Skip to main content
The Cambridge Companion to Xenophon
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge Companion to Xenophon
    • Online ISBN: 9781107279308
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This Companion, the first dedicated to the philosopher and historian Xenophon of Athens, gives readers a sense of why he has held such a prominent place in literary and political culture from antiquity to the present and has been a favourite author of individuals as diverse as Machiavelli, Thomas Jefferson, and Leo Tolstoy. It also sets out the major problems and issues that are at stake in the study of his writings, while simultaneously pointing the way forward to newer methodologies, issues, and questions. Although Xenophon's historical, philosophical, and technical works are usually studied in isolation because they belong to different modern genres, the emphasis here is on themes that cut across his large and varied body of writings. This volume is accessible to students and general readers, including those previously unfamiliar with Xenophon, and will also be of interest to scholars in various fields.

    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

G. J. D. Aalders (1953) “Date and intention of Xenophon’s Hiero,” Mnemosyne 6: 208–15.

H. P. Abbott (2008) The Cambridge Introduction to Narrative, 2nd edn. Cambridge.

D. Ahn (2008) “The politics of royal education: Xenophon’s Education of Cyrus in early eighteenth-century Europe,” The Leadership Quarterly 19: 439–52.

R. J. Allan and M. Buijs (eds.) (2007) The Language of Literature. Leiden.

J. Althoff (2005) “Form und Funktion der beiden hippologischen Schriften Xenophons Hipparchicus und De re equestri (mit einem Blick auf Simon von Athen),” in Antike Fachtexte: Ancient Technical Texts, ed. T. Fögen . Berlin and New York: 235–52.

J. E. Alvey (2011) “The ethical foundation of economics in ancient Greece, focussing on Socrates and Xenophon,” International Journal of Social Economics 38: 714–33.

F. Ankersmit (2010) “Truth in history and literature,” Narrative 18: 2950.

R. Ash , J. Mossman , and F. B. Titchener (eds.) (2015) Fame and Infamy: Essays for Christopher Pelling on Characterization in Greek and Roman Biography and Historiography. Oxford.

E. J. Bakker (ed.) (2010) A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language. Malden, MA, Oxford, and Chichester.

R. K. Balot (2006) Greek Political Thought. Malden, MA and Oxford.

R. K. Balot (ed.) (2009) A Companion to Greek and Roman Political Thought. Malden, MA, Oxford, and Chichester.

E. Baragwanath (2012a) “A noble alliance: Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon’s Procles,” in Thucydides and Herodotus, eds. E. Foster and D. Lateiner . Oxford: 316–44.

E. Benner (2013) Machiavelli’s Prince: A New Reading. Oxford.

A. Ben-Tov (2009) Lutheran Humanists and Greek Antiquity: Melanchthonian Scholarship between Universal History and Pedagogy. Leiden.

J. Beversluis (1993) “Vlastos’s quest for the historical Socrates,” Ancient Philosophy 13: 293312.

R. Black (2001) Humanism and Education in Medieval and Renaissance Italy: Tradition and Innovation in Latin Schools from the Twelfth to the Fifteenth Century. Cambridge.

K. C. Blanchard , Jr. (1994) “The middle road of classical political philosophy: Socrates’ dialogues with Aristippus in Xenophon’s Memorabilia,” Review of Politics 56: 671–96.

A. Boeckh (1886) Die Staatshaushaltung der Athener. 3rd edn. 2 vols. Berlin.

A. B. Bosworth (1972) “Arrian’s literary development,” CQ 22: 163–85.

E. L. Bowie (2014a) “Becoming Wolf, staying sheep,” in Roman Rule in Greek and Latin Writing, eds. R. Rees and J. M. Madsen . Leiden: 3978.

D. W. Bradeen (1974) The Athenian Agora XVII. Inscriptions: The Funerary Monuments. Princeton.

P. Bradley (2011) “Xenophon’s Anabasis: reading the end with Zeus the Merciful,” Arethusa 44.3: 279310.

A. B. Breebaart (1983) “From victory to peace: some aspects of Cyrus’ state in Xenophon’s Cyropaedia,” Mnemosyne 36: 117–34.

P. Brulé (2003) Women of Ancient Greece. Tr. A. Nevill. Edinburgh.

P. A. Brunt (1980) “On historical fragments and epitomes,” CQ 30: 477–94.

J. Buckler (2003) Aegean Greece in the Fourth Century BC. Leiden.

J. Buckler and H. Beck (2008) Central Greece and the Politics of Power in the Fourth Century BC. Cambridge.

D. Cast (1974) “Aurispa, Petrarch and Lucian: an aspect of Renaissance translation,” Renaissance Quarterly 27: 157–73.

G. Cawkwell (1963) “Eubulus,” JHS 83: 4767.

G. Cawkwell (1997) “The Peace between Athens and Persia,” Phoenix 51: 115–30.

M. R. Christ (2012) The Limits of Altruism in Democratic Athens. Cambridge.

P. Christesen (2006) “Xenophon’s Cyropaedia and military reform in Sparta,” JHS 126: 4765.

P. Christesen (2013) “Sport and society in Sparta,” in A Companion to Sport and Spectacle in Greek and Roman Antiquity, eds. P. Christesen and D. Kyle . Malden, MA, Oxford, and Chichester: 146–58.

A.-H. Chroust (1945) “Socrates: a source problem,” The New Scholasticism 19: 4872.

A. Dalby (1992) “Greeks abroad: social organisation and food among the Ten Thousand,” JHS 112: 1630.

G. Danzig (2014b) “The use and abuse of Critias: conflicting portraits in Plato and Xenophon,” CQ 64: 507–24.

J. K. Davies (2007) “Classical Greece: production,” in The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, eds. W. Scheidel , I. Morris , and R. P. Saller . Cambridge: 333–61.

K. De Temmerman (2014) Crafting Characters: Heroes and Heroines in the Ancient Greek Novel. Oxford.

J. Dillery (1995) Xenophon and the History of His Times. London and New York.

J. Dillery (2015) Clio’s Other Sons: Berossus and Manetho. With an Afterword on Demetrius. Ann Arbor.

S. Dow (1965) “The greater demarkhia of Erchia,” BCH 89.1: 180213.

G. R. F. Ferrari (ed.) (2007) The Cambridge Companion to Plato’s Republic. Cambridge.

S. Ferrario (2014) Historical Agency and the ‘Great Man’ in Classical Greece. Cambridge.

L. K. Field (2012) “Xenophon’s Cyropaedia: educating our political hopes,” Journal of Politics 74.3: 723–38.

M. A. Flower (2012) Xenophon’s Anabasis ; or, The Expedition of Cyrus. New York.

A. Ford (2011) Aristotle as Poet: The Song of Hermias and Its Contexts. Oxford and New York.

S. Goldhill (1995) Foucault’s Virginity: Ancient Erotic Fiction and the History of Sexuality. Cambridge.

J. C. B. Gosling and C. C. W. Taylor (1982) The Greeks on Pleasure. Oxford.

V. J. Gray (1981) “Dialogue in Xenophon’s Hellenica,” CQ 31: 321–34.

V. J. Gray (1986) “Xenophon’s Hiero and the meeting of the wise man and tyrant in Greek literature,” CQ 36: 115–23.

V. J. Gray (2000) “Xenophon and Isocrates,” in The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Political Thought, eds. C. Rowe and M. Schofield , with S. Harrison and M. Lane . Cambridge: 142–54.

V. J. Gray (2003) “Interventions and citations in Xenophon, Anabasis and Hellenica,” CQ 53: 111–53, reprinted in Gray (ed.) (2010a): 553–72.

V. J. Gray (2006) “The linguistic choices of Prodicus in Xenophon’s Choice of Heracles,” CQ 56: 426–35.

F. Green (2012) Montaigne and the Life of Freedom. Cambridge.

J. Grethlein (2012) “Xenophon’s Anabasis from character to narrator,” JHS 132: 2340.

J. Grethlein (2013) Experience and Teleology in Ancient Historiography: ‘Futures Past’ from Herodotus to Augustine. Cambridge.

A. Griffiths (2006) “Stories and storytelling in the Histories,” in The Cambridge Companion to Herodotus, eds. C. Dewald and J. Marincola . Cambridge: 130–44.

J. Grogan (2014) The Persian Empire in English Renaissance Writing, 1549–1622. Basingstoke.

474 T. Hågg (2012) The Art of Biography in Antiquity. Cambridge.

E. Hall (2007a) “Aeschylus’ Persians via the Ottoman Empire to Saddam Hussein,” in Cultural Responses to the Persian Wars, eds. E. Bridges , E. Hall , and P. J. Rhodes . Oxford: 167–79.

J. Hatzfeld (1946) “Note sur la date et l’objet du Hiéron de Xénophon,” REG 59/60: 5470.

F. Hobden (2005) “Reading Xenophon’s Symposium,” Ramus 34.2: 93111.

F. Hobden (2013) The Symposion in Ancient Greek Society and Thought. Cambridge.

L. Holzapfel (1882) “Über die Abfassungszeit der dem Xenophon zugeschriebenen Πόροι,” Philologus 41: 242–69.

S. Hornblower (1995) “The fourth century and Hellenistic reception of Thucydides,” JHS 115: 4768.

S. Hornblower (2006) “Herodotus’ influence in antiquity,” in The Cambridge Companion to Herodotus, eds. C. Dewald and J. Marincola . Cambridge: 306–18.

R. L. Hunter (2004) “Homer and Greek literature,” in The Cambridge Companion to Homer, ed. R. Fowler . Cambridge: 235–53.

B. Huss (1999a) Xenophons Symposion: Ein Kommentar. Stuttgart.

G. Hutchinson (2009) “Read the instructions: didactic poetry and didactic prose,” CQ 59: 196211.

L. Hutson (1994) The Usurer’s Daughter: Male Friendship and Fictions of Women in Sixteenth-Century England. London.

T. H. Irwin (1974) Review of L. Strauss, Xenophon’s Socrates, Philosophical Review 83: 409–13.

F. Jacoby (1950) “The authorship of the Hellenica of Oxyrhynchos,” CQ 44: 18, reprinted in Jacoby (1956) Abhandlungen zur greichischen Geschichtsschreibung. Leiden: 322–33.

D. M. Johnson (2003) “Xenophon’s Socrates on justice and the law,” Ancient Philosophy 23: 255–81.

C. P. Jones (1978) The Roman World of Dio Chrysostom. Cambridge, MA.

I. Kajanto (1994) “Poggio Bracciolini’s De infelicitate principum and its classical sources,” International Journal of the Classical Tradition 1.1: 2335.

J. Kindt (2012) Rethinking Greek Religion. Cambridge.

L. E. Klein (1994) Shaftesbury and the Culture of Politeness: Moral Discourse and Cultural Politics in Early Eighteenth-century England. Cambridge.

D. Konstan (1997) Friendship in the Classical World. Cambridge.

R. Kraut (ed.) (1992) The Cambridge Companion to Plato. Cambridge and New York.

J. Kraye (ed.) (1997) Cambridge Translations of Renaissance Philosophical Texts. Vol. II: Political Philosophy. Cambridge.

J. H. Kroll (1977) “An archive of the Athenian cavalry,” Hesperia 46: 83140.

478 L. Kronenberg (2009) Allegories of Farming from Greece and Rome: Philosophical Satire in Xenophon, Varro and Virgil. Cambridge.

J. E. Lendon (2006) “Xenophon and the alternative to realist foreign policy: Cyropaedia 3.1.14–31,” JHS 126: 8298.

M. Lipka (2002) Xenophon’s Spartan Constitution: Introduction, Text, Commentary. Berlin and New York.

A. A. Long (1988) “Socrates in Hellenistic philosophy,” CQ 38: 150–71, reprinted in Stoic Studies (1996). Cambridge: 133.

E. Mackil (2013) Creating a Common Polity: Religion, Economy, and Politics in the Making of the Greek Koinon. Berkeley and Los Angeles.

480 J. M. Marincola (1997) Authority and Tradition in Ancient Historiography. Cambridge.

M. M. Markle (1976) “Support of Athenian intellectuals for Philip: a study of Isocrates’ Philippus and Speusippus’ letter to Philip,” JHS 96: 8099.

J. Matuozzi (2013) “Schoolhouse follies: Tristram Shandy and the male reader’s tutelage,” ELH 80.2: 489518.

B. J. Maxson (2009) “Kings and tyrants: Leonardo Bruni’s translation of Xenophon’s Hiero,” Renaissance Studies 24.2: 188206.

M. McCoy (2007) Plato on the Rhetoric of Philosophers and Sophists. Cambridge.

B. Meissner (1992) Historiker zwischen Polis und Königshof:Studien zur Stellung der Geschichtsschreiber in der griechischen Gesellschaft in spätklassischer und frühhellenistischer Zeit. Hypomnemata 99. Göttingen.

C. Methuen (1994) “Securing the Reformation through education: the Duke’s scholarship system of sixteenth-century Württemberg,” The Sixteenth Century Journal 25.4: 841–51.

J. L. Moles (1985) “The interpretation of the ‘second preface’ in Arrian’s Anabasis,” JHS 105: 162–8.

J. L. Moles (1993) “Truth and untruth in Herodotus and Thucydides,” in Lies and Fiction in the Ancient World, eds. C. Gill and T. P. Wiseman . Austin, TX: 88121.

J. L. Moles (1994) “Xenophon and Callicratidas,” JHS 114: 7084.

A. Möller (2007) “Classical Greece: distribution,” in The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, eds. W. Scheidel , I. Morris , and R. P. Saller . Cambridge: 362–84.

A. Momigliano (1975) Alien Wisdom: The Limits of Hellenisation. Cambridge.

J. R. Morgan (1989) “The story of Knemon in Heliodorus’ Aithiopika,” JHS 109: 99113.

T. Morgan (1999) “Literate education in Classical Athens,” CQ 49: 4661.

C. Mueller-Goldingen (1995) Untersuchungen zu Xenophons Kyrupaedie. Stuttgart and Leipzig.

B. Näf (1997) “Vom Frieden reden – den Krieg meinen? Aspekte der griechischen Friedensvorstellungen unter der Politik des Atheners Euboulos,” Klio 79: 317–40.

W. R. Newell (1988) “Machiavelli and Xenophon on princely rule: a double-edged encounter,” The Journal of Politics 50: 108–30.

A. W. Nightingale (1995) Genres in Dialogue: Plato and the Construct of Philosophy. Cambridge.

T. L. Pangle (1985) “The political defense of Socratic philosophy: a study of Xenophon’s ‘Apology of Socrates to the Jury’,” Polity 18: 98114.

R. Parker (1989) “Spartan religion,” in Classical Sparta: Techniques Behind Her Success, ed. A. Powell . London: 142–72.

D. Pausch (ed.) (2010) Stimmen der Geschichte: Funktionen von Reden in der Antiken Historiographie. Berlin and New York.

C. B. R. Pelling (2006) “Speech and narrative in the Histories,” in The Cambridge Companion to Herodotus, eds. C. Dewald and J. Marincola . Cambridge: 103–21.

C. B. R. Pelling (2013) “Xenophon’s and Caesar’s third-person narratives – or are they?” in The Author’s Voice in Classical and Late Antiquity, eds. A. Marmodoro and J. Hill . Oxford: 3973.

A. Powell and S. Hodkinson (eds.) (1994) The Shadow of Sparta. London and New York.

485 N. Powers (2009) “The natural theology of Xenophon’s Socrates,” Ancient Philosophy 29: 249–66.

A. C. Purves (2010) Space and Time in Ancient Greek Narrative. Cambridge and New York.

K. A. Raaflaub (1983) “Democracy, oligarchy, and the concept of the ‘free citizen’ in late fifth-century Athens,” Political Theory 11: 517–44.

J. Ready (2011) Character, Narrator and Simile in the Iliad. Cambridge and New York.

N. Rhodes (2013) “Marlowe and the Greeks,” Renaissance Studies 27: 199218.

N. Robertson (1990) “The laws of Athens, 410–399 BC: the evidence for review and publication,” JHS 110: 4375.

H. Roche (2016) “Xenophon and the Nazis: a case study in the politicization of Greek thought through educational propaganda,” Classical Receptions Journal 8: 7981.

T. C. B. Rood (2007) “Xenophon,” in Time in Ancient Greek Narrative. Studies in Ancient Greek Narrative 2. Mnemosyne Supplement 291, eds. I. J. F. de Jong and R. Nünlist . Leiden: 147–63.

T. C. B. Rood (2010b) “Xenophon’s parasangs,” JHS 130: 5166.

T. C. B. Rood (2011) “Black Sea variations: Arrian’s Periplus,” Cambridge Classical Journal 57: 137–63.

T. C. B. Rood (2012a) “The plupast in Xenophon’s Hellenica,” in Time and Narrative in Ancient Historiography: The ‘Plupast’ from Herodotus to Appian, eds. J. Grethlein and C. Krebs . Cambridge: 7694.

