.Sapsed, , D.Gann, , N.Marshall, and A. J.Salter, (2005). ‘From here to eternity?: the practice of knowledge transfer in dispersed and co-located project organisations’, Special Issue of European Planning Studies on ‘Location, innovation and knowledge management’, 13, 6.

J.Sapsed, and A. J.Salter, (2004). ‘Postcards from the edge: local communities, global programs and boundary objects’, Organization Studies, 25(9), 1515–1534.

A. J.Shenhar, (1993). ‘From low- to high-tech project management’, R&D Management, 23 (3), 199–214.

A. J.Shenhar, (1994a). ‘Systems engineering management: a framework for the development of a multidisciplinary discipline’, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 24 (2), February, 327–332.

H. A.Simon, (1955). ‘A behavioural model of rational choice’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 69, 99–118.

H. A.Simon, (1993). ‘Strategies and organizational evolution’, Strategic Management Journal, 14, Winter, 131–142.

W. H.Starbuck, (1983). ‘Organizations as action generators’, American Sociological Review, 48, 91–102.

T.Sturgeon, (2002). ‘Modular production networks: a new American model of industrial organization’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 11 (3), 451–496.

J.Sydow, , L.Lindkvist, and R.DeFillippi, (2004). ‘Project-based organizations, embeddedness and repositories of knowledge: editorial’, Organization Studies, 25 (9), 1475–1489.

D. J.Teece, (1986). ‘Profiting from technological innovation: implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy’, Research Policy, 15, 285–305.

D. J.Teece, (1996). ‘Firm organization, industrial structure, and technological innovation’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 31, 193–224.

D. J.Teece, and G.Pisano, (1994). ‘The dynamic capabilities of firms: an introduction’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 3, 537–556.

D. J.Teece, , G.Pisano, and A.Shuen, (1997). ‘Dynamic capabilities and strategic management’, Strategic Management Journal, 18 (7), 509–533.

D. J.Teece, , R.Rumelt, , G.Dosi, and S.Winter, (1994). ‘Understanding corporate coherence: theory and evidence’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 23, 1–30.

R. J.Turner, and R.Müller, (2003). ‘On the nature of the project as a temporary organization’, International Journal of Project Management, 21, 1–8.

M.Tushman, and P.Anderson, (1986). ‘Technological discontinuities and organizational environments’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 439–465.

J. M.Utterback, and W. J.Abernathy, (1975). ‘A dynamic model of process and product innovation’, OMEGA, The International Journal of Management Science, 3 (6), 639–656.

J. M.Utterback, and F. F.Suarez, (1993). ‘Innovation, competition, and industry structure’, Research Policy, 22 (1), 1–21.

R.Vernon, (1960). Metropolis 1985: an Interpretation of the Findings of the New York Metropolitan Region Study, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

R.Vernon, (1966). ‘International investment and international trade in the product cycle’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 80, 190–207.

Walker, W., Graham, M. and Harbor, B. (1988). ‘From components to integrated systems: technological diversity and integration between the military and civilian sectors’, in P. Gummett and J. Reppy (eds.) The Relations Between Defence and Civil Technologies, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

B.Wernerfelt, (1984). ‘A resource-based view of the firm’, Strategic Management Journal, 5, 171–180.