Skip to main content
×
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 4
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bäärnhielm, Sofie Åberg Wistedt, Anna and Rosso, Marco Scarpinati 2015. Revising psychiatric diagnostic categorisation of immigrant patients after using the Cultural Formulation in DSM-IV. Transcultural Psychiatry, Vol. 52, Issue. 3, p. 287.

    Cavera, Robert S. Jacobs, Leah and Motta, Robert W. 2013. Experimental Exposure Therapy for Posttraumatic Nightmares. Clinical Case Studies, Vol. 12, Issue. 3, p. 213.

    Dunleavy, Kim and Kubo Slowik, Amy 2012. Emergence of Delayed Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Related to Sexual Trauma: Patient-Centered and Trauma-Cognizant Management by Physical Therapists. Physical Therapy, Vol. 92, Issue. 2, p. 339.

    Boals, Adriel and Rubin, David C. 2011. The integration of emotions in memories: Cognitive-emotional distinctiveness and posttraumatic stress disorder. Applied Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 25, Issue. 5, p. 811.

    ×
  • Print publication year: 2007
  • Online publication date: July 2009

8 - Cognitive Behavioral Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Summary

INTRODUCTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

The impact of traumatic events and the behavioral sequelae associated with them has been recognized for over 100 years under a variety of different labels, including compensation neurosis, nervous shock, hysteria, and war neurosis. The introduction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) into the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–III in 1980 (APA, 1980) and its placement among the anxiety disorders reflects the perception that anxiety is a core component of an individual's reaction to a traumatic experience. Accordingly, PTSD is an anxiety disorder that develops in some individuals after a traumatic event defined by the DSM–IV (APA, 1994) as (1) experiencing, witnessing, or being confronted with an event that involves actual or threatened death or injury, or a threat to their physical integrity or that of others, and (2) responding to the event with intense fear, helplessness, or horror.

In addition to experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event, a diagnosis of PTSD requires the individual to meet the following three symptom criteria: (1) At least one reexperiencing symptom, such as distressing recollections of the trauma, distressing dreams of the event, reliving the experience through flashbacks, psychological distress at exposure to internal or external reminders of the event, or physiological reactivity to those trauma reminders. (2) At least three symptoms of persistent avoidance such as making an effort to avoid trauma-related thoughts or feelings, making an effort to avoid trauma-related activities or situations, amnesia for important aspects of the event, diminished interest in activities, detachment from others, restricted range of affect, or a sense of a foreshortened future.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Understanding Trauma
  • Online ISBN: 9780511500008
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511500008
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
References
Amaya-Jackson, L., Davidson, J. R., Hughes, D. C., Swartz, M., Reynolds, V., George, L. K., et al. (1999). Functional impairment and utilization of services associated with posttraumatic stress in the community. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 709–724.
American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Asnis, G. M., Kohn, S. R., Henderson, M., & Brown, N. L. (2004). SSRIs versus non-SSRIs in post-traumatic stress disorder: An update with recommendations. Drugs, 64, 383–404.
Becker, C. B., Zayfert, C., & Anderson, E. (2004). A survey of psychologists' attitudes towards and utilization of exposure therapy for PTSD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 277–292.
Berliner, L., & New, M. (1999). The impact of health care reform: A survey of victim and offender treatment providers. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 11, 5–16.
Blanchard, E. B., Hickling, E. J., Devineni, T., Veazey, C. H., Galovski, T. E., Mundy, E., et al. (2003). A controlled evaluation of cognitive behavioral therapy for post–traumatic stress in motor vehicle accident survivors. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 79–96.
Bruce, S. E., Weisberg, R. B., Dolan, R. T., Machan, J. T., Kessler, R. C., ManchesterG., G., et al. (2001). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care patients: Primary care companion. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 3, 211–217.
Cahill, S. P., & Foa, E. B. (2004). A glass half empty or half full? Where we are and directions for future research in the treatment of PTSD. In Taylor, S. (Ed.), Advances in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: Cognitive-behavioral perspectives (pp. 267–313). New York: Springer.
Cahill, S. P., Foa, E. B., Rothbaum, B. O., Davidson, J. R. T., Connor, K., & Compton, J. (2004). Augmentation of sertraline with cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: Effects on acute treatment outcome and maintenance of treatment gains. In Feeny, N. C. (Chair), Psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for PTSD: Recent advances. Symposium conducted at the annual conference of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America, Miami, FL.
Cahill, S. P., Riggs, D. S., Rauch, S. A. M., & Foa, E. B. (2003). Does prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD make people worse? Poster session presented at the annual convention of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Devilly, G. J., & Foa, E. B. (2001). The investigation of exposure and cognitive therapy: Comment on Tarrier et al. (1999). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 114–116.
Devilly, G. J., & Spence, S. H. (1999). The relative efficacy and treatment distress of EMDR and a cognitive-behavior trauma treatment protocol in the amelioration of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 131–157.
Ehlers, A., & Clark, D. M. (2000). A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 319–345.
Foa, E. B., & Cahill, S. P. (2006). Psychosocial treatments for PTSD: An overview. In Neria, Y., Gross, R., Marshall, R., & Susser, E. (Eds.), 9/11: Public health in the wake of terrorist attacks (pp. 457–474). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Foa, E. B., Dancu, C. V., Hembree, E. A., Jaycox, L. H., Meadows, E. A., & Street, G. P. (1999). A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 194–200.
Foa, E. B., Ehlers, A., Clark, D. M., Tolin, D. F., & Orsillo, S. M. (1999). The Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI): Development and validation. Psychological Assessment, 11, 303–314.
Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., Cahill, S. P., Rauch, S. A., Riