Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: August 2014

5 - Maximizing the Benefit from International Cooperation in Energy Innovation


A World of Competition and Cooperation

Energy technology innovation is not a U.S. phenomenon; it is a global phenomenon. All over the world, research institutions, companies, and governments alike are intensifying their investments in energy research, development, demonstration, and deployment (ERD3).

In 1999, a report by the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) called for more than doubling U.S. federal spending on international ERD3 cooperation and for establishing new institutions to develop a strategy and to oversee the effort (PCAST, 1999). It recommended a wide range of international ERD3 cooperation activities over a large number of different energy technologies.

The international energy landscape has been transformed since then, in particular by the rise of emerging economies such as China and India both as energy markets and as energy innovators. Overall, these changes have only made the case for such cooperation stronger. Indeed, the process of innovation has globalized, with ideas, resources, and manufacturing coming from different countries throughout the value chain (Gallagher, Gruebler, Kuhl, Nemet, & Wilson, 2012); there are now few high-tech products that do not include contributions from multiple countries. Countries and firms that attempt to go it alone in developing new energy technologies and bringing them to market are likely to be left behind by those who are sharing in the global flow of ideas and resources.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Transforming US Energy Innovation
  • Online ISBN: 9781107338890
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
L.D. Anadon (2012). “Missions-oriented RD&D institutions in energy: A comparative analysis of China, the United Kingdom, and the United States.” Research Policy, 41(10):1742–56.

D. Archibugi , & S. Iammarino (1999). “The policy implications of the globalisation of innovation.” Research Policy, 28(2–3):317–36.

D. Archibugi , & S. Iammarino (2002). “The globalization of technological innovation: Definition and evidence.” Review of International Political Economy, 9(1):98–122.

P.W. Beamish , & J.P. Killing (1996). “Introduction to the special issue.” Journal of International Business Studies, 27(5):iv–xxxi.

R. Belderbos , F. Kyoki , & T. Iwasa (2009). “Foreign and domestic R&D investment.” Economics of Innovation & New Technology, 18(4):369–80.

F. Biermann , P. Pattberg , H. van Asselt , & F. Zelli (2009). “The fragmentation of global governance architectures: A framework for analysis.” Global Environmental Politics, 9(4):14–40.

D.W. Cash , W.C. Clark , F. Alcock , N.M. Dickson , N. Eckley , D.H. Guston , J. Jäger , & R.B. Mitchell (2003). “Knowledge systems for sustainable development.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(14):8086–91.

A.P. Chikkatur , A.D. Sagar , & T.L. Sankar (2009). “Sustainable development of the Indian coal sector.” Energy, 34(8):942–53.

T.K. Das , & B.S. Teng (1998). “Between trust and control: Developing confidence in partner cooperation in alliances.” The Academy of Management Review, 23(3):491–512.

K.S. Gallagher , A. Gruebler , L. Kuhl , G. Nemet , & C. Wilson (2012). “The energy technology innovation system.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 37:137–62.

K.S. Gallagher , J.P. Holdren , & A.D. Sagar (2006). “Energy-technology innovation.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 31(1):193–237.

E.B. Haas (1975). “Is there a hole in the whole? Knowledge, technology, interdependence and the construction of international regimes.” International Organization, 29(3):827.

J. Hagedoorn (2006). “Understanding the cross-level embeddedness of interfirm partnership formation.” Academy of Management Review, 31(3):670–80.

M.P. Hekkert , R.A.A. Suurs , S.O. Negro , S. Kuhlmann , & R.E.H.M. Smits (2007). “Functions of innovation systems: A new approach for analysing technological change.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 74(4):413–32.

K. Iida (1993). “Analytic uncertainty and international cooperation: Theory and application to international economic policy coordination.” International Studies Quarterly, 37(4): 431–57.

A. Johnson , & S. Jacobsson (2001). “Inducement and blocking mechanisms in the development of a new industry: The case of renewable energy technology in Sweden.” In Technology and the Market: Demand, Users and Innovation, edited by R. Coombs , pp. 89–111. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

N. Markusson , A. Issii , & J.C. Stephens (2011). “The social and political complexities of learning in CCS demonstration projects.” Global Environmental Change, 21:293–302.

D.G. Ockwell , R. Haum , A. Mallett , & J. Watson (2010). “Intellectual property rights and low carbon technology transfer: Conflicting discourses of diffusion and development.” Global Environmental Change, 20(4):729–38.

A. Parkhe (1993). “Strategic alliance structuring: A game theoretic and transaction cost examination of interfirm cooperation.” The Academy of Management Journal, 36(4):794–829.

P. Patel , & M. Vega (1999). “Patterns of internationalisation of corporate technology: Location vs. home country advantages.” Research Policy, 28(2–3):145–55.

R.D. Putnam (1988). “Diplomacy and domestic politics: The logic of two-level games.” International Organization, 42(3):427–60.

R.C. Ronstadt (1978). “International R&D: The establishment and evolution of research and development abroad by seven U. S. multinationals.” Journal of International Business Studies, 9(1):7–24.

J.G. Ruggie (1975). “International responses to technology: Concepts and trends.” International Organization, 29(3):557.

D. Sarewitz , & R.A. Pielke (2007). “The neglected heart of science policy: Reconciling supply and demand for science.” Environmental Science & Policy, 10(1):5–16.

R. Smits , & S. Kuhlmann (2004). “The rise of systemic instruments in innovation policy.” International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy, 1(1/2):4–32.

A. Van de Ven , & W. Gordon (1984). “The dynamics of interorganizational coordination.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 29(4):598–621.

M. von Zedtwitz , & O. Gassmann (2002). “Market versus technology drive in R&D internationalization: Four different patterns of managing research and development.” Research Policy, 31(4):569–88.

Q. Zhi , S. Jun , P. Ru , & L.D. Anadon (2013). “The evolution of China's national energy RD&D programs: The role of scientists in science and technology decision-making.” Energy Policy, 61:1568–85.