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    O'Connor, David 1974. Political systems and archaeological data in Egypt: 2600–1780 B.C.. World Archaeology, Vol. 6, Issue. 1, p. 15.


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    The Cambridge Ancient History
    • Online ISBN: 9781139054256
    • Book DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910
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Part II of volume I deals with the history of the Near East from about 3000 to 1750 B.C. In Egypt, a long period of political unification and stability enabled the kings of the Old Kingdom to develop and exploit natural resources, to mobilize both the manpower and the technical skill to build the pyramids, and to encourage sculptors in the production of works of superlative quality. After a period of anarchy and civil war at the end of the Sixth Dynasty the local rulers of Thebes established the so-called Middle Kingdom, restoring an age of political calm in which the arts could again flourish. In Western Asia, Babylonia was the main centre and source of civilisation, and her moral, though not always her military, hegemony was recognized and accepted by the surrounding countries of Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, Assyria and Elam. The history of the region is traced from the late Uruk and Jamdat Nasr periods up to the rise of Hammurabi, the most significant developments being the invention of writing in the Uruk period, the emergence of the Semites as a political factor under Sargon, and the success of the centralized bureaucracy under the Third Dynasty of Ur.

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Page 1 of 2


  • CHAPTER XI - THE EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD IN EGYPT
    pp 1-70
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.002
  • View abstract
    Summary
    A substantial body of indirect evidence suggests strongly that Egypt, in the period immediately preceding the foundation of the First Dynasty, was divided into two independent kingdoms: a northern kingdom and a southern kingdom. As the founder of the First Dynasty tradition may well have credited Horus Narmer with a greater share in the achievement of the unification of the Two Lands than was his due. Herodotus states that Menes, besides establishing the Egyptian monarchy, founded the city later called Memphis and its temple dedicated to the god Ptah. In order to do so at the place chosen, Menes was obliged to construct a dyke some hundred stades to the south, which diverted the course of the river. The rulers of the First Dynasty were buried not necessarily at the places of their birth, as evidenced by the uncovering of several dynastic tombs at Abydos and Saqqara.
  • CHAPTER XII - THE LAST PREDYNASTIC PERIOD IN BABYLONIA
    pp 71-92
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The framework for a relative chronology of the last predynastic period in Babylonia derives from a deep sounding in the E-anna precinct at Uruk (Warka), and from the superimposed remains of successive temples found there. In the beginning, notably in layers 5 and 4 at Uruk, we are confronted with the unheralded emergence of important invention. In the later layers, at Uruk, and at Jamdat Naṣr and other sites, a decreased creativity is observed in the field of art, a loss of quality. However, a consolidation of the earlier discoveries and their practical application on a wider scale than before has also been noted. This phase represents a period of expansion which carried Mesopotamian influence through the length and breadth of the ancient Near East. This chapter, after first describing the general character of the last predynastic period in Babylonia, describes the two phases in this final period.
  • CHAPTER XIII - THE CITIES OF BABYLONIA
    pp 93-144
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Babylonian civilization grew up on alluvial soil deposited by the Tigris and Euphrates in their lower courses. Whereas the early pre-historic cultures, which Babylonia only shared, have various but always wide extensions, the first age of history, the Early Dynastic, passes within limits which are almost narrow. Its centre was unmistakably among the great cities in the southern part of the alluvium. The early and later Babylonians alike possessed an unusually clear conception of the order of the world. Their mythology implies a fairly comprehensive and consistent set of notions concerning the genesis of things. The chapter also discusses the armies and warfare in Babylonia. The inscriptions of the third Early Dynastic period and the king-list which is the main authority for its history are all greatly preoccupied with war. The two principal monuments, Stele of the Vultures and the Standard of Ur, depict the Sumerian host as a well-equipped and well-ordered fighting-machine.
  • CHAPTER XIV - THE OLD KINGDOM IN EGYPT AND THE BEGINNING OF THE FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
    pp 145-207
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter deals with the Old Kingdom in Egypt, covering the reign of several dynasties (from the Third to the Eighth), and the beginning of the First Intermediate Period. The Egyptians of the Old Kingdom were extremely laconic in recording historical events in their monumental inscriptions. The disappearance of the greater part of the daily records and correspondence written on papyrus leaves us largely dependent upon statements of family relationships and the names and titles of officials and members of the royal household. Biographical material and royal inscriptions became more frequent as the Old Kingdom advanced. Literary documents which are actually contemporaneous with the Old Kingdom are limited in number and are restricted almost entirely to brief biographical inscriptions, and the great body of religious literature known as the Pyramid Texts. The compilation of religious lore in the Pyramid Texts is a characteristic Egyptian expression of what was perhaps the greatest achievement of the Old Kingdom.
