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The Cambridge Companion to Utilitarianism
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Book description

Utilitarianism, the approach to ethics based on the maximization of overall well-being, continues to have great traction in moral philosophy and political thought. This Companion offers a systematic exploration of its history, themes, and applications. First, it traces the origins and development of utilitarianism via the work of Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Henry Sidgwick, and others. The volume then explores issues in the formulation of utilitarianism, including act versus rule utilitarianism, actual versus expected consequences, and objective versus subjective theories of well-being. Next, utilitarianism is positioned in relation to Kantianism and virtue ethics, and the possibility of conflict between utilitarianism and fairness is considered. Finally, the volume explores the modern relevance of utilitarianism by considering its practical implications for contemporary controversies such as military conflict and global warming. The volume will be an important resource for all those studying moral philosophy, political philosophy, political theory, and history of ideas.

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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Ancient ScepticismEdited by Richard Bett

AquinasEdited by Norman Kretzmann and Eleonore Stump

AtheismEdited by Michael Martin

BerkeleyEdited by Kenneth P. Winkler

DeleuzeEdited by Daniel W. Smith and Henry Somers-Hall

DescartesEdited by John Cottingham

Duns ScotusEdited by Thomas Williams

Early Greek PhilosophyEdited by A. A. Long

R. M. Adams Motive Utilitarianism,” Journal of Philosophy 73 (1976), 467–481.

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R. J. Arneson Human Flourishing versus Desire Satisfaction,” Social Philosophy and Policy 16 (1999), 113–142.

R. J. Arneson Sophisticated Rule Consequentialism: Some Simple Objections,” Philosophical Issues 15 (2005), 235–251.

G. Arrhenius An Impossibility Theorem for Welfarist Axiologies,” Economics and Philosophy 16 (2000), 247–266.

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C. Blamires The French Revolution and the Creation of Benthamism, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

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B. Bradley Against Satisficing Consequentialism,” Utilitas 18 (2006), 97–108.

B. Bradley Well-Being and Death, New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

J. Broome A Reply to Sen,” Economics and Philosophy 7 (1991), 285–287.

J. Broome ‘Utility’,” Economics and Philosophy 7 (1991), 1–12.

J. Broome Weighing Lives, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

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E. Carlson Consequentialism Reconsidered, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.

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S. Conway Bentham on Peace and War,” Utilitas 1 (1989), 82–101.

J. E. Crimmins Secular Utilitarianism: Social Science and the Critique of Religion in the Thought of Jeremy Bentham, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

R. Crisp Hedonism Reconsidered,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73 (2006), 619–645.

R. Crisp Reasons and the Good, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

R. Crisp Utilitarianism and the Life of Virtue,” Philosophical Quarterly 42 (1992), 139–160.

D. Cummiskey Kantian Consequentialism, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

S. Darwall Valuing Activity,” Social Philosophy and Policy 16 (1999), 176–196.

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P. Dasgupta Savings and Fertility: Ethical Issues,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 23 (1994), 99–127.

W. Donner Mill’s Moral and Political Philosophy,” in W. Donner and R. Fumerton , Mill, Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, pp. 13–143.

D. Dorsey Consequentialism, Metaphysical Realism, and the Argument from Cluelessness,” Philosophical Quarterly 62 (2012), 48–70.

E. A. Driscoll The Influence of Gassendi on Locke’s Hedonism,” International Philosophical Quarterly 12 (1972), 87–110.

J. Driver Uneasy Virtue, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

J. Driver What the Objective Standard is Good For,” in Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics, vol. ii, ed. M. Timmons , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 28–44.

B. Eggleston Does Participation Matter? An Inconsistency in Parfit’s Moral Mathematics,” Utilitas 15 (2003), 92–105.

B. Eggleston Practical Equilibrium: A Way of Deciding What to Think about Morality,” Mind 119 (2010), 549–584.

B. Eggleston Rejecting the Publicity Condition: The Inevitability of Esoteric Morality,” Philosophical Quarterly 63 (2013), 29–57.

