Skip to main content
The Cambridge Ancient History
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 4
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Tan, Zoë M. 2014. Subversive Geography in Tacitus' Germania. Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 104, p. 181.

    2012. A Companion to Augustine.

    Lavan, Myles 2013. FLORUS AND DIO ON THE ENSLAVEMENT OF THE PROVINCES. The Cambridge Classical Journal, Vol. 59, p. 125.

    Stroia, L Georgescu, S C and Georgescu, A M 2010. Antiquity versus modern times in hydraulics – a case study. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol. 12, p. 012097.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge Ancient History
    • Online ISBN: 9781139054393
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Volume XI of the second edition of The Cambridge Ancient History covers the history of the Roman empire in the period from AD 70 to 192, from Vespasian to the Antonines. The volume begins with the political and military history of the period. Developments in the structure of the empire are then examined, including the organisation and personnel of the central government and province-based institutions and practices. A series of provincial studies follows, and the society, economy and culture of the empire as a whole are reviewed in a group of thematic chapters. This edition is entirely rewritten from the 1936 edition. There is much more extensive discussion of social, economic and cultural issues, reflecting trends in modern scholarship, and the increase of archaeological evidence and development of new approaches to it. New documentary evidence, from texts on stone, wood and papyrus, has advanced knowledge in every chapter.


‘… an enormous enterprise, into which immense academic energy has been poured … The volume thus offers a vast panorama survey of many aspects of the period … conspicuously strong in examining the history of the various separate regions of the Empire … volume XI is perhaps the most successful of all the Roman volumes in CAH2 published so far … excellent sections in government and the working of the Imperial system, with a notably original contribution by Brent Shaw on ‘Rebel and Outsiders.’

Source: English Historical Review

‘… the CAH has its firmly established place in the libraries, and vol. XI will provide useful guidance for many decades to come in the hands of whoever acquires it.’