  • CHAPTER XV - PALESTINE IN THE EARLY BRONZE AGE
    pp 208-237
    • By R. de Vaux, École Biblique et Archéologique Française de Jérusalem
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The chronological limits of the first scientific excavations in Palestine have remained vague. However, since 1930 more exact knowledge has been gained to better classify material, particularly pottery. As a result of more detailed knowledge of pottery and of studies in comparison, the period has now been divided into four phases. The settlements of the Early Bronze Age were cities: on sites where occupation was continuous the dwellings were concentrated and built closer together (Jericho), and for new settlements rocky citadels were chosen. The building material employed most generally, in fact almost exclusively at the beginning of the period, was brick. It continued to be very widely used for a long time afterwards. The little sanctuary at Tell el-Fārʿah had two parts: a cult-chamber, and a cella on the west side, entered through a narrow door and having a bench along three of its sides.
  • CHAPTER XVI - THE EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD IN MESOPOTAMIA
    pp 238-314
    • By Sir Max E. L. Mallowan, Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, and Emeritus Professor of Western Asiatic Archaeology in the University of London
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter concentrates on the archaeological evidence for Babylonia, for this is by far the richest source for the study of man's development in the Early Dynastic period. The Early Dynastic period of Babylonia has been divided into three parts and the archaeological development has been traced through an exhaustive analysis of stratified objects. Sin Temple VI in the Diyālā valley, the first of the Early Dynastic temples, was directly derived from its predecessor, Sin V, but the walls were for the first time built of plano-convex bricks instead of the older Riemchen which were characteristic of the Jamdat Naṣr period. From the king-lists we know that Kish was one of the most important cities of Babylonia in Early Dynastic times, and indeed its prestige was indicated by the title šar kiššati which signified for its holder the paramount authority in the land. The chapter also discusses the evidence from northern sites in Mesopotamia and Assyria.
  • CHAPTER XVII - SYRIA BEFORE 2200 B.C.
    pp 315-362
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Syria before 2000 BC can be related to the modern-day Syria and Lebanon. The southern part of the desert fringe part of Syria is altogether arid and waterless, but as one crosses the Jazlrah, the north-eastern extension of Syria, the 'island' between Euphrates and Tigris, the infertile gypsum gives place to a zone where cultivation is possible. The upper valleys of the Khabur and the Balikh, tributaries of the Euphrates on its left bank, once supported an ample population. Sargon of Agade and his successors had united the whole of Mesopotamia under their sway, turned towards the west and marched out to conquer it. It was a combination of political and economic necessities which drew them so far from their homes. Pottery has been found at Tabara el-Akrād near Açana, towards the coast, at Ras Shamra, and farther south on the coastal plain in the regions of Jebeleh and Mantar, though not farther south at Byblos.
  • CHAPTER XVIII - ANATOLIA, c. 4000–2300 b.c.
    pp 363-416
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter presents a narrative of the development of native Anatolian chalcolithic cultures in their later phases during the first half of the fourth millennium. The Late Chalcolithic of the Konya plain, that large and fertile basin which periodically sent its overflow down the Calycadnus into western Cilicia, can be pieced together only from surface finds. The Early Bronze (EB) Age following the Chalcolithic been divided into three phases: EB 1, 2 and 3, corresponding with the old Troy I, II and III-V scheme. The end of the EB 2 period is marked in Western and Southern Anatolia by a catastrophe of such magnitude as to remain unparalleled until the very end of the Bronze Age. The First Settlement of Troy was a small fortress, hardly more than three hundred feet across, surrounded by a massive stone wall with entrances flanked by towers. Three successive lines of fortification indicate a long era of growth and expansion.
  • CHAPTER XIX - THE DYNASTY OF AGADE AND THE GUTIAN INVASION
    pp 417-463
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Sumerian king-list spares but two or three remarks upon the founder himself and relapses into its customary tale of names and numbers for the rest of the Dynasty of Agade. A miraculous or a mysterious origin is essential to superhuman characters, and Sargon was the first to show that the taste of the ancient eastern peoples was to be for the latter. However, there is a strong tradition that the reign of Sargon himself was clouded at the end by difficulties both external and internal. The next two kings of Agade and successors to the empire of Sargon were his two sons, Rimush and Manishtusu. Manishtusu was succeeded by his son, Naram-Sin, destined to become the second of a pair whom later history ever regarded as the greatest figures in its annals. Gutian oppression came to a decisive end probably in the lifetime of Gudea himself, by the act of a national hero, Utu-khegal, king of Uruk.
  • CHAPTER XXI - SYRIA AND PALESTINE c. 2160–1780 b.c.
    pp 532-594
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter covers the history of Syria and Palestine for the period 2160-1780 BC. It begins with a discussion of Syria and Palestine under the Heracleopolitan Period and the Eleventh Dynasty. Archaeological evidence of Egyptian influence in Syrian ports between the Sixth and Twelfth Dynasties is scarce. At Byblos, and in Syria and Palestine as a whole, no Egyptian king is mentioned in the hieroglyphic inscriptions between Phiops II and Sesostris I. With the reign of Ammenemes I, a new era began in Egypt's relations with Syria and Palestine, relations which in a short time were to assume the form of expansion in these countries by the pharaohs. During the Third Dynasty of Ur it seems clear that the Hurrian invasion had not yet touched the extreme north and north-east of Mesopotamia. Certain districts of Upper Syria were occupied, such as the town of Urkish. The chapter ends with a discussion on the evidence from the Syrian and Palestinian sites.
  • CHAPTER XXII - BABYLONIA, c. 2120–1800 B.C.
    pp 595-643
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter covers the history of Babylonia for the period 2120-1800 BC. It begins with a discussion of the Third Dynasty of Ur. The Third Dynasty of Ur began therefore with the appointment of its first member by the preceding king, who doubtless selected one of his principal adherents, perhaps not a native of the place he was given to rule. Next, the chapter illustrates the role played by the king and his officers. Visibly under the impulse of the king himself a most meticulous system of bookkeeping was instituted, and this clerking was consigned to admirably made tablets in a fine clear style of writing. The abundant evidence of business activity in this period is mostly confined to the temple economy, which covered many undertakings. Then, the chapter presents discussions on the influx of foreigners from the east, and the Amorite invasion.
  • CHAPTER XXIII - PERSIA, c. 2400–1800 B.C.
    pp 644-680
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter covers the history of Persia during the period 2400-1800 BC. It begins with a discussion on the Elamite kings of Awan. Although a powerful Elamite kingdom of Awan was able to exercise authority over Mesopotamia for some considerable time, Elam probably fell a victim to the anarchy brought in by the Gutians. Next, the chapter talks about the Elamite kings of Simashki. During the second century of the kings of Simashki, Elam again presents to history a picture of weakness, this time under the suzerainty of the Third Dynasty of Ur. There was an overpowering influence religion exercised upon the rulers and people of ancient Elam. This religion had much in common with that of neighbouring Mesopotamia, but a well-defined Elamite character is always present. The most important work of ancient Elamite art is a relief cut in the rock-face at a place of worship high up on the ridge of a range of mountains in southern Anshan.
  • CHAPTER XXIV (a) - ANATOLIA, c. 2300–1750 B.C.
    pp 681-706
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter covers the history of Anatolia during the period 2300-1750 BC. It begins with a discussion of Western Anatolia after the Luwian invasion. The appearance of a typical west Anatolian building-form at the Kültepe 'palace' in so remote a setting as Cappadocia may serve to emphasize the contact that was maintained between Central Anatolia and the Luwian-occupied areas. The chapter then talks about the ceramic developments in Central Anatolia. The sudden and conspicuous appearance of painted pottery in Central Anatolia during the final phase of the Early Bronze Age, is not an isolated occurrence. East of the Cappadocian area and beyond the Antitaurus painted pottery related to Cappadocian has been found in the plain of Elbistan. The chapter also presents a discussion on the Pontic culture. Knowledge of the Pontic EB 3 culture depends almost entirely upon discoveries in graves and, these consist almost exclusively of metal objects.