B. Ellis Retrospective and Prospective Utilitarianism,” Noûs 15 (1981), 325–339.

S. G. Engelmann Imagining Interest,” Utilitas 13 (2001), 289–322.

F. Feldman Actual Utility, the Objection from Impracticality, and the Move to Expected Utility,” Philosophical Studies 129 (2006), 49–79.

F. Feldman Adjusting Utility for Justice,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (1995), 567–585.

F. Feldman Doing the Best We Can: An Essay in Informal Deontic Logic, Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1986.

F. Feldman Pleasure and the Good Life: Concerning the Nature, Varieties, and Plausibility of Hedonism, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2004.

F. Feldman True and Useful: On the Structure of a Two Level Normative Theory,” Utilitas 24 (2012), 151–171.

F. Feldman What Is This Thing Called Happiness?, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

F. Feldman What We Learn from the Experience Machine,” in The Cambridge Companion to Nozick’s Anarchy, State, and Utopia, ed. R. M. Bader and J. Meadowcroft , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 59–86.

M. Ferkany The Objectivity of Wellbeing,” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 93 (2012), 472–492.

M. Fleurbaey , B. Tungodden , and P. Vallentyne , “On the Possibility of Nonaggregative Priority for the Worst Off,” Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2009), 258–285.

P. Force Self-Interest before Adam Smith: A Genealogy of Economic Science, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

D. Gauthier Rule-Utilitarianism and Randomization,” Analysis 25 (1965): 68–69.

H. J. Gensler Paradoxes of Subjective Obligation,” Metaphilosophy 18 (1987), 208–213.

B. Gert Morality: Its Nature and Justification, revised edn., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

I. Goldstein Pleasure and Pain: Unconditional, Intrinsic Values.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50 (1989), 255–276.

R. E. Goodin On Settling, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012.

R. E. Goodin Utilitarianism as a Public Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

A. Gosseries and L. Meyer (eds.) Intergenerational Justice, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

P. Graham In Defense of Objectivism about Moral Obligation,” Ethics 121 (2010), 88–115.

B. Gruzalski Foreseeable Consequence Utilitarianism,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 59 (1981), 163–176.

P. Guyer Kant on Freedom, Law, and Happiness, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

K. Haakonssen Natural Law and Moral Philosophy: From Grotius to the Scottish Enlightenment, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

R. M. Hare Could Kant Have been a Utilitarian?,” Utilitas 5 (1993), 1–16.

R. M. Hare Moral Thinking: Its Levels, Method, and Point, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.

J. Harrison Utilitarianism, Universalization, and Our Duty to Be Just,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 53 (1953): 105–134.

J. C. Harsanyi A Preference-Based Theory of Well-Being and a Rule-Utilitarian Theory of Morality,” in Game Theory, Experience, Rationality: Foundations of Social Sciences, Economics and Ethics, eds. W. Leinfellner and E. Köhler , Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1998, pp. 285–300.

J. C. Harsanyi Cardinal Utility in Welfare Economics and in the Theory of Risk-Taking,” Journal of Political Economy 61 (1953), 434–435.

J. C. Harsanyi Cardinal Welfare, Individualistic Ethics, and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility,” Journal of Political Economy 63 (1955), 309–321.

J. C. Harsanyi Rule Utilitarianism and Decision Theory,” Erkenntnis 11 (1977), 25–53.

C. Heathwood Desire Satisfactionism and Hedonism,” Philosophical Studies 128 (2006), 539–563.

C. Heathwood The Problem of Defective Desires,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (2005), 487–504.

C. Heathwood The Reduction of Sensory Pleasure to Desire,” Philosophical Studies 133 (2007), 23–44.

C. Helvétius De l’esprit, or, Essays on the Mind: And Its Several Faculties, London: Dodsley, 1759.

R. Hildreth Theory of Morals: An Inquiry Concerning the Law of Moral Distinctions and the Variations and Contradictions of Ethical Codes, Boston: C. C. Little & J. Brown, 1844.