Source: ARCTOS

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

  • 1 - The Flavians
    pp 1-83
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Tacitus with justice describes the rise of Titus Flavius Vespasianus to the position of princeps as the work of fortune. Vespasian might appear more fortunate than Augustus in that he did not have to devise a new political system. The main lines of Flavian ideology were, however, clear from the start. Vespasian already had a military reputation behind him when he became princeps. Coins issued under Titus showed Vespasian handing over to his son the government of the world, symbolized by a globe and rudder, with the appropriate legend 'PROVIDENTIA AUGUSTI'. Titus' coins had celebrated the consecration of his father and the vote of a carpentum to his mother: on coins of Domitian it is probably she who appears as Diva Domitilla with her deified husband on the reverse. Domitian, in fact, had conferred on himself the title that most accurately conveyed the character of his rule: he was Censor Perpetuus.
  • 2 - Nerva to Hadrian
    pp 84-131
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    M. Cocceius Nerva's celebration of Divus Augustus on coins was to show his desire for continuity with the Julio-Claudians, and he was eventually buried in the Mausoleum of Augustus with those emperors. Nerva's regime promised stability through continuity of the acceptable aspects of Domitian's rule. The reign of Trajan, rather than the brief episode of Nerva, must be held the effective beginning of that period 'during which', said Gibbon, 'the condition of the human race was most happy and prosperous'. The growing 'paternalism' demonstrated by the Flavians continued under Trajan. Short of adoption, Trajan could have indicated his wishes clearly by advancing Hadrian's career rapidly. Trajan made even the shrewd and sceptical Tacitus feel that Rome was again fulfilling her destiny under an emperor who advanced her boundaries to the Indian Ocean. Under the Flavians, Nerva and Trajan, the Principate had finally produced what the empire needed: the tenacious Agricola, the diligent Frontinus, the conscientious Pliny.
  • 3 - Hadrian to the Antonines
    pp 132-194
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Hadrian's position as emperor was apparently far from secure. Hadrian is said to have played a personal role in the temple's design, one of many examples of his vaunted omniscience. Only Antoninus Pius' insistence that failure to deify would involve the annulling of Hadrian's acts, including his own adoption, enabled him to overcome. In 143 or 144 the young orator from Hadriani in Mysia, Aelius Aristides, delivered at Rome his famous speech in praise of the empire, which has largely contributed to the favourable verdict of posterity on the Antonine era. With Pius' death Marcus lacked only the name Augustus and the position of pontifex maximus, having held imperium and tribunician power for nearly fourteen years: there was no doubt that he was emperor. Out of respect for Pius, Marcus assumed the name Antoninus, while Lucius gave up the name Commodus, which he had borne from birth, and took instead Marcus' name M. Annius Verus.
  • 4 - The emperor and his advisers
    pp 195-213
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The bulk of our sources, whether historiographic, juristic or epigraphic, give the impression that the Roman emperor was all-powerful and always busy. There are only a few contemporary sources from the first and second centuries which give any real insight into the composition of the emperor's circle of advisers. Juvenal's fourth Satire contains the only depiction, however distorted, by a literary source of a specific meeting of the consilium and its individual members, in this instance a meeting early in Domitian's reign. According to Juvenal, Domitian was staying at his estate in the Alban hills south-east of Rome, when a fisherman presented him with an extraordinary present: the largest barbel ever to have been caught. Juvenal has not invented the bringing together of senators and equestrians in an advisory body for appearances' sake. It is clear that during the second century, the membership of the emperor's consilium began to become regularized.
  • 5 - Emperor, Senate and magistrates
    pp 214-237
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The relationship between emperor and Senate was always the result of the tension between what the majority of senators thought the emperor should be, and what he really was, or could become: princeps or dominus. Vespasian, for instance, had been a senator for more than thirty years. In Britain the reason for the appointment of a iuridicus was probably the predominantly military duties of the consular legates, at least under Vespasian and Domitian. Only in Italy were things changed to any significant degree, first by Hadrian and later by Marcus Aurelius. Despite the establishment of the eleven regiones by Augustus, Italy had no real territorial subdivisions. Hence it also had no officials who could take on the duties of regional governors, and as a result all the inhabitants of the cities of Italy had recourse only to the magistrates of Rome when they sought judgement on matters outside the competence of the municipal magistrates.
  • 6 - The growth of administrative posts
    pp 238-265
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    In the light of the problematic nature of the sources and of previous research, any portrayal of the development of administrative posts can only be tentative. In the period from Augustus to the end of Nero's reign, four principal areas developed within the part of the administration entrusted to equestrians, imperial freedmen and slaves: offices around the emperor; positions which were mainly connected with the city of Rome; offices whose responsibilities extended beyond the city of Rome itself; and numerous other administrative posts in Italy. At the start of the reign of Vespasian, one can distinguish with relative certainty about seventy areas of work, with widely differing importance and scope, which were concerned with the administration of the empire alongside the areas entrusted to members of the Senate. While the number of administrative departments in the provinces had increased considerably, from the time of Vespasian onwards, there were only a few new offices created at the heart of the empire.
  • 7 - Provincial administration and finance
    pp 266-292
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The basic system of provincial administration had been established by Augustus, and was only slightly modified by his successors. The emperors after Vespasian also made no changes to the Augustan system. Besides the provinces which were under the direct control of the emperor and governed by senatorial legates or equestrian praesidial procurators, there remained the provinces of the Roman people. The transformation of provinces, which had initially been governed by equestrians, represents the most notable change in provincial administration, though this was not a fundamental change. At the end of the reign of Nero, there were twelve such equestrian governorships, although by the time of Marcus Aurelius this figure had gradually been halved. From the Flavian period onwards and with increasing regularity from the beginning of the second century, it seems that it was necessary to consult the governor before proceeding with large building projects, particularly when they were to be financed using the city's funds.
  • 8 - Frontiers
    pp 293-319
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The quest for natural or moral frontiers was nothing more than a political motive for imperialism. It is in this historiographic tradition that the author begins to examine Roman frontiers, also. Greek frontiers were more cultural than physical, the divisions between measured and unmeasurable space. With the emperor Augustus, Roman concepts of space and geographic measurement took on a new dimension. After Augustus it is often argued that, apart from Roman Britain, there was no substantial territorial addition to the Roman empire in the West until Trajan's annexation of Dacia in the early second century. Although, the Romans never abandoned the ideology of expansion, yet de facto it is evident that they did stop, even if sometimes it is not easy to see exactly where. Analogies of more modern frontiers suggest that while geographic 'natural' features, such as mountains and rivers, may have political and juridical convenience, they are rarely suitable as military lines.
  • 9 - The army
    pp 320-343
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The effectiveness of the Roman army of the later first and second centuries AD was as great as it had ever been and was never to be surpassed. The legions in the later first and second centuries were essentially large bodies of highly disciplined and well-equipped infantry, trained primarily to engage the enemy in formal 'set-piece' battles. The extraordinary success of the Roman army can be ascribed to a number of factors, not least of which will have been the military qualities of the emperor and his legates and the spirit that they instilled into the men under their command so that under an emperor like Hadrian, who shared the rigours of camp life with his men, military discipline became very much the order of the day. The significance of the army to the empire and particularly to those frontier provinces in which it was based was not, however, limited to its military role, whether offensive or defensive.
  • 10 - Local and provincial institutions and government
    pp 344-360
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Government and administration today are somewhat different concepts, the one meaning more or less policy-making, the other the implementation of government decisions. There is no such difference in Roman political thinking and vocabulary, but in the world of facts there is something not exactly similar but going in the same direction. Administration was made easier for those responsible because its aims were fairly restricted: economy and transport, culture, education and science, social relations and welfare were not targets of state intervention. Day-to-day administration was probably not very different between the various types of province. The governor's main job was always to keep the peace of the province against the ubiquitous robbers: curare, ut pacata atque quieta provincia sit quam regit. Another important job of the governor, to ensure that taxes were paid, involved deciding beforehand how many people there were and how much they had to pay.
  • 11 - Rebels and outsiders
    pp 361-404
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Formal status, more precisely the degrees of generosity in the dispensation of citizenship to the various peoples of the empire, offers only one measurement of membership in that larger city, the patria communis, that the empire pretended to be. The spread of citizenship, and of Roman-style urban communities with which citizenship was correlated, was an uneven process. The extension of citizenship and urban developments of Roman-type in the western Mediterranean was marked by considerable successes in the plains regions of the general geographic area. As with all historical portraits of the 'barbarian', the negative side of the Roman image of the foreigner was rooted in the proven inferiority of the external society. Surrounded by the twin worlds of ethnicity and rusticity were the urban centres that constituted the core of Roman society. Each town and village, depending on the wider regional and ethnic context in which it was embedded, had its own spectrum of unacceptable persons, of social outcasts.
  • 12 - Rome and Italy
    pp 405-443
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Augustus had started the process of making Rome, as a matter of policy, a worthy capital of the world. Travelling to Rome, city of wonders in a land of wonders, was a special experience. In the world of thinking, speaking and writing, Rome was the centre too, the norm and exemplar of Antonine cities. The architecture of Rome was the greatest of its wonders. The cities of Italy in the Augustan period had functioned as channels of horizontal and vertical social mobility. In the Antonine period, moreover, there was more to economic life than landowning. The nature of production in Italy in this period constitutes one of the most problematic sets of questions in ancient economic history. In the Flavian and Trajanic period, the evidence suggests a burgeoning of the cash-crop based, villa-centred, agrarian economy which had characterized the rural landscape of large parts of Italy since the middle Republic.
  • 13 - Spain
    pp 444-461
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The period of two generations following the civil wars of AD 68-9 was in many respects the zenith in the history of Roman Spain. The system of provincial government which secured the administrative framework for political, economic, social and cultural development was, on the whole, the same as that established under Augustus. The urban evolution of Roman Spain reached its zenith under the Flavian dynasty and in the early second century. More important than the number of cities which can be counted, hypothetical and incomplete as it is, are the general characteristics of the Flavian urbanization. Economic development, urbanization and social differentiation show that the Roman social order extended throughout the Iberian Peninsula. To be sure, the Antonine period saw important changes in the economic, social, political and cultural life of Roman Spain; but these had already begun under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius and were clearly internal in origin.
  • 14 - Gaul
    pp 462-495
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The spread of Latin played an important part in changing Roman attitudes to the Gauls. The Gallic provinces were romanized by the end of the second century AD To begin with, romanization took various forms. In Narbonensis, colonization had an immediate impact, in particular by compelling dispossessed local populations to bring new areas under cultivation. The study of terra sigillata was for a long time the main means through which the economic life of Roman Gaul was studied. For a hundred years, histories of Gaul and studies of the area have concentrated on institutional and administrative developments, seeking to establish the exact boundaries of provinces and civitates, to work out precisely how they operated, and to piece together their prosopographies. Gallo-Roman sculpture ought to have been the object of great works of synthesis, or so one might think on the basis of the great number of pieces of sculpted stone which are gathered for the most part in Esperandieu's Recueil.
  • 15 - Roman Germany
    pp 496-513
    • By C. Rüger, Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Trier
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter describes Roman Germany as the two forward zones which Augustus established on the Rhine for action against the tribes between the Weser and the Elbe. The end of the first century and the beginning of the second are characterized by the army acting as a major economic factor. The high liquidity of the soldiers was vital for the prosperity of the north-east Gallic economic zone at this time. In general the fact that Gaul was a common economic zone was emphasized by its 2.5 per cent tax collected at the border posts on the roads to Spain, Italy, Britain and Noricum, in other words right around Gaul and the Rhine provinces. During the first century all religious phenomena were conditioned by Roman/Mediterranean traditions. One can say that the period after the Batavian revolt and up to the third century is the period of Pax Romana, the great period of imperial peace, on the Rhine.
  • 16 - Africa
    pp 514-546
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    On the frontiers the work of the emperors in the second century continued that of the Flavians. The unimportance of Africa as a military theatre in this period is shown by the fact that the standing army for the whole of the Maghreb never contained more than one legion, the Third Augustan Legion, which moved its base from the older part of Proconsularis to that part called Numidia. The control and organization of the tribal territories was clearly a major concern, which began with the Flavians and continued under Trajan and Hadrian. In Trajan's rule and under his successors there was more than one occasion when the corn supply to Rome needed emergency measures, as, for instance, once when Egypt's contribution failed. Production of olive oil was the most important growth area in the Roman African economy, and recent studies have radically revised older minimalist views of this boom.
  • 17 - Cyrenaica
    pp 547-558
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The account of geographical and social conditions in Cyrenaica, its Augustan organization and Julio-Claudian development given in CAH X2 619-40 is taken for granted. As early as the second century BC so it is currently proposed, a series of sculptured reliefs found a little outside the walls of Cyrene presented Libyan religious ideas in a form strongly hellenized, but in many features patently non-Greek; and examples of the series were being produced also in the Roman period. By the time of Marcus Aurelius, Cyrene too seems restored to vigour. The new Roman influences were balanced by a new strengthening of the Greek tradition. Cyrenaica, in fact, by the end of the second century was showing a vitality which can fairly be reckoned as consonant with her natural resources, and a culture which is a striking combination of Greek, Roman and Libyan elements.
  • 18 - Britain
    pp 559-576
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Almost the entire period between the accessions of Vespasian and Septimius Severus was dominated by military affairs in Britain. At the beginning of the period of the survey the cities of Britain were recovering from the aftermath of the Boudican rebellion. The three certainly known to have been destroyed, Colchester, London and Verulamium, have each produced evidence of slow recovery with delays in their redevelopment of a decade or more. With one or two exceptions the area where one can identify early villa development is in the south-east. Elsewhere the aristocracy, whether native or immigrant and presumed to be associated with the urban developments of the Flavian period and the second century, is much less visible architecturally in the countryside. By the end of the second century the military and civilian structures of Roman Britain were firmly established. After the decision to abandon the Antonine Wall, the frontier arrangements in the north remained essentially unchanged.
  • 19 - The Danube provinces
    pp 577-603
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The Danube provinces of the Roman empire were dominated by the presence of the army. Three generations after the reign of Hadrian saw the Illyriciani of the Danube lands a dominant group in the power struggles of the empire. By setting a limit to the Roman empire in that quarter Hadrian had begun a frontier policy that resulted in the massively fortified perimeters of the later empire. At the end of the Antonine period the government of the Danube provinces required the services of ten Roman senators, all but the proconsul in Macedonia serving in peacetime a term of around three years. By the middle decades of the second century there had developed in the Danube provinces a Latin-speaking Roman provincial culture to which local native traditions appear to have contributed little. This was based on the growing settlements along the river and was bound up with the influence of locally recruited legions and auxilia.
  • 20 - Greece and Asia Minor
    pp 604-634
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Greece, Asia Minor and the islands came off lightly in the civil wars of 68-70. The Flavians were ready to promote urbanization and restoration. Vespasian's unification of eastern Asia Minor into the northern section of a great command imposed strains. When Trajan himself began campaigning in the East he brought it to an end. Hadrian on his travels did not neglect military matters but in Greece and even in Asia Minor, in spite of the very large number of milestones bearing his name, they were not his primary interest. The literary sources for Hadrian's tours are inadequate and honours were showered on him whether he acted in person or at some distance. But the dates of his visits to Athens as emperor are virtually certain, with the first becoming the beginning of a new era for the city: 124-5, 128-9 and 131-2. The Panhellenion is the most significant benefaction of Hadrian to Athens and the most difficult to interpret.
  • 21 - Syria and Arabia
    pp 635-663
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter discusses the four main aspects of the history of Roman provinces: the process of provincialization; the organization of the indigenous societies; the spread of the civic model and the urbanization of the region; and the success of the artisan class. In the south, on the boundary between the provinces of Syria and Arabia, the Hauran was no less rich, though less completely explored. On a general level, the cities of Syria and Arabia, like those of Asia Minor, were eager for the adornment which characterized the Antonine era. Syria and Arabia held an advantageous position in commerce between the empire and the countries to the East, which classical authors occasionally call simply Indica, although this covers central Asia, China and the Arabian peninsula as much as the Indian subcontinent. Syria, which had ended up by incorporating all the client states west of the Euphrates, was counted among the richest provinces of the eastern Mediterranean.
  • 22 - Judaea
    pp 664-678
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Nearly all the main pillars of the structure of Judaean society were destroyed in AD 70. Jerusalem, the Temple and the priesthood were in ruins. Pagan writers wrote little about Judaea except when the province appeared a military threat to the empire; when at peace the region was neither strategically nor economically significant. This chapter discusses the nature of Jewish society in Palestine in the fifty years between AD 70 and the outbreak of the Bar Kochba War. It is likely that all Jews hoped, in vain, for the rapid rebuilding of the sanctuary in Jerusalem. Evidence for Jewish settlement in the countryside of Egypt and Cyrene comes to an abrupt halt, although a few Jews were attested again in Egypt from the late third century. In place of the great heterogeneity of the era before AD 70, rabbinic Jews began a process of religious self-definition parallel to the contemporary development within Christianity.
  • 23 - The land
    pp 679-709
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    In the Graeco-Roman world land was the source of subsistence and of wealth. Land was looked to primarily for food. This chapter begins with an assessment of the food-producing capacities of the territories making up the Roman empire and the manner in which they were tapped, against the background of the opportunities offered and constraints imposed by the physical environment. Consideration is given to developments in the agrarian economy in our period; expansion of the area under cultivation and the issue of technological progress; patterns of land-holding and methods of managing and working the land; and, finally, agricultural productivity. The period of the Principate witnessed the expansion of agriculture, especially in the provinces of the West. Crop performance and productivity levels, were governed by a number of variables. For convenience two groups of four are divided: on the one hand, weather, seed quality, soil and technology: on the other, the supply of land, labour and seed-corn, and proprietorial attitudes.
  • 24 - Trade
    pp 710-740
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter discusses all forms of market exchange including everything from local trade in which very little transport of goods might be involved to trade over long distances, both inside and outside the Roman empire. It talks about what is now known about patterns of trade in various commodities, about the social and institutional mechanisms by which trade was conducted, and about the role of governments. The main geographical patterns of long-distance trade were determined by the location of these markets and of the centres of production or supply. Many merchants avoided specialization, and for this reason among others it is artificial to discuss Roman trade commodity by commodity. It remains true that reasons of technology and of social structure prevented the Romans from replacing their agrarian economy, in which the mass of the population lived not much above subsistence level, with a more dynamic system.

