Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: May 2011

26 - Water dynamics of epiphytic vegetation in a lower montane cloud forest: fog interception, storage, and evaporation

from Part III - Hydrometeorology of tropical montane cloud forest

Summary

ABSTRACT

Epiphytic vascular plants and bryophytes constitute an important component of cloud forest canopies. Because of their different characteristics compared with leaves and other tree structural elements, epiphytes can be expected to behave differently in terms of their ability to intercept and store rain and cloud water, whereas losses through evaporation and drip may also occur at different rates. The water dynamics of epiphytes were studied in a windward lower montane cloud forest in northern Costa Rica. The exposed site experienced frequent horizontal precipitation (fog and wind-driven rain) as well as strong winds. In situ epiphyte wetting experiments were conducted at different levels within the 20-m canopy during a series of fog events using pre-weighed branches with known epiphyte biomass, while making simultaneous measurements of fog density and drop-size spectrum on a tower extending above the canopy. Rates of water loss via evaporation from pre-wetted epiphyte-laden branches suspended at different heights within the canopy were determined on dry days. Storage capacities were determined by gravimetric means, both in the field and under controlled conditions. Total epiphyte biomass of the forest was estimated through systematic sampling of three emergent trees and five sub-canopy trees in combination with a diameter survey of four plots of 1000 m2 each. Fog interception rates by epiphyte-laden branches differed with position in the canopy, with an average rate of 54.7 ml hour−1 kg−1 of oven-dry biomass. Absorption rates were correlated with fog liquid water content and initial moisture content of the sample. […]

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Tropical Montane Cloud Forests
  • Online ISBN: 9780511778384
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511778384
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
References
Bohlman, S. A., Matelson, T. J., and Nadkarni, N. M. (1995). Moisture and temperature patterns of canopy humus and forest floor soil of a montane cloud forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 27: 13–19.
Bruijnzeel, L. A. (2001). Hydrology of tropical montane cloud forests: a reassessment. Land Use and Water Resources Research 1: 1.1–1.18.
Bruijnzeel, L. A. (compiler) (2006). Hydrological Impacts of Converting Tropical Montane Cloud Forest to Pasture, with Initial Reference to Northern Costa Rica, Final Technical Report DFID-FRP Project no. R7991. Amsterdam: VU University Amsterdam, and Aylesford, UK: Forestry Research Progamme of the UK, Department for International Development. Also available at www.geo.vu.nl/~fiesta.
Burgess, S. S. O, and Dawson, T. E. (2004). The contribution of fog to water relations of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don): foliar uptake and prevention of dehydration. Plant, Cell and Environment 27: 1023–1034.
Burkard, R., Bützberger, P., and Eugster, W. (2003). Vertical fogwater flux measurement above an elevated forest canopy at the Lägeren research site, Switzerland. Atmospheric Environment 37: 2979–2990.
Chang, S. -C., Lai, I. L., and Wu, J. (2002). Estimation of fog on epiphytic bryophytes in a subtropical montane forest ecosystem in north-eastern Taiwan. Atmospheric Research 64: 159–167.
Clark, K. L., Nadkarni, N. M., Schaefer, D., and Gholz, H. L. (1998). Atmospheric deposition and net retention of ions by the canopy in a tropical montane forest, Monteverde, Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 14: 27–45.
Frahm, J. -P., and Gradstein, S. R. (1991). An altitudinal zonation of the tropical rain forest using bryophytes. Journal of Biogeography 18: 669–678.
Hemp, A. (2002). Ecology of the pteridophytes on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. I. Altitudinal distribution. Plant Ecology 159: 211–239.
Hölscher, D., Köhler, L., Dijk, A. I. J. M., and Bruijnzeel, L. A. (2004). The importance of epiphytes in rainfall interception by a tropical montane rainforest in Costa Rica. Journal of Hydrology 292: 308–322.
Kershaw, K. A. (1985). Physiological Ecology of Lichens. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Köhler, L., Tobón, C., Frumau, K. F. A., and Bruijnzeel, L. A. (2007). Biomass and water storage of epiphytes in old-growth and secondary montane rain forest stands in Costa Rica. Plant Ecology 193: 171–184.
Lawton, R., and Dryer, V. (1980). The vegetation of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve. Brenesia 18: 101–116.
Lovett, G. M. (1984). Rates and mechanisms of cloud water deposition to a subalpine balsam fir forest. Atmospheric Environment 18: 361–371.
Murakami, S. (2006). A proposal for a new forest canopy interception mechanism: splash droplet evaporation. Journal of Hydrology 319: 72–82.
Nadkarni, N. M., Schaefer, D., Matelson, T. J., and Solano, R. (2004). Biomass and nutrient pools of canopy and terrestrial components in a primary and a secondary montane cloud forest, Costa Rica. Forest Ecology and Management 198: 223–236.
Pócs, T. (1980). The epiphytic biomass and its effect on the water balance of two rain forest types in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa). Acta Botanica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 26: 143–167.
Pypker, T. G., Bond, B. J., and Unsworth, M. H. (2002). The Role of Epiphytes in the Interception and Evaporation of Rainfall in Old-Growth Douglas-Fir Forests in the Pacific Northwest. Corvalis, OR: Oregon State University.
Rhodes, A. L., Guswa, A. J., and Newell, S. E. (2006). Seasonal variation in the stable isotopic composition of precipitation in the tropical montane forests of Monteverde, Costa Rica. Water Resources Research 42, W11402, doi:10.1029/2005WR004535.
Richardson, B. A., Richardson, M. J., Scatena, F. N., and McDowell, W. H. (2000). Effects of nutrient availability and other elevational changes on bromeliad populations and their invertebrate communities in a humid tropical forest in Puerto Rico. Journal of Tropical Ecology 16: 167–188.
Shaw, A. J., and Goffinet, B. (2000). Bryophyte Biology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Leerdam, A., and Zagt, R. J. (1989). The epiphyte vegetation of an Andean forest in Colombia: aspects of its hydrology and distribution in the canopy. M.Sc. thesis, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Veneklaas, E. J., Zagt, R. J., Leerdam, A., et al. (1990). Hydrological properties of epiphyte mass of a montane tropical rain forest, Colombia. Vegetatio 89: 183–192.
Wolf, J. (1993). Diversity patterns and biomass of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens along an altitudinal gradient in the northern Andes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 80: 928–960.
Zadroga, F. (1981). The hydrological importance of a montane cloud forest area of Costa Rica. In Tropical Agricultural Hydrology, eds. Lal, R. and Russell, E. W., pp. 59–73. New York: John Wiley.