T. E. Hill Assessing Moral Rules: Utilitarian and Kantian Perspectives,” Philosophical Issues 15 (2005): 161–178.

B. Hooker Fairness, Needs, and Desert,” in The Legacy of H. L. A. Hart: Legal, Political and Moral Philosophy, eds. M. H. Kramer , C. Grant , B. Colburn , and A. Hatzistavrou , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 181–199.

B. Hooker Reply to Arneson and McIntyre,” Philosophical Issues 15 (2005): 266–281.

B. Hooker When Is Impartiality Morally Appropriate?” in Partiality and Impartiality: Morality, Special Relationships, and the Wider World, eds. B. Feltham and J. Cottingham , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. 26–41.

B. Hooker and G. Fletcher . “Variable versus Fixed-Rate Rule-Utilitarianism,” Philosophical Quarterly 58 (2008), 344–352.

F. Howard-Snyder It’s the Thought That Counts,” Utilitas 17 (1997), 265–281.

F. Howard-Snyder The Rejection of Objective Consequentialism,” Utilitas 9 (1997), 241–248.

L. J. Hume Bentham and Bureaucracy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

T. Hurka Value and Population Size,” Ethics 93 (1983), 496–507.

R. Hursthouse Practical Wisdom: A Mundane Account,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 106 (2006), 285–309.

M. Ignatieff A Just Measure of Pain: The Penitentiary in the Industrial Revolution 1750–1850, New York: Pantheon, 1978.

F. Jackson A Probabilistic Approach to Moral Responsibility,” Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics 114 (1986), 351–365.

F. Jackson Decision-Theoretic Consequentialism and the Nearest and Dearest Objection,” Ethics 101 (1991), 461–482.

F. Jackson and M. Smith , “Absolutist Moral Theories and Uncertainty,” Journal of Philosophy 103 (2006), 267–283.

S. Kagan The Geometry of Desert, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

S. Kagan Well-Being as Enjoying the Good,” Philosophical Perspectives 23 (2009), 253–272.

L. Kahn Rule Consequentialism and Scope,” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (2012), 631–646.

D. Kahneman and A. Tversky , “Subjective Probability: A Judgment of Representativeness,” Cognitive Psychology 3 (1972), 430–454.

I. Kant Critique of Practical Reason, ed. M. Gregor , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

I. Kant Critique of Pure Reason, eds. P. Guyer and A. W. Wood , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

I. Kant Lectures on Ethics, eds. P. L. Heath and J. B. Schneewind , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

I. Kant The Metaphysics of Morals, ed. M. Gregor , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

N. B. Kapur Why It Is Wrong to Be Always Guided by the Best: Consequentialism and Friendship,” Ethics 101 (1991), 483–504.

J. Kawall The Experience Machine and Mental State Theories of Well-Being,” Journal of Value Inquiry 33 (1999), 381–387.

S. Keller Welfare and the Achievement of Goals,” Philosophical Studies 121 (2004), 27–41.

P. Kelly Utilitarianism and Distributive Justice: The Civil Law and the Foundations of Bentham’s Economic Thought,” Utilitas 1 (1989), 62–81.

G. C. Kerner The Immortality of Utilitarianism and the Escapism of Rule-Utilitarianism,” Philosophical Quarterly 21 (1971), 36–50.

C. M. Korsgaard Kant’s Formula of Universal Law,” in C. M. Korsgaard , Creating the Kingdom of Ends, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 77–105.