Page 1 of 2

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

T. D. Barnes (1967) ‘Hadrian and Lucius Verus’, Journal of Roman Studies 57: 65–79

A. R. Birley (1973) ‘Petillius Cerialis and the conquest of Brigantia’, Britannia 4.

G. W. Bowersock (1973) ‘Syria under Vespasian’, Journal of Roman Studies 63

P. A. Brunt (1975b) ‘Stoicism and the principate’, Papers of the British School at Rome 43.

P. A. Brunt (1977) ‘Lex de Imperio Vespasiani’, Journal of Roman Studies 67.

K. Butcher and M. Ponting (1995) ‘Rome and the East. Production of Roman provincial silver coinage for Caesarea in Cappadocia under Vespasian a.d. 69–79’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 14

A. Cameron (1967) ‘Tacitus and the date of Curiatius Maternus' death’, Classical Review 17.

E. Champlin (1974) ‘The chronology of Fronto’, Journal of Roman Studies 64

M. Coffey (1979) ‘Turnus and Juvenal’, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, University of London 26

M. H. Crawford (1996) ‘Italy and Rome from Sulla to Augustus’, in The Cambridge Ancient History X2

P. Gallivan (1981) ‘The fasti for a.d.. 70–96’, Classical Quarterly 31.

M. T. Griffin (1990) ‘Claudius in Tacitus’, Classical Quarterly 40

M. Hammond (1938, 1949) ‘The tribunician day under the early empire’, Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 15.; 19.

M. Hammond (1953) ‘A statue of Trajan represented on the Anaglypha Trajani’, Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 21: 127–83

B. Isaac and I. Roll (1976) ‘A milestone of A.D. 69 from Judaea: the elder Trajan and Vespasian’, Journal of Roman Studies 66.

C. P. Jones (1970) ‘Sura and Senecio’, Journal of Roman Studies 60.

B. M. Levick (1999) Vespasian. London and New York

R. Martin (1967) ‘The speech of Curtius Montanus: Tac. Historia IV.42’, Journal of Roman Studies 57.

J. H. Oliver (1970) ‘Marcus Aurelius: aspects of civic and cultural policy’, Hesperia Suppl. 13

R. Syme (1978) ‘Antonius Saturninus’, Journal of Roman Studies 68 (=Roman Papers III)

J. K. Evans (1979) ‘The trial of P. Egnatius Celer’, Classical Quarterly 29.

C. S. Lightfoot (1990) ‘Trajan's Parthian war and the fourth-century perspective’, Journal of Roman Studies 80

M. Speidel (1970) ‘The captor of Decebalus: a new inscription from Philippi’, Journal of Roman Studies 60.

J. P. Sullivan (1991) Martial: The Unexpected Classic. Cambridge

R. Syme (1982c) ‘The career of Arrian’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 86 (=Roman Papers IV)

G. B. Townend (1961) ‘Some Flavian connections’, Journal of Roman Studies 51

A. Wallace-Hadrill (1982) ‘Civilis princeps: between citizen and king’, Journal of Roman Studies 72.

A. B. Bosworth (1976) ‘Vespasian's reorganisation of the north-east frontier’, Antichthon 10.

P. A. Brunt (1984b) ‘The senate in the Augustan régime’, Classical Quarterly 34

A. Cameron (1980) ‘Poetae novelli’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 84

J. Carcopino (1949) ‘L'hérédité dynastique chez les Antonins’, Revue des études anciennes 51

M. P. Charlesworth (1937) ‘Flaviana’, Journal of Roman Studies 27

J. Crook (1967) ‘Gaius, Institutes 1.84–6’, Classical Review 17.

W. V. Harris (1994) ‘Child exposure in the Roman empire’, Journal of Roman Studies 84

J.-L. Mourgues (1987) ‘The so-called Letter of Domitian at the end of the Lex Irnitana’, Journal of Roman Studies 77

J. H. Oliver and R. E. A. Palmer , (1955) ‘Minutes of an act of the Roman senate’, Hesperia 24:

H. W. Pleket (1961) ‘Domitian, the senate and the provinces’, Mnemosyne 14

J. Reynolds (1986) ‘Roman inscriptions 1981–5’, Journal of Roman Studies 76.

K. W. Waters (1964) ‘The character of Domitian’, Phoenix 18: 49ff.

F. Millar (1986) ‘A new approach to the Roman jurists’, Journal of Roman Studies 76:

G. P. Burton (1975) ‘Proconsuls, assizes and the administration of justice under the Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies 65

G. P. Burton (1977) ‘Slaves, freedmen and monarchy’, Journal of Roman Studies 67

H. M. Cotton (1993b) ‘The guardianship of Jesus son of Babatha: Roman and local law in the province of Arabia’, Journal of Roman Studies 83

A. Rodger (1991) ‘Lex Irnitana and procedure in the civil courts’, Journal of Roman Studies 81:

R. P. Saller (1980) ‘Promotion and patronage in equestrian careers’, Journal of Roman Studies 70:

J. D. Thomas (1972) ‘An imperial constitutio on papyrus’, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, University of London 19:

G. Boulvert (1974) Domestique et fonctionnaire sous le Haut-Empire Romain. La condition de l'affranchi et de l'esclave du prince. Paris

Chr. Habicht (1975) ‘New evidence on the province of Asia’, Journal of Roman Studies 65: 64–91

J. Hahn and P. M. M. Leunissen (1990) ‘Statistical method and inheritance of the consulate under the early Roman empire’, Phoenix 44

F. Jacques (1975) ‘Ampliatio et mora. Evergètes récalcitrants d'Afrique romaine’, AntAfr 9: 159–80

F. Millar (1983) ‘Empire and city, Augustus to Julian: obligations, excuses and status’, Journal of Roman Studies 73:

P. A. Brunt (1981) ‘The revenues of Rome’, Journal of Roman Studies 71 (= Brunt , Imperial Themes)

P. A. Brunt (1983) ‘Princeps and Equites’, Journal of Roman Studies 73

R. S. Bagnall (1977) ‘Army and police in Roman Upper Egypt’, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 14

C. A. Barton (1989) ‘The Scandal of the Arena’, Representations 27

A. K. Bowman and J. D. Thomas (1991) ‘A military strength report from Vindolanda’, Journal of Roman Studies 81

D. J. Breeze (1971) ‘Pay grades and ranks below the centurionate’, Journal of Roman Studies 61: 33–5

D. Breeze (1976a) ‘A note on the use of the titles optio and magister below the centurionate during the principate’, Britannia 7

P. Connolly and C. Driel-Murray (1991) ‘The Roman cavalry saddle’, Britannia 22

B. Dobson and J. C. Mann (1973) ‘The Roman army in Britain and Britons in the Roman army’, Britannia 4

D. Feissel (1985) ‘Deux listes de quartiers d'Antioche astreints au creusement d'un canal’, Syria 62

P. Garnsey (1966) ‘The Lex Iulia and appeal under the empire’, Journal of Roman Studies 56

M. Golden (1981) ‘Demography and the exposure of girls at Athens’, Phoenix 35

B. Isaac (1988) ‘The meaning of the terms limes and limitanei’, Journal of Roman Studies 78

G. D. B. Jones (1982) ‘The Solway frontier’, Britannia 13

F. Millar (1981) ‘The world of the Golden Ass’, Journal of Roman Studies 71:

H. Petrikovits (1975) Die Innenbauten römischer Legionslager während der Prinzipatszeit. Opladen

E. Rawson (1987) ‘Discrimina ordinum: the lex Julia theatralis’, Papers of the British School at Rome 55

R. W. Reynolds (1946) ‘The adultery mime’, Classical Quarterly 40

I. A. Richmond (1935) ‘Trajan's army on Trajan's column’, Papers of the British School at Rome 13: 1–40

D. J. Breeze (1969) ‘The organisation of the legion: the first cohort and the equites legionis’, Journal of Roman Studies 59

B. Campbell (1978) ‘The marriage of soldiers under the Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies 68

P. Connolly (1986) ‘A reconstruction of the Roman saddle’, Britannia 17

G. Lopuszanski (1951) ‘La police romaine et les Chrétiens’, L'Antiquité classique 20

D. J. Mattingly (1987) ‘Libyans and the limes: culture and society in Roman Tripolitania’, AntAfr 23

M. Reddé (1986) Mare nostrum: les infrastructures, le dispositif et l'histoire de la marine militaire sous l'empire romain. Rome

R. W. Reynolds (1943) ‘Criticism of individuals in Roman popular comedy’, Classical Quarterly 37

M. A. Speidel (1992) ‘Roman army pay scales’, Journal of Roman Studies 82

M. P. Speidel (1973) ‘The pay of the auxilia’, Journal of Roman Studies 63 (= Speidel (1984))

C. S. Walton (1929) ‘Oriental senators in the service of Rome: a study of imperial policy down to the death of Marcus Aurelius’, Journal of Roman Studies 19

C. R. Whittaker (1989) Les frontières de l'Empire romain. Paris

P. Garnsey (1984) ‘Religious toleration in classical antiquity’, in W. J. Sheils (ed.), Persecution and Toleration (Studies in Church History 21) (Oxford)

J. C. Mann (1985) ‘Two “topoi” in the Agricola’, Britannia 16: 21–4

C. Nicolet (1991) Space, Geography and Politics in the Early Roman Empire. Ann Arbor (trans. by H. Leclerc of L'inventaire du monde. Géographie et politique aux origins de l'Empire romain. Paris, 1988)