T. C. B. Rood (2012b) “Xenophon,” in Space in Ancient Greek Narrative. Studies in Ancient Greek Narrative 3. Mnemosyne Supplement 339, ed. I. J. F. de Jong . Leiden: 161–78.

T. C. B. Rood (2013b) “Redeeming Xenophon: historiographical reception and the transhistorical,” Classical Receptions Journal 5: 199211.

487 T. C. B. Rood (2014) “Space and landscape in Xenophon’s Anabasis,” in Space, Place, and Landscape in Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, eds. K. Gilhuly and N. Worman . Cambridge: 6393.

E. Rummel (1985) Erasmus as a Translator of the Classics. Toronto.

C. Scardino (2007) Gestaltung und Funktion der Reden bei Herodot und Thukydides. Berlin and New York.

C. Scardino (2012) “Indirect discourse in Herodotus and Thucydides,” in Thucydides and Herodotus, eds. E. Foster and D. Lateiner . Oxford: 6796.

G. Schepens (2005) “A la recherche d’Agésilas le roi de Sparte dans le jugement des historiens du IVe siècle av. J.-C,” REG 118: 3178.

D. Scott (1987) “Platonic anamnesis revisited,” CQ 37: 346–66.

R. Seager (2001) “Xenophon and Athenian democratic ideology,” CQ 51: 385–97.

D. Sedley (2005) “Les origines des preuves stoïciens de l’existence de Dieu,” Revue de métaphysique et de morale 48: 461–87.

Q. Skinner (1988) “Political philosophy,” in The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy, eds. C. B. Schmitt and Q Skinner . Cambridge: 387452.

C. Sourvinou-Inwood (1989) “Assumptions and the creation of meaning: reading Sophocles’ Antigone,” JHS 109: 134–48.

O. Stoll (2012) “For the glory of Athens: Xenophon’s Hipparchikos <Logos>, a technical treatise and instruction manual on ideal leadership,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 43: 250–7.

H. Thesleff (1978) “The interrelation and date of the Symposia of Plato and Xenophon,” Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 25: 157–70.

C. Thumiger (2013) “Vision and knowledge in Greek tragedy,” Helios 40: 223–45.

S. Tilg (2010) Chariton of Aphrodisias and the Invention of the Greek Love Novel. Oxford.

Y. L. Too (1998) “Xenophon’s Cyropaedia: disfiguring the pedagogical state,” in Pedagogy and Power: Rhetorics of Classical Learning, eds. Y. L. Too and N. Livingstone . Cambridge: 282302.

A. Tucker (2004) Our Knowledge of the Past: A Philosophy of Historiography. Cambridge.

T. van Berkel (2010) “Pricing the invaluable: Socrates and the value of friendship,” in Valuing Others in Classical Antiquity, eds. R. R. Rosen and I. Sluiter . Leiden: 249–77.

P. A. Vander Waerdt (ed.) (1994a) The Socratic Movement. Ithaca, NY.

E. Vanderpool (1965) “The location of the Attic deme Erchia,” BCH 89.1: 21–6.

K. Vlassopoulos (2013a) Greeks and Barbarians. Cambridge.

K. von Fritz (1949) “The so-called historical present in early Greek,” Word 5: 186201.

S. Von Reden (2007) “Classical Greece: consumption,” in The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, eds. W. Scheidel , I. Morris , and R. P. Saller . Cambridge: 385406.

F. W. Walbank (2002) Polybius, Rome and the Hellenistic World: Essays and Reflections. Cambridge.

R. Wellman (1976) “Socratic method in Xenophon,” JHI 37: 307–18.

C. Whidden (2007) “The account of Persia and Cyrus’s Persian education in Xenophon’s ‘Cyropaedia’,” The Review of Politics 69.4: 539–67.

H. White (1980) “The value of narrativity in the representation of reality,” Critical Inquiry 7.1 (On Narrative): 527.

T. G. W. Whitmarsh (ed.) (2008) The Cambridge Companion to the Greek and Roman Novel. Cambridge.

D. S. Wilson-Okamura (2010) Virgil in the Renaissance. Cambridge.

P. Wilson (2004) “Homer and English epic,” in The Cambridge Companion to Homer, ed. R. Fowler . Cambridge: 272–86.

G. J. Wylie (1992) “Agesilaus and the Battle of Sardis,” Klio: 74: 118–30.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 474
Total number of PDF views: 44 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 5019 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd April 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.