C. M. Korsgaard The Sources of Normativity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

R. Kraut Desire and the Human Good,” Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 68 (1994), 39–54.

R. Kumar Who Can Be Wronged?Philosophy and Public Affairs 31 (2003), 99–118.

K. Lazari-Radek and P. Singer , “Secrecy in Consequentialism: A Defence of Esoteric Morality,” Ratio 23 (2010), 34–58.

J. Lenman Consequentialism and Cluelessness,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 29 (2000), 342–370.

J. Locke Two Treatises of Government, ed. P. Laslett , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

D. Lyons Forms and Limits of Utilitarianism, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965.

J. L. Mackie The Law of the Jungle: Moral Alternatives and Principles of Evolution,” Philosophy 53 (1978), 455–464.

H. J. McCloskey A Non-Utilitarian Approach to Punishment,” Inquiry 8 (1965), 249–263.

H. J. McCloskey Utilitarianism: Two Difficulties,” Philosophical Studies 24 (1973), 62–63.

D. McKerlie Equality and Priority,” Utilitas 6 (1994), 25–42.

A. Mele Agents’ Abilities,” Noûs 37 (2003), 447–470.

J. Mendola Goodness and Justice: A Consequentialist Moral Theory, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

D. E. Miller Actual-Consequence Act Utilitarianism and the Best Possible Humans,” Ratio 16 (2003), 49–62.

R. B. Miller Actual Rule Utilitarianism,” Journal of Philosophy 106 (2009), 5–28.

J. Montmarquet Zimmerman on Culpable Ignorance,” Ethics 109 (1999), 842–845.

G. E. Moore Ethics, ed. W. H. Shaw , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

T. Mulgan Future People: A Moderate Consequentialist Account of Our Obligations to Future Generations, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

T. Mulgan What Is Good for the Distant Future? The Challenge of Climate Change for Utilitarianism,” forthcoming in God, The Good, and Utilitarianism: Perspectives on Peter Singer, ed. J. Perry , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

T. Nagel Death,” Noûs 4 (1970), 73–80.

S. Nathanson Terrorism and the Ethics of War, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Y.-K. Ng What Should We Do about Future Generations? Impossibility of Parfit’s Theory X,” Economics and Philosophy 5 (1989), 235–253.

M. Nussbaum Adaptive Preferences and Women’s Options,” Economics and Philosophy 17 (2001), 67–88.

G. Oddie and P. Menzies , “An Objectivist’s Guide to Subjective Value,” Ethics 102 (1992), 512–533.

D. E. Palmer On the Viability of a Rule Utilitarianism,” Journal of Value Inquiry 33 (1999), 31–42.

D. Parfit Equality and Priority,” Ratio 10 (1997), 202–221.

D. Parfit On What Matters, 2 vols., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

I. Persson A Consequentialist Distinction between What We Ought to Do and Ought to Try,” Utilitas 20 (2008), 348–355.

I. Persson Universalizability and the Summing of Desires,” Theoria 55 (1989), 159–170.

B. Petersson The Second Mistake in Moral Mathematics is not about the Worth of Mere Participation,” Utilitas 16 (2004), 288–315.

D. Phillips Sidgwickian Ethics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

D. Portmore Commonsense Consequentialism: Wherein Morality Meets Rationality, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

H. A. Prichard Duty and Ignorance of Fact,” in his Moral Writings, ed. J. MacAdam , Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2002, pp. 84–101.

W. Rabinowicz Preference Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?” in Preference Change: Approaches from Philosophy, Economics and Psychology, eds. T. Grüne-Yanoff and S. O. Hansson , Dordrecht: Springer, 2009, pp. 185–206.

W. Rabinowicz and B. Strömberg , “What If I Were in His Shoes? On Hare’s Argument for Preference Utilitarianism,” Theoria 62 (1996), 95–123.