H. Schönberger (1969) ‘The Roman frontier in Germany: An archaeological survey’, Journal of Roman Studies 59:

F. Schulz (1942) ‘Roman registers of births and birth certificates’, Journal of Roman Studies 32

F. Schulz (1943) ‘Roman registers of births and birth certificates, Part 11’, Journal of Roman Studies 33

P. Southern (1989) ‘The numeri of the Roman imperial army’, Britannia 20

D. Baatz (1978) ‘Recent finds of ancient artillery’, Britannia 9

J. E. Boswell (1984) ‘Expositio and oblatio: the abandonment of children and the ancient and medieval family’, American Historical Review 89

A. K. Bowman and J. D. Thomas (1987) ‘New texts from Vindolanda’, Britannia 18

M. Corbier (1983) ‘Patrimonium and Fiscus: the Saepinum inscription and transhumance in the Abruzzi’, Journal of Roman Studies 73

W. Eck (1980) ‘Rom, sein Reich und seine Untertanen. Zur administrativen Umsetzung von Herrschaft in der hohen Kaiserzeit’, Geschichte in Köln 7

H. Galsterer (1988) ‘Municipium Flavium Irnitanum: a Latin town in Spain’, Journal of Roman Studies 78

J. González (1986) ‘The Lex Irnitana: a new copy of the Flavian municipal law’, Journal of Roman Studies 76

J. C. Mann (1979) ‘Power, force and the frontiers of the Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies 69

A. J. Marshall (1968) ‘Pompey's organization of Bithynia-Pontus: two neglected texts’, Journal of Roman Studies 58

V. A. Maxfield (1986) ‘Pre-Flavian forts and their garrisons’, Britannia 17

S. Mitchell (1976) ‘Requisitioned transport in the Roman Empire: a new inscription from Pisidia’, Journal of Roman Studies 66

A. Claridge (1993) ‘Hadrian's column of Trajan’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 6.

S. Coccia and D. Mattingly (1995) ‘Settlement history, environment and human exploitation of an intermontane basin in the central Apennines: the Rieti survey 1988–1991, Part II’, Papers of the British School at Rome 63.

K. M. Coleman (1993) ‘Launching into history: aquatic displays in the early empire’, Journal of Roman Studies 83.

D. J. Crawford (1976) ‘Imperial estates’, in Finley , Property

P. D. A. Garnsey (1976) ‘Economy and society of Mediolanum under the principate’, Papers of the British School at Rome 44.

H. G. Mullens (1948) ‘The revolt of the civilians’, Greece and Rome 17.

J. Packer (1967) ‘Housing and population in imperial Ostia and Rome’, Journal of Roman Studies 57.

N. Purcell (1995b) ‘Literate games: Roman society and the game of alea’, Past and Present 147.

R. Syme (1964) ‘Hadrian and Italica’, Journal of Roman Studies 54 (= Syme , Roman Papers 11)

G. Aubin (1984) ‘L'or romain dans l'Ouest de la Gaule: circulation et stagnation’, Revue archéologique de l'Ouest 1

G. Barruol , J. Gascou and J.-C. Bessac (1982) ‘Nouvelles inscriptions exhumées d'une enceinte du Bas-Empire à Nîmes’, Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise 15

J.-C. Béal (1991) ‘Le mausolée de Cucuron (Vaucluse), 2e partie: le lit funéraire à décor d'os de la tombe’, Gallia 48

V. Bel and J. Benoit (1986) ‘Les “limites” du cadastre B d'Orange, Etude sur les régions de Montélimar et Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux’, Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise 19

I. Béraud and C. Gébara (1986) ‘Lits funéraires de la nécropole gallo-romaine de Saint-Lambert (Fréjus)’, Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise 19

M. Blanchard-Lemée , A. Olivier and A. Rebourg (1986) ‘Deux maisons à pavements d'Augustodunum’, Gallia 44, 1

M. Borréani and J.-P. Brun (1990) ‘Une exploitation agricole antique à Costebelle (Hyères, Var), huilerie et nécropole’, Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise 23

A. Desbat (1991) ‘Un bouchon de bois du Ier siècle après J.-C. recueilli dans la Saône et la question des tonneaux à l'époque romaine’, Gallia 48

F. Favory (1991) ‘Le territoire de Murviel-lès-Montpellier dans l'Antiquité et le Moyen-Age’, Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise 24

M. Leguilloux (1989) ‘La faune des villae gallo-romaines du Var: aspects économiques et sociaux’, Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise 22

B. Rémy (1984) ‘Les inscriptions de médecins en Gaule’, Gallia 42, 1

M. R. Sabrié (1985) ‘Décorations murales de Nîmes romaine’, Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise 18: 289–318

M. R. Sabrié (1989) ‘Vestiges de deux maisons d'époque romaine à Narbonne’, Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise 22

R. Turcan (1991) ‘La documentation métroaque en Gaule romaine’, Revue du Nord 73

F. Bérard (1991) ‘Aux origines de la cohorte urbaine de Carthage’, AntAfr 27

M. Christol (1981) ‘L'armée des provinces pannoniennes et la pacification des révoltes maures sous Antonin le Pieux’, AntAfr 17

E. Frézouls (1980) ‘Rome et la Maurétanie tingitane: un constat d'échec’, AntAfr 16

J. Gascou (1992) ‘Vici et provinciae d'après une inscription de Banasa’, AntAfr 28

D. P. Kehoe (1988b) The Economics of Agriculture on Roman Imperial Estates in North Africa. Göttingen

D. J. Mattingly (1988a) ‘Oil for export? A comparison of Libyan, Spanish and Tunisian olive oil production in the Roman empire’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 1: 35–56

P. Morizot (1979) ‘Vues nouvelles sur l'Aures antique’, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres

F. Zevi and A. Tchernia (1969) ‘Amphores de Byzacène au Bas-Empire’, AntAfr 3

A. J. Spawforth and S. Walker (1986) ‘The world of the Panhellenion: three Dorian cities’, Journal of Roman Studies 76

M. G. Fulford and D. W. A. Startin (1984) ‘The building of town defences in earthwork in the second century A.D.’, Britannia 15

B. R. Hartley (1972) ‘The Roman occupation of Scotland: the evidence of the Samian ware’, Britannia 3

N. Hamparţumian (1979) Corpus cultus Equitis Thracii IV Moesia Inferior (Romanian Section) and Dacia. Leiden

P. Selem (1980) Les religions orientales dans la Pannonie romaine (partie en Yougoslavie). Leiden

Lj Zotović . (1966) Les cultes orientaux sur le térritoire de la Mésie Supérieure. Leiden

H. Box (1931) ‘Roman citizenship in Laconia’, Journal of Roman Studies 21

C. P. Jones (1970) ‘A leading family of Roman Thespiae’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 74

J. H. Oliver (1951) ‘Athenian citizenship of Roman emperors’, Hesperia 20

J. H. Oliver (1978) ‘Panachaeans and Panhellenes’, Hesperia 47

A. E. Raubitschek (1949) ‘Commodus and Athens’, in Commemorative Studies in Honor of T. L. Shear (Hesperia Suppl. 8)

A. J. Spawforth and S. Walker (1985–6) ‘The world of the Panhellenion 1: Athens and Eleusis’, Journal of Roman Studies 75; ‘II: Three Dorian cities’, Journal of Roman Studies 76

A. J. Spawforth (1978) ‘Balbilla, the Euryclids and memorials for Greek magnates’, Annual of the British School at Athens 73

R. Syme (1977) ‘The enigmatic Sospes’, Journal of Roman Studies 67 (= Roman Papers 111 1043–61)

M. C. A. MacDonald (1993) ‘Nomads of the Hawran in the late Hellenistic and Roman periods: reassessment of the epigraphic evidence’, Syria 70

F. Millar (1987) ‘Empire, community and culture in the Roman Near East: Greeks, Syrians, Jews and Arabs’, Journal of Jewish Studies 38: 143–64

J. Teixidor (1980) ‘Cultes tribaux et religion civique à Palmyre’, Revue de l'histoire des religions

E. Will (1957) ‘Marchands et chefs caravanes à Palmyre’, Syria 34

E. Will (1994) ‘Damas antique’, Syria 71

B. Isaac (1984) ‘Judaea after a.d. 70’, Journal of Jewish Studies 35:

L. I. Levine (1996) ‘The status of the Patriarch in the third and fourth centuries: sources and methodology’, Journal of Jewish Studies 47

C. Milikowsky (1988) ‘The status quaestionis of research in Rabbinic literature’, Journal of Jewish Studies 39

P. Schäfer (1989) ‘Once again the status quaestionis of research in Rabbinic literature: an answer to Chaim Milikovsky’, Journal of Jewish Studies 40

R. S. Bagnall and B. W. Frier (1994) The Demography of Roman Egypt. Cambridge

G. Barker and A. Grant (1991) ‘Ancient and modern pastoralism in central Italy: an interdisciplinary study in the Cicolano mountains’, Papers of the British School at Rome 59

J.-C. Bessac (1988) ‘Influences de la conquête romaine sur le travail de la pierre en Gaule méditerranéenne’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 1

J. D. C. Boulakia (1972) ‘Lead in the Roman world’, American Journal of Archaeology 76

M. H. Crawford (1970) ‘Money and exchange in the Roman world’, Journal of Roman Studies 60

M. I. Finley (1976) ‘Private farm tenancy in Italy before Diocletian’, in Finley , Property

B. W. Frier (1982) ‘Roman life expectancy: Ulpian's evidence’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 86

P. Garnsey (1999) Food and Society in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge

J. R. Goody (1983) The Development of the Family and Marriage in Europe. Cambridge

D. Johnston (1988) The Roman Law of Trust. Oxford

L. T. Lehmann (1978) ‘The mystery of the Graeco-Roman steering oar’, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 7

R. MacMullen (1960) ‘Inscriptions on armour and the supply of arms in the Roman Empire’, American Journal of Archaeology 64