  • CHAPTER XXIV(b) - ANATOLIA IN THE OLD ASSYRIAN PERIOD
    pp 707-728
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter covers Anatolia in the Old Assyrian Period. At the time of the Assyrian penetration into Asia Minor this region was divided into small city-states each of which was ruled by a native prince/princess. The Assyrians left these rulers unmolested on their thrones if they were willing to submit to Assyrian supremacy. The merchandise which the caravans transported from Ashur to Asia Minor consisted almost exclusively of commodities ṣubat kutānu and annukum, textiles and a metal. Whereas the weights occurring in the Old Assyrian texts are those used throughout the centuries in both Assyria and Babylonia, the measures of capacity differ markedly from those known from later Assyrian sources. These latter, being used mainly for grain and cereal products, were adapted to the carrying capacity of the domestic ass. An important difference between the calendar of the texts from Asia Minor and that of the later Assyrian sources is the frequent occurrence of seasonal festivals in the date-formulae.
  • CHAPTER XXV - ASSYRIA, c. 2600–1816 B.C.
    pp 729-770
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.017
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter covers Assyria during the period circa 2600-1816 BC. It begins with a discussion on the pre-Sargonic period, which is followed by another on the Sargonic period. In the region of Nineveh as well as on sites such as Samarra and Tepe Gawra a millennia-old stratification precedes the Sargonic level. The Sargonic Period is well attested at Nineveh, both archaeologically and in inscriptions. On the site of the Ishtar temple, a solid rectangular building of unburnt brick was unearthed which was identified as belonging to the Sargonic Period. The Assyrians from the earliest periods on were deeply interested in chronology, and their interest in history is traceable in their inscriptions. The Assyrians in the Old Assyrian period developed a unique method of payment out of the experience that there is no limit to the individual's ingenuity when he is given an opportunity to make a profit.
  • CHAPTER XXVI(a) - GREECE, CRETE, AND THE AEGEAN ISLANDS IN THE EARLY BRONZE AGE
    pp 771-807
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.018
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Bronze Age in lands bordering the Aegean Sea was a period of roughly two millennia that followed the age of Neolithic cultures. Geographical divisions had a significant influence on events and on the development of civilization in Greece. Certain similarities of culture in the Early Bronze Age seem indeed to have existed before the age of the palaces in Crete and the succeeding era of Mycenaean power. This chapter presents a survey of these areas with attention to some of the principal archaeological evidence, and with outlines of stratigraphical observations at a few characteristic sites. In particular, the chapter focuses on sites which include those in the North Eastern Greece, Central Greece, Western coast, and Central Peloponnese regions. The people of the Aegean area were not a single race or an altogether homogeneous cultural group. Part of the human stock must have survived from Neolithic times, and new elements made their way into various districts at different junctures.
  • CHAPTER XXVI(b) - CYPRUS IN THE EARLY BRONZE AGE
    pp 808-823
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.019
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In Cyprus the course of the Bronze Age has been divided into three main stages, Early, Middle and Late. The beginning of the Early Cypriot (EC) period synchronizes fairly closely with the disastrous end of the Early Bronze Age 2 period in Anatolia, circa 2300 BC; it may prove to have been a direct outcome of this major Anatolian catastrophe. This chapter focuses on the identity of the early Bonze Age settlers. Differences between the material culture of EC I at Vounous and the Philia culture can be seen in a comparison of pottery fabrics and shapes, types of copper tools and weapons and certain small objects. The main focus of Philia-culture sites lies in the Ovgos valley, near the villages of Dhenia, Philia, Kyra, Khrysiliou and Morphou. Black Slip-and-Combed pottery and Red Polished material from Alonia, in Kyra village, have close parallels in the cemeteries.
  • CHAPTER XXVII - IMMIGRANTS FROM THE NORTH
    pp 824-876
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521077910.020
  • View abstract
    Summary
    After circa 2000 BC, the infiltration of Semitic tribes, 'Amorites', from Syria into Mesopotamia continued, but the migrations which caused the greatest changes appear to have come from further north. It is generally accepted that the languages which are classed as Indo-European were disseminated over the region in which they are first found in early historical times by actual migrations and not merely by processes of borrowing. Earlier onomastic evidence shows that the Indo-European immigration had taken place by the end of the twentieth century. During the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries Assyrian merchants maintained trading colonies at a number of native cities in central Anatolia. There has been evidence that gives reasonably consistent, though somewhat imprecise, indications of the date and area of origin of the earliest Indo-European movements into the Near East and adjacent regions. The Indo-Europeans also appear to have developed a kind of tribal society which made for effective leadership in war.

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