S. Rachels A Set of Solutions to Parfit’s Problems,” Noûs 35 (2001), 214–238.

J. Raibley Well-Being and the Priority of Values,” Social Theory and Practice 36 (2010), 593–620.

P. Railton Facts and Values,” Philosophical Topics 14 (1986), 5–31.

P. Railton Naturalism and Prescriptivity,” Social Philosophy and Policy 7 (1989), 151–174.

J. Rawls Justice as Fairness,” Philosophical Review 67 (1958), 164–194.

D. Regan Utilitarianism and Co-operation, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980.

M. Ridge Introducing Variable-Rate Rule-Utilitarianism,” Philosophical Quarterly 56 (2006), 242–253.

I. Rivers Reason, Grace, and Sentiment: A Study of the Language of Religion and Ethics in England 1660–1780, vol. 2: Shaftesbury to Hume, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

M. Roberts A New Way of Doing the Best That We Can: Person-Based Consequentialism and the Equality Problem,” Ethics 112 (2001), 315–350.

M. Roberts and D. Wasserman (eds.) Harming Future Persons: Ethics, Genetics and the Nonidentity Problem, Dordrecht: Springer, 2009.

C. S. Rosati Persons, Perspectives, and Full Information Accounts of the Good,” Ethics 105 (1995), 296–325.

D. C. Russell Practical Intelligence and the Virtues, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

T. M. Scanlon Contractualism and Utilitarianism,” in Utilitarianism and Beyond, eds. A. Sen and B. Williams , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982, pp. 103–128.

D. Schmidtz A Place for Cost–Benefit Analysis,” Philosophical Issues 11 (2001), 148–171.

J. B. Schneewind The Misfortunes of Virtue,” Ethics 101 (1990), 42–63.

P. Schofield Utility and Democracy: The Political Thought of Jeremy Bentham, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

G. F. Schueler Some Reasoning about Preferences,” Ethics 95 (1984), 78–80.

B. Schultz (ed.) Essays on Henry Sidgwick, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

B. Schultz , Henry Sidgwick – Eye of the Universe: An Intellectual Biography, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

J. Semple Bentham’s Prison: A Study of the Panopticon Penitentiary, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

A. Sen Utilitarianism and Welfarism,” Journal of Philosophy 76 (1979), 463–489.

A. Sen Utility: Ideas and Terminology,” Economics and Philosophy 7 (1991), 277–283.

W. H. Shaw Consequentialism, War, and National Defense,” forthcoming in Journal of International Political Theory 10 (2014).

W. H. Shaw Utilitarianism and Recourse to War,” Utilitas 23 (2011), 380–401.

K. Shrader-Frechette Parfit and Mistakes in Moral Mathematics,” Ethics 98 (1987), 50–60.

H. Sidgwick Essays on Ethics and Method, ed. M. G. Singer , Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000.

P. Singer Practical Ethics, 3rd edn., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

J. Skorupski (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Mill, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

M. A. Slote Beyond Optimizing: A Study of Rational Choice, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.

M. A. Slote Satisficing Consequentialism,” part i, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society supplementary volume 58 (1984), 139–163.

M. A. Slote Two Views of Satisficing,” in Satisficing and Maximizing: Moral Theorists on Practical Reason, ed. M. Byron , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 14–29.

J. J. C. Smart An Outline of a System of Utilitarian Ethics,” in J. J. C. Smart and B. Williams , Utilitarianism: For and Against, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973, pp. 1–74.

J. J. C. Smart Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism,” Philosophical Quarterly 6 (1956), 344–354.

H. M. Smith Culpable Ignorance,” Philosophical Review 92 (1983), 543–571.

H. M. Smith Making Moral Decisions,” Noûs 22 (1988), 89–108.

H. M. Smith Measuring the Consequences of Rules,” Utilitas 22 (2010), 413–433.

H. M. Smith Subjective Rightness,” Social Philosophy and Policy 27:2 (2010), 64–110.

H. M. Smith Two-Tier Moral Codes,” Social Philosophy and Policy 7:1 (1989), 112–132.

H. M. Smith Varieties of Moral Worth and Moral Credit,” Ethics 101 (1991), 279–303.

D. Sobel Full Information Accounts of Well-Being,” Ethics 104 (1994), 784–810.

H. Spencer The Data of Ethics, London: Williams and Norgate, 1879.

M. Stocker The Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories,” Journal of Philosophy 73 (1976), 453–466.

B. Streumer Can Consequentialism Cover Everything?Utilitas 15 (2003), 237–247.

V. Tiberius and A. Plakias , “Well-Being,” in The Moral Psychology Handbook, eds. J. M. Doris and the , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. 402–432.