D. W. Rathbone (1983a) ‘The slave mode of production in Italy’, Journal of Roman Studies 73

J. S. Richardson (1976) ‘The Spanish mines and the development of provincial taxation in the second century BC’, Journal of Roman Studies 66

R. P. Saller (1994) Patriarchy, Property and Death in the Roman Family. Cambridge

B. D. Shaw (1984b) ‘Water and society in the ancient Maghrib: technology, property and development’, AntAfr 20

S. Treggiari (1981a) ‘Concubinae’, Papers of the British School at Rome 49

C. Wickham (1988) ‘Marx, Sherlock Holmes, and late Roman commerce’, Journal of Roman Studies 78

L. G. Allbaugh (1953) Crete: A Case Study of an Underdeveloped Area. Princeton

A. K. Bowman , J. D. Thomas and J. N. Adams (1990) ‘Two letters from Vindolanda’, Britannia 21

R. P. Duncan-Jones (1976) ‘Some configurations of landholding in the Roman Empire’, in Finley , Property ; revised in Duncan-Jones , Structure ch. 8

J. F. Gardner (1986) Women in Roman Law and Society. London and Bloomington, Ind.

W. V. Harris (1980a) ‘Roman terracotta lamps: the organization of an industry’, Journal of Roman Studies 70

W. V. Harris (1999) ‘Demography, geography and the sources of Roman slaves’, Journal of Roman Studies 89: 62–75

S. Isager and J. E. Skydsgaard (1992) Ancient Greek Agriculture: An Introduction. London and New York

J. Klein (1920) The Mesta. Cambridge, Mass.

N. Purcell (1983) ‘The apparitores: a study of social mobility’, Papers of the British School at Rome 51

R. P. Saller (1984) ‘Familia, domus, and the Roman conception of the family’, Phoenix 38

B. D. Shaw (1981) ‘Rural markets in North Africa and the political economy of the Roman Empire’, AntAfr 17

P. Veyne (1979a) ‘Mythe et réalité de l'autarcie à Rome’, Revue des études anciennes 81 (= Veyne (1991) ch. 4)

R. Bogaert (1980) ‘Les reçus d'impôts thébains en argent des IIe et IIIe siècles’, Chronique d'Egypte 55

J. F. Coates (1985) ‘“Hogging” or “breaking” of frame-built wooden ships: a field for investigation?’, Mariner's Mirror 71

M. Fulford (1990) ‘The landscape of Roman Britain: a review’, Landscape History 12

D. J. L. Gibbins and A. J. Parker (1986) ‘The Roman wreck of c. a.d. 200 at Plemmirio, near Siracusa (Sicily): interim report’, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 15

K. Hopkins (1980) ‘Taxes and trade in the Roman Empire (200 B.C.–400 A.D.)’, Journal of Roman Studies 70

G. W. Houston (1988) ‘Ports in perspective: some comparative materials on Roman merchant ships and ports’, American Journal of Archaeology 92

C. P. Jones (1987) ‘Stigma: tattooing and branding in Greco-Roman antiquity’, Journal of Roman Studies 77

E. Lo Cascio (1994) ‘The size of the Roman population: Beloch and the meaning of the Augustan census figures’, Journal of Roman Studies 84

A. J. Parker and J. M. Painter (1979) ‘A computer-based index of ancient shipwrecks’, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 8

J. T. Peña (1989) ‘Evidence for the supplying of stone transport operations in Roman Egypt and the production of 50-foot monolithic column shafts’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 2

B. M. Rawson (1989) ‘Spurii and the Roman view of illegitimacy’, Antichthon 23

R. P. Saller and B. D. Shaw (1984b) ‘Tombstones and Roman family relations in the Principate: civilians, soldiers and slaves’, Journal of Roman Studies 74: 124–56

R. P. Saller (1986) ‘Patria potestas and the stereotype of the Roman family’, Continuity and Change 1

B. D. Shaw (1987b) ‘The age of Roman girls at marriage: some reconsiderations’, Journal of Roman Studies 77

J. Thorley (1971) ‘The silk trade between China and the Roman Empire at its height, circa A.D. 90–130’, Greece and Rome 18

M. Waelkens (1985) ‘From a Phrygian quarry: the provenance of the statues of the Dacian prisoners in Trajan's Forum in Rome’, American Journal of Archaeology 89

P. R. C. Weaver (1967) ‘Social mobility in the early Roman empire: the evidence of the imperial freedmen and slaves’, Past and Present 37 (= Finley (1974))

G. Barker , J. Lloyd and D. Webley (1978) ‘A classical landscape in Molise’, Papers of the British School at Rome 46

C. R. Bhatia and R. Robson (1976) ‘Bioenergetic considerations in cereal breeding for protein improvement’, Science 194

R. Bogaert (1965) ‘Banquiers, courtiers et prêts maritimes à Athènes et à Alexandrie’, Chronique d'Egypte 40

M.-B. Carre and M.-P. Jézegou (1984) ‘Pompes à chapelet sur les navires de l'antiquité et du début du moyen age’, Archaeonautica 4

F. Coarelli (1977) ‘Public building in Rome between the second Punic war and Sulla’, Papers of the British School at Rome 45

H. Cockle (1981) ‘Pottery manufacture in Roman Egypt: a new papyrus’, Journal of Roman Studies 71: 87–97

L. Foxhall (1990b) ‘The dependent tenant: land leasing and labour in Italy and Greece’, Journal of Roman Studies 80

P. Garnsey (1998a) Cities, Peasants and Food in Classical Antiquity, ed. W. Scheidel . Cambridge

M. L. Gordon (1931) ‘The freeman's son in municipal life’, Journal of Roman Studies 21

K. Greene (1994) ‘Technology and innovation in context: the Roman background to mediaeval and later developments’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 7

P. Halstead (1990a) ‘Waste not, want not: traditional responses to crop failure in Greece’, Rural History 1, 2

K. Hopkins (1965a) ‘Age of Roman girls at marriage’, Population Studies 18

J. Lang and M. J. Hughes (1984) ‘Soldering Roman silver plate’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 3.3

H. N. Le Houérou (1977) ‘Plant sociology and ecology applied to grazing lands research, survey and management in the Mediterranean basin’, in W. Krause (ed.), Handbook of Vegetation Science, 13: Application of Vegetation Science to Grassland Husbandry (The Hague)

R. MacMullen (1970) ‘Market days in the Roman empire’, Phoenix 24

I. McNeil (ed.) (1990) An Encyclopaedia of the History of Technology. London

F. G. Meyer (1980) ‘Carbonized food plants of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and the villa at Torre Annunziata’, Economic Botany 34, 4

M. Molin (1984) ‘Quelques considérations sur le chariot des Vendanges de Langres’, Gallia 42

P. Pomey and A. Tchernia (1978) ‘Le tonnage maximum des navires de commerce romains’, Archaeonautica 2

R. P. Saller (1983) ‘Martial on literature and patronage’, Classical Quarterly 33

S. M. Sherwin-White (1978) Ancient Cos: An Historical Study from the Dorian Settlement to the Imperial Period. Göttingen

S. Walker (1984) ‘Marble origins by isotopic analysis’, World Arch 16.2: 204–21

A. Wallace-Hadrill (1988) ‘The structure of the Roman house’, Papers of the British School at Rome 56

L. Casson (1978) ‘More evidence for lead sheathing on Roman craft’, Mariner's Mirror 64

J. A. Crook (1967b) ‘Patria potestas’, Classical Quarterly n.s. 17

R. W. Goldsmith (1987) Premodern Financial Systems: A Historical Comparative Study. Cambridge

D. Lee (1973b) ‘Science, philosophy and technology in the Greco-Roman world 2’, Greece and Rome 20.2

P. Mirti , V. Zelano et al. (1990) ‘Roman pottery from Augusta Praetoria (Aosta, Italy): a provenance study’, Archaeometry 32

J. Nieto (1986) ‘El pecio Culip IV: observaciones sobre la organización de los talleres de terra sigillata de la Graufesenque’, Archaeonautica 6

P. Pomey (1981) ‘L'épave de Bon Porté et les bateaux cousus de la Mediterranée’, Mariner's Mirror 67

P. Pomey (1982) ‘Le navire romain de la Madrague de Giens’, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres

T. F. C. Blagg (1976) ‘Tools and techniques of the Roman stonemason in Britain’, Britannia 7

K. R. Bradley (1987) ‘On the Roman slave supply and slavebreeding’, in M. I. Finley (ed.), Classical Slavery (London)

D. C. Braund and G. R. Tsetskhladze (1989) ‘The export of slaves from Colchis’, Classical Quarterly 39

P. A. Brunt (1982) ‘A Marxist view of Roman history’, Journal of Roman Studies 72

D. L. Carroll (1985) ‘Dating the foot-powered loom: the Coptic evidence’, American Journal of Archaeology 89

J. H. D'Arms (1974) ‘Puteoli in the second century of the Roman Empire: a social and economic study’, Journal of Roman Studies 64

R. Etienne (1951) ‘“Quadragesima” ou “quinquagesima Hispaniarum”?’, Revue des études anciennes 53

P. Halstead (1987) ‘Traditional and ancient rural economy in Mediterranean Europe: plus ça change?’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 107

R. J. Hopper (1968) ‘The Laurion mines: a reconsideration’, Annual of the British School at Athens 63

C. J. Howgego (1994) ‘Coin circulation and the integration of the Roman economy’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 7

J. P. Lagadec (1983) ‘Le flotteur de radeau de Flavigny-sur-Moselle (Meurthe et Moselle)’, Gallia 41

E. Lo Cascio (1981) ‘State and coinage in the Republic and Early Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies 71

F. G. Moore (1950) ‘Three canal projects, Roman and Byzantine’, American Journal of Archaeology 54

J. R. Patterson (1987) ‘Crisis: what crisis? Rural change and urban development in imperial Apennine Italy’, Papers of the British School at Rome 55

D. W. Reece (1969) ‘The technological weakness of the ancient world’, Greece and Rome 16

B. D. Shaw (1987c) ‘The family of late antiquity: the experience of Augustine’, Past and Present 115

S. L. Wallace (1938) Taxation in Roman Egypt from Augustus to Diocletian. Princeton

J. P. Wild (1987) ‘The Roman horizontal loom’, American Journal of Archaeology 91

G. Hallier (1987) ‘Les citernes monumentales de Bararus (Henchir Rougga) en Byzacène’, AntAfr 23

M. Hammond (1957) ‘Composition of the senate, a. d. 68–235’, Journal of Roman Studies 47

D. Mattingly (1988a) ‘The olive boom: oil surpluses, wealth and power in Roman Tripolitania’, Libyan Studies 19

N. Purcell (1985) ‘Wine and wealth in ancient Italy’, Journal of Roman Studies 75.

M. Reddé (1978) ‘Les scènes de métier dans la sculpture funéraire gallo-romaine’, Gallia 36

A. Wallace-Hadrill (1991b) ‘Elites and trade in the Roman town’, in J. Rich and A. Wallace-Hadrill , City and Country in the Ancient World (London and New York)

W. M. Beard (1985) ‘Writing and ritual: a study of diversity and expansion in the Arval Acta’, Papers of the British School at Rome 53

E. L. Bowie (1996) ‘The ancient readers of the Greek novels’, in G. Schmeling (ed.), A Companion to the Ancient Novel (Leiden)

P. Debord (1982) Aspects sociaux et économiques de la vie religieuse dans l'Anatolie grécoromaine (Etudes préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l'empire romain 88). Leiden

E. R. Dodds (1965) Pagan and Christian in an Age of Anxiety. Cambridge

J. Evans (1987) ‘Graffiti and the evidence of literacy and pottery use in Roman Britain’, Archaeological Journal 144

A. D. Nock (1934) ‘A vision of Mandulis Aion’, Harvard Theological Review 27: 53–104 (= Nock (1972) 357–400)

G. Patzig (1968) Aristotle's Theory of the Syllogism, trans. by J. Barnes . Oxford

R. Turcan (1983) Numismatique romaine du culte métroaque (Etudes préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l'empire romain 97). Leiden

A. Vogliano (1933) ‘La grande iscrizione bacchia del Metropolitan Museum’, American Journal of Archaeology 37

C. Andresen (1955) Logos und Nomos. Berlin

I. Avotins (1975) ‘The holders of the chairs of rhetoric at Athens’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 79

J. P. Brown (1979, 1980) ‘The sacrificial cult and its critics in Greek and Hebrew’, Journal of Semitic Studies 24, 25

F. Coarelli (1979) ‘Topografia mitraica di Roma (con una carta)’, in U. Bianchi (ed.), Mysteria Mithrae (Leiden)

R. Duthoy (1969) The Taurobolium: Its Evolution and Terminology (Etudes préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l'empire romain 10). Leiden

M. Malaise (1981) ‘Contenu et effets de l'initiation isiaque’, L'Antiquité classique 50

R. McKitterick (1989) The Carolingians and the Written Word. Cambridge

V. Nutton (1990) ‘The patient's choice: a new treatise by Galen’, Classical Quarterly 40

L. Robert (1981) ‘Le serpent Glycon d'Abonouteichos à Athènes et Artemis d'Ephèse à Rome’, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres

H. S. Versnel (1981b) ‘Religious mentality in ancient prayer’, in Versnel (1981a)

H. S. Versnel (ed.) (1981a) Faith, Hope and Worship: Aspects of Religious Mentality in the Ancient World. Leiden

K. W. Arafat (1996) Pausanias' Greece: Ancient Artists and Roman Rulers. Cambridge

E. R. Dodds (1928) ‘The Parmenides of Plato and the origin of the Neoplatonic One’, Classical Quarterly 22

M. Malaise (1972) Les conditions de penétration et de diffusion des cultes égyptiens en Italie (Etudes préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l'empire romain 21). Leiden

E. A. Meyer (1990) ‘Explaining the epigraphic habit in the Roman empire: the evidence of epitaphs’, Journal of Roman Studies 80

A. D. Nock (1928) ‘Oracles théologiques’, Revue des études anciennes 30 (= Nock (1972))

V. Nutton (1971) ‘L. Gellius Maximus, physician and procurator’, Classical Quarterly n.s. 21

L. Robert (1977) ‘La titulature de Nicée et Nicomédie: La gloire et la haine’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 81

D. A. Russell (1983) Greek Declamation. Cambridge

E. Schwertheim (1974) Die Denkmäler orientalischer Gottheiten im römischen Deutschland mit Ausnahme der ägyptischen Gottheiten. Leiden

F. Solmsen (1979) Isis among the Greeks and Romans. Cambridge, Mass.

H. Dörrie (1971) ‘Die Stellung Plutarchs im Platonismus seiner Zeit’, in R. Palmer and R. Hamerton-Kelly (eds.), Philomathes: Studies and Essays in the Humanities in Memory of Philip Merlan (The Hague)

H. J. W. Drijvers (1980) Cults and Beliefs at Edessa. Leiden

C. Fabricius (1972) Galens Exzerpte aus älteren Pharmakologen. Berlin

R. Fellmann (1981) ‘Der Sabazios Kult’, in Vermaseren (1981)

F. G. B. Millar (1982) ‘Emperors, frontiers and foreign relations, 31 b.c. to a.d. 378’, Britannia 13

P. Moraux (1973, 1984) Der Aristotelismus bei den Griechen, 1 (1973); 11 (1984). Berlin

A. D. Nock (1932) ‘Cremation and burial in the Roman Empire’, Harvard Theological Review 25 (= Nock (1972))

W. J. Ong (1982) Orality and Literacy: The Technologising of the World. London

L. Robert (1970) ‘Deux concours grecs à Rome’, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres

D. Tudor (1976) Corpus monumentorum religionis equitum danuvinorum (Etudes préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l'empire romain 13). Leiden

J. Balty (1981b) ‘L'oracle et Apamée’, L'Antiquité classique 50

E. R. Dodds (1947) ‘Theurgy and its relationship to Neoplatonism’, Journal of Roman Studies 37

R. L. Gordon (1972) ‘Mithraism and Roman society’, Religion 2

P. Merlan (1963) Metaphysics, Mysticism, Metaconsciousness. The Hague

A. D. Nock (1952) ‘The Roman army and the Roman religious year’, Harvard Theological Review 45 (= Nock (1972))

G. Quispel (1981) ‘Gnosis’, in Vermaseren (1981)

A. N. M. Rich (1954) ‘The Platonic ideas as thoughts of God’, Mnemosyne ser. 4, 7

R. Thomas (1992) Literacy and Orality in Ancient Greece. Cambridge

M. J. Vermaseren (ed.) (1981) Die orientalischen Religionen im Römerreich (Etudes préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l'empire romain 93). Leiden

P. A. Brunt (1974) ‘Marcus Aurelius in his Meditations’, Journal of Roman Studies 64

J. R. Goody (1986) The Logic of Writing and the Organisation of Society. Cambridge

R. McKitterick (ed.) (1990) The Uses of Literacy in Early Mediaeval Europe. Cambridge

F. G. B. Millar (1968) ‘Local cultures in the Roman empire: Libyan, Punic and Latin in North Africa’, Journal of Roman Studies 58

S. R. F. Price (1986) ‘Dreams: Freud to Artemidorus’, Past and Present 113

R. Thomas (1989) Oral Tradition and Written Record in Classical Athens. Cambridge

V. Tran Tam Tinh (1971) Le culte des divinités orientales à Herculaneum. Leiden

L. Vidman (1970) Isis und Sarapis bei den Griechen und Römern. Berlin

M.-C. Amouretti et al. (1984) ‘A propos du pressoir à huile: de l'archéologie industrielle à l'histoire’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 96: 379–421

J. Andreau (1985b) ‘Modernité économique et statut des manieurs d'argent’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 97: 373–410

J.-Ch. Balty (1988) ‘Apamea in Syria in the second and third centuries A.D.’, Journal of Roman Studies 78: 91–104

G. W. Barclay , A. J. Coale , M. A. Stoto and T. J. Trussell (1976) ‘A reassessment of the demography of traditional rural China’, Population Index 42: 603–35

T. D. Barnes (1968) ‘Legislation against the Christians’, Journal of Roman Studies 58: 32–50

T. D. Barnes (1989) ‘Emperors on the move’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 2: 247–61

S. Barnish (1987) ‘Pigs, plebeians and potentes: Rome's economic hinterland, c.350–600 a.d.’, Papers of the British School at Rome 55: 157–85.