J. Timmermann Good But Not Required? – Assessing the Demands of Kantian Ethics,” Journal of Moral Philosophy 2 (2005), 9–27.

J. Timmermann Kant’s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: A Commentary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

J. Timmermann When the Tail Wags the Dog: Animal Welfare and Indirect Duty in Kantian Ethics,” Kantian Review 10 (2005), 128–149.

J. Timmermann Why Kant Could Not Have Been a Utilitarian,” Utilitas 17 (2005), 243–264.

J. Tully A Discourse on Property: John Locke and His Adversaries, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

P. Unger Living High and Letting Die, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

J. O. Urmson The Interpretation of the Moral Philosophy of J. S. Mill,” Philosophical Quarterly 3 (1953), 33–39.

P. Vallentyne Utilitarianism and Infinite Utility,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 71 (1993), 212–217.

P. Vallentyne and S. Kagan , “Infinite Value and Finitely Additive Value Theory,” Journal of Philosophy 94 (1997), 5–26.

J. Waldron God, Locke, and Equality: Christian Foundations in Locke’s Political Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

G. Wall Mill on Happiness as an End,” Philosophy 57 (1982), 537–541.

T. Warke Multi-Dimensional Utility and the Index Number Problem: Jeremy Bentham, J. S. Mill, and Qualitative Hedonism,” Utilitas 12 (2000), 176–203.

J. A. Weymark A Reconsideration of the Harsanyi–Sen Debate on Utilitarianism,” in Interpersonal Comparisons of Well-Being, eds. J. Elster and J. E. Roemer , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, pp. 255–320.

E. Wiland Monkeys, Typewriters, and Objective Consequentialism,” Ratio 18 (2005), 352–360.

G. Williams J. S. Mill and Political Violence,” Utilitas 1 (1989), 102–111.

S. Wolf Moral Saints,” Journal of Philosophy 79 (1982), 419–439.

D. Wootton Helvétius: From Radical Enlightenment to Revolution,” Political Theory 28 (2000), 307–336.

R. Yasukawa James Mill on Peace and War,” Utilitas 3 (1991), 179–197.

M. J. Zimmerman Is Moral Obligation Objective or Subjective?Utilitas 18 (2006), 329–361.

M. J. Zimmerman Living with Uncertainty: The Moral Significance of Ignorance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

M. J. Zimmerman Moral Responsibility and Ignorance,” Ethics 107 (1997), 410–426.

M. Zwolinski The Ethics of Price-Gouging,” Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2008), 347–378.

M. Zwolinski and D. Schmidtz , “Environmental Virtue Ethics: What It Is and What It Needs to Be,” in The Cambridge Companion to Virtue Ethics, ed. D. C. Russell , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013, pp. 221–239.

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Hume 2nd edition Edited by David Fate Norton and Jacqueline Taylor

William JamesEdited by Ruth Anna Putnam

KantEdited by Paul Guyer

KierkegaardEdited by Alastair Hannay and Gordon Daniel Marino

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PeirceEdited by Cheryl Misak

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SartreEdited by Christina Howells

SchopenhauerEdited by Christopher Janaway

Adam SmithEdited by Knud Haakonssen

SocratesEdited by Donald Morrison

TocquevilleEdited by Cheryl B. Welch

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WittgensteinEdited by Hans Sluga and David Stern


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