A. A. Barrett (1979) ‘The career of Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus’, Britannia 10: 227–42

S. J. Bastomsky (1989) ‘Rich and poor: the great divide in ancient Rome and Victorian England’, Greece and Rome 37: 37–43

J.-C. Béal and J. Dupraz (1989) ‘Architecture et urbanisme antique d'Alba (Ardèche), documents nouveaux’, Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise 22: 99–146

I. Berciu and C. Petolescu (1976) Les cultes orientaux dans la Dacie méridionale. Leiden

A. Beschaouch (1966) ‘La mosaïque de chasse à l'amphithéâtre découverte à Smirat en Tunisie’, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres 134–57

A. R. Birley (1992) Locus virtutibus patefactus? Zum Beförderungssystem in der Hohen Kaiserzeit. Opladen

A. Birley (1971) Septimius Severus: The African Emperor. London

T. F. C. Blagg and S. Read (1977) ‘The Roman pewter-moulds from Silchester’, AntJ 57: 270–6

J. E. Bogaers (1979) ‘King Cogidubnus in Chichester: another reading of RIB 91’, Britannia 10: 243–54

R. Bogaert (1983c) ‘Note sur l'emploi du chèque en Egypte ptolémaïque’, Chronique d'Egypte 58: 212–21

F. C. Bourne (1960) ‘The Roman alimentary program and Italian agriculture’, Transactions of the American Philological Association 47–75

G. W. Bowersock (1991) ‘The Babatha papyri, Masada and Rome’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 4 336–44

A. K. Bowman (1970) ‘A letter of Avidius Cassius?’, Journal of Roman Studies 60: 20–6

A. K. Bowman and D. Rathbone (1992) ‘Cities and administration in Roman Egypt’, Journal of Roman Studies 82: 107–27

P. Brain (1986) Galen on Bloodletting. Cambridge

J. Bremmer (1983) ‘Scapegoat rituals in Ancient Greece’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 87: 299–320

J.-P. Brun , G. B. Rogers et al. (1989) ‘La villa gallo-romaine de Saint-Michel à La Garde (Var); un domaine oléicole du Haut-Empire’, Gallia 46: 103–62

P. A. Brunt (1975) ‘The administrators of Roman Egypt’, Journal of Roman Studies 65 (= with revisions, Brunt, Imperial Themes, ch. 10)

P. A. Brunt (1980) ‘Free labour and public works at Rome’, Journal of Roman Studies 70: 81–100

I. D. Caruana (1992) ‘Carlisle: excavation of a section of the annexe ditch of the first Flavian fort, 1990’, Britannia 23

B. Cauuet (1991) ‘L'exploitation de l'or en Limousin, des Gaulois aux Gallo-Romains’, Annales du Midi 103: 149–81

A. Chastagnol (1981) ‘L'inscription constantinienne d'Orcistus’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 93: 381–416

M. Christol and S. Démougin (1990) ‘La carrière de l'affranchi Saturninus dans l'administration impériale’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 102: 159–211

M. Christol (1992b) ‘Les ambitions d'un affranchi à Nîmes sous le Haut-Empire: l'argent et la famille’, Cahiers Centre G. Glotz 3: 241–58

M. Clavel-Lévêque (1974) ‘Les Gaules et les Gaulois: pour une analyse du fonctionnement de la géographie de Strabon’, Dialogues d'histoire ancienne 1: 75–93

S. Coccia and D. Mattingly (1992) ‘Settlement history, environment and human exploitation of an intermontane basin in the central Apennines: the Rieti survey 1988–1991, Part I’, Papers of the British School at Rome 60: 213–89.

K. M. Coleman (1990) ‘Fatal charades: Roman executions staged as mythological enactments’, Journal of Roman Studies 80: 44–73

M. Corbier (1973) ‘Les circonscriptions judiciaires de l'Italie de Marc-Aurèle à Aurélien’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 85: 609–90.

M. Corbier (1989) ‘The ambiguous status of meat in ancient Rome’, Food and Foodways 3

J. Crook (1951) ‘Titus and Berenice’, American Journal of Philology 72: 162–75

G. Daux (1975) ‘Les empereurs romains et l'Amphictionie pyléo-delphique’, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres 348–62

D. Delia (1988) ‘The population of Roman Alexandria’, Transactions of the American Philological Association 118 275–91

A. Deman (1991) ‘Le mithraicisme romain en Gaule septentrionale: état des questions fin 1990’, Revue du Nord 73: 35–47

J.-L. Desnier (1993) ‘Omnia et realia. Naissance de l'Urbs Sacra sévérienne’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 105: 547–620.

H. Dodge (1988) ‘Decorative stones for architecture in the Roman empire’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 7, 1 65–80

M. Dodinet , J. Leblanc , J.-P. Vallat and F. Villeneuve (1990) ‘Le paysage antique en Syrie: l'exemple de Damas’, Syria 67: 339–55

R. P. Duncan-Jones (1977) ‘Giant cargo-ships in antiquity’, Classical Quarterly 27: 331–2

R. P. Duncan-Jones (1996) ‘The impact of the Antonine plague’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 9: 108–36.

Duncan-Jones , Structure. R. Duncan-Jones (1990) Structure and Scale in the Roman Economy. Cambridge

L. Edelstein (1936) ‘The philosophical system of Posidonius’, American Journal of Philology 57: 286–325

D. E. Eichholz (1951) ‘Galen and his environment’, Greece and Rome 20: 60–71

J. C. Evans (1981) ‘Wheat production and its social consequences in the Roman world’, Classical Quarterly 31: 428–42.

M. Even-Ari , L. Shanan and N. Tadmor (1982) The Negev: The Challenge of a Desert. 2nd edn. Cambridge, Mass.

P.-A. Février (1976) ‘Religion et domination dans l'Afrique romaine’, Dialogues d'histoire ancienne 2

M. Fincker and F. Tassaux (1992) ‘Les grands sanctuaires “ruraux” d'Aquitaine et le culte impérial’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 104, 1: 41–76

H. A. Forbes (1976) ‘“We have a little of everything”: the ecological basis of some agricultural practices in Methana, Trizinia’, AnnNYAcSc 268: 236–50

S. S. Frere (1961) ‘Civitas, a myth?’, Antiq 35: 29–36

S. S. Frere (1971) ‘The forum and baths of Caistor-by-Norwich’, Britannia 2: 1–26

S. S. Frere (1980) ‘Hyginus and the first cohort’, Britannia 11: 51–60

S. S. Frere (1984) ‘British urban defences in earthwork’, Britannia 15: 63–74

E. Frézouls (1984) ‘Evergétisme et construction urbaine dans les Trois Gaules et les Germanies’, Revue du Nord 66, 260: 27–54

B. W. Frier (1983b) ‘Roman life expectancy: the Pannonian evidence’, Phoenix 37: 328–44

Garnsey , Famine. P. D. A. Garnsey (1988) Famine and Food Supply in the Graeco-Roman World: Responses to Risk and Crisis. Cambridge

J. Gascou (1976) ‘Les curies africaines’, AntAfr 10: 33–48

R. W. Goldsmith (1984) ‘An estimate of the size and structure of the national product of the early Roman Empire’, Review of Income and Wealth 30 263–88

R. G. Goodchild (1950) ‘Roman Milestones in Cyrenaica’, Papers of the British School at Rome 18: 83–91

M. D. Goodman (1989) ‘Nerva, the fiscus Judaicus and Jewish identity’, Journal of Roman Studies 79: 40–4

A. Gregory (1994) ‘“Powerful images”: responses to portraits and the political uses of images in Rome’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 7: 80–99.

M. T. Griffin (1984) Nero: The End of a Dynasty. London

R. Haensch (1993) ‘Köln als Hauptstadt der Provinz Germania Inferior’, Geschichte in Köln 33: 5–40

P. Halstead and J. O'shea (1989b) ‘Introduction: cultural responses to risk and uncertainty’, in Halstead and O'shea (1989) 1–7

P. Halstead and J. O'shea (eds.) (1989a) Bad Year Economics: Cultural Responses to Risk and Uncertainty. Cambridge

E. Hatt (1965) ‘Essai sur l'évolution de la religion gauloise’, Revue des études anciennes 67: 80–125

M. Heijmans (1991) ‘Nouvelles recherches sur les cryptoportiques d'Arles et la topographie du Centre de la Colonie’, Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise 24: 161–200

M. I. Henderson (1949) Review of Lepper, Trajan's Parthian War, Journal of Roman Studies 39: 121–31

R. B. Hitchner (1988) ‘The Kasserine Archaeological Survey, 1982–1986’, AntAfr 24: 7–41

R. B. Hitchner (1990) ‘The Kasserine archaeological survey 1987’, AntAfr 26: 231–60

A. S. Hobley (1989) ‘The numismatic evidence for the post-Agricolan abandonment of the Roman frontier in northern Scotland’, Britannia 20: 69ff.

N. Hodgson (1995) ‘Were there two Antonine occupations of Scotland?’, Britannia 26: 29–49

Hopkins , Death and Renewal. K. Hopkins (1983) Death and Renewal (Sociological Studies in Roman History 2). Cambridge

N. Horsfall (1989) ‘“The uses of literacy” and the Cena Trimalchionis’, Greece and Rome 36: 74–89, 194–209

G. W. Houston (1977) ‘Vespasian's adlection of men in senatum’, American Journal of Philology 98: 35–63

M. G. Jarrett (1976) ‘An unnecessary war’, Britannia 7: 145–51

C. P. Jones (1966) ‘The teacher of Plutarch’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 71: 205–13

C. P. Jones (1968) ‘Julius Naso and Julius Secundus’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 72:

C. Jones Dio Chrysostom. C. P. Jones (1978) The Roman World of Dio Chrysostom. Cambridge, Mass. and London

E. J. Kenney (1982) ‘Books and readers in the Roman world’, in E. J. Kenney (ed.), Cambridge History of Classical Literature II. Latin Literature (Cambridge) 3–32

L. Keppie (1984) ‘Colonisation and veteran settlement in Italy in the first century a.d.’, Papers of the British School at Rome 52.

P. Lambrechts (1936) ‘Trajan et le recrutement du Sénat’, L'Antiquité classique 5: 105–14

J. Langdon (1984) ‘Horse hauling: a revolution in vehicle transport in 12th and 13th century England?’, Past and Present 103: 37–166

C. J. Larrain (1992) Galens Kommentar zu Platons Timaios. Stuttgart

H. Lavagne (1979) ‘Les dieux de la Gaule Narbonnaise: romanité et romanisation’, Journal des Savants 155–97

Y. Le Bohec (1991) ‘La recherche récente sur l'armée romaine d'Afrique’, AntAfr 27: 21–31

M. Le Glay (1976) ‘Hadrien et l'Asklépieion de Pergame’, Bulletin de correspondance helléenique 100: 347–72

P. Leveau (1973) ‘L'aile II de Thraces, la tribu des Mazices et les praefecti gentis en Afrique du Nord’, AntAfr 7: 153–92

P. Leveau (1975) ‘Paysans maures et villes romaines en Maurétanie césarienne centrale’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 87: 857–71

B. M. Levick (1979) ‘Pliny in Bithynia – and what followed’, Greece and Rome 26: 119ff.

B. Levick (1983) ‘The Senatus Consultum from Larinum’, Journal of Roman Studies 73: 97–115

P. R. Lewis and G. D. B. Jones (1969) ‘The Dolaucothi gold mines, I: the surface evidence’, AntJ 49: 244–72

B. Liou and C. Domergue (1990) ‘Le commerce de la Bétique au premier siècle de notre ère: l'épave Sud-Lavezzi 2 (Bonifacio, Corse du Sud)’, Archaeonautica 10: 11–123

R. J. Littman and M. L. (1973) ‘Galen and the Antonine plague’, American Journal of Philology 94: 243–55

M. Livi-Bacci (1991) Population and Nutrition, trans. T. Croft-Murray . Cambridge

H. Maccoby (1988) Early Rabbinic Writings. Cambridge

R. MacMullen (1982) ‘The epigraphic habit in the Roman Empire’, American Journal of Philology 103: 233–46

D. Magie (1950) Roman Rule in Asia Minor. 2 vols. Princeton

J. C. Mann and M. M. Roxan (1988) ‘Discharge certificates of the Roman army’, Britannia 19: 341–7

J. C. Mann (1961) ‘Civitas. A further comment’, Antiq 35: 142–3

A. Maricq (1959) ‘La province d'Assyrie crée par Trajan’, Syria 36: 254–63

J. F. Matthews (1984) ‘The tax law of Palmyra’, Journal of Roman Studies 74: 157–80

D. J. Mattingly and G. D. B. Jones (1986) ‘A new clausura in western Tripolitania: Wadi Skiffa South’, Libyan Studies 17: 87–96

D. Mattingly (1990) ‘Paintings, presses and perfume production at Pompeii’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 9: 71–90

W. E. McDermott (1969) ‘Pliniana’, American Journal of Philology 90: 329–32

J. McKenzie and A. Phippen (1987) ‘The chronology of the principal monuments at Petra’, Levant 19: 145–65

R. Mellor (1975) Θεὰ lsquo;Pώμη: The Workings of the Goddess Roma in the Greek World (Hypomnemata 42). Göttingen

F. G. B. Millar (1971) ‘Paul of Samosata, Zenobia and Aurelian: the church, local culture and political allegiance in third-century Syria’, Journal of Roman Studies 61: 1–17

F. G. B. Millar (1986) ‘Italy and the Roman empire: Augustus to Constantine’, Phoenix 40: 295–318.

F. G. B. Millar (1988) ‘Government and diplomacy in the Roman Empire during the first three centuries’, International History Review 10: 345ff.

F. Millar (1965) ‘Epictetus and the imperial court’, Journal of Roman Studies 55: 141ff.

F. Millar (1967) ‘Emperors at work’, Journal of Roman Studies 57

A. Mócsy (1978) ‘Zur Entstehung und Eigenart der Nordgrenzen Roms’, Rheinisch-Westfalische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vorträge, G. Opladen

R. F. Muth (1994) ‘Real land rentals in early Roman Egypt’, Explorations in Economic History 31: 210–24

J. Naveau (1991) ‘L'épigraphie du site de Jublains (Mayenne)’, Revue archéologique de l'Ouest 8: 103–16

W. Nippel (1984) ‘Policing Rome’, Journal of Roman Studies 74: 20–9

J. A. Notopoulos (1944) ‘The method of choosing archons in Athens under the Empire’, American Journal of Philology 65: 149–66

J. A. Notopoulos (1949) ‘Studies in the chronology of Athens under the Empire’, Hesperia 18: 1–57

J.-M. Pailler (1989) ‘Domitien, la “loi des Narbonnais” et le culte impérial dans les provinces sénatoriales d'Occident’, Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise 22: 171–89

R. E. A. Palmer (1980) ‘Customs on market goods imported into the city of Rome’, Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 36: 217–33.

D. P. S. Peacock (1980) ‘The Roman millstone trade: a petrological sketch’, World Arch 12.1

P. Perdrizet (1921) ‘Copria’, Revue des études anciennes 23: 85–94

G.-C. Picard (1981) ‘Ostie et la Gaule de l'Ouest’, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Antiquité 93, 2: 883–915

L. F. Pitts (1989) ‘Relations between Rome and the German “Kings” on the Middle Danube in the first to fourth centuries a.d.’, Journal of Roman Studies 79: 45–58

A.G. Poulter (1988) ‘Nicopolis ad Istrum, Bulgaria: an interim report on the excavations 1985–7’, AntJ 68: 69–89

B. P. Reardon (1969) ‘The Greek novel’, Phoenix 23

J. M. Reynolds (1959) ‘Four inscriptions from Roman Cyrene’, Journal of Roman Studies 49: 95–101

J.M. Reynolds (1977–8) ‘A Roman legionary veteran at Teuchira’, Libyan Studies 9: 27–9

L. Robert (1971) ‘Un oracle gravé à Oinoanda’, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres 597–620

A.-M. Romeuf (1986) ‘Ex-voto de bois de Chamalières (Puy-de-Dôme) et des Sources de la Seine, Essai de comparaison’, Gallia 44: 65–89

C. M. Roueché (1981) ‘Rome, Asia and Aphrodisias in the third century’, Journal of Roman Studies 71: 103–20

J. Rougé (1957) ‘Ad Ciconias Nixas’, Revue des études anciennes 59: 320–8.

P. Roussel (1927) ‘Les mystères de Panamara’, Bulletin de correspondance helléenique 51: 123–37

P. Salama (1991) ‘Quelques incursions dans la zone occidentale du limes de Numidie’, AntAfr 27: 93–105

R. P. Saller (1987b) ‘Slavery and the Roman family’, Slavery and Abolition 8

Saller , Patronage. R. Saller (1982) Personal Patronage under the Early Empire. Cambridge

J. Šašel (1973) ‘Trajan's canal at the Iron Gate’, Journal of Roman Studies 63: 80–5

P. Schäfer (1986) ‘Research into Rabbinic literature: an attempt to define the status quaestionis’, Journal of Jewish Studies 37: 139–52

W. Scheidel (1990a) ‘Free-born and manumitted bailiffs in the Graeco-Roman world’, Classical Quarterly 40: 591–3

D. Schlumberger (1937) ‘Réflexions sur la loi fiscale de Palmyre’, Syria 18: 271–97

D. Schlumberger (1961) ‘Palmyre et la Mésène’, Syria 38: 256–60

D. Schlumberger (1971) ‘Les quatre tribus de Palmyre’, Syria 48: 121–33

H. Seyrig (1959) ‘Caractères de l'histoire d'Emèse’, Syria 36: 184–92

H. Seyrig (1970) ‘Les dieux armés et les Arabes en Syrie’, Syria 47: 77–112

D. B. Shaw (1984) ‘Bandits in the Roman Empire’, Past and Present 105: 3–52

J. W. Shaw (1967) ‘A double-sheaved pulley block from Kenchreai’, Hesperia 36

A. N. Sherwin-White (1973) ‘The tabula of Banasa and the Constitutio Antoniniana’, Journal of Roman Studies 63: 86–98

H. Sidebottom (1996) ‘Dio of Prusa and the Flavian dynasty’, Classical Quarterly 46: 447–56

A. W. Sleeswyk (1987) ‘A Scandinavian waggon construction’, Antiq 61: 416–23

N. A. F. Smith (1977–8) ‘Roman canals’, Transactions of the Newcomen Society for the History of Engineering 49: 75–86

A. J. Spawforth (1980) ‘Sparta and the family of Herodes Atticus: a reconsideration of the evidence’, Annual of the British School at Athens 75:203–17

G. C. Speziale (1929) ‘The Roman galleys in the Lake of Nemi’, Mariner's Mirror 15: 333–46

C. H. V. Sutherland (1935) ‘The state of the imperial treasury at the death of Domitian’, Journal of Roman Studies 25: 150ff.

R. Syme (1930) ‘Imperial finances under Domitian, Nerva and Trajan’, Journal of Roman Studies 20: 55ff.

R. Syme (1956) ‘Some friends of the Caesars’, American Journal of Philology 77: 264–73 (= Syme , Roman Papers I 292–9)

R. Syme (1969) ‘Pliny the procurator’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 73: 201–36 (=Roman Papers II 742–73)

R. Syme (1982b) ‘The marriage of Rubellius Blandus’, American Journal of Philology 103: 62–85 (=Roman Papers IV 177–98)

L. R. Taylor (1961) ‘Freedmen and freeborn in the epitaphs of Imperial Rome’, American Journal of Philology 82: 113–32

J. Teixidor (1979) The Pantheon of Palmyra. Leiden

J. Thurneyssen (1980) ‘Another view of ancient rudders’, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 9: 3–6

Tomlinson , Mycenae to Constantinople. R. Tomlinson (1992) From Mycenae to Constantinople, The Evolution of the Ancient City. London and New York

P. Trousset (1978) ‘Les bornes du Bled, Segui: nouveaux aperçus sur la centuriation romaine du sud Tunisien’, AntAfr 12: 125–77

C. C. Vermeule (1968) Roman Imperial Art in Greece and Asia Minor. Cambridge, Mass.

G. Ville (1981) La gladiature en Occident des origines à la mort de Domitien. Paris

J. Ward-Perkins (1955) ‘The aqueduct of Aspendos’, Papers of the British School at Rome 23: 115–23

Weaver , Familia Caesaris. P. R. C. Weaver (1972) Familia Caesaris. Cambridge

Wiedemann , Emperors and Gladiators. T. E. J. Wiedemann (1992) Emperors and Gladiators. London and New York

J. J. Wilkes (1989) ‘The Roman frontier in Noricum’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 2: 347–52

E. Will (1985) ‘Pline l'Ancien et Palmyre; un problème d'histoire ou d'histoire littéraire?’, Syria 62: 263–70

W. Williams (1976) ‘Individuality in the imperial constitutions: Hadrian and the Antonines’, Journal of Roman Studies 66: 67–83


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 3050 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 1500 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th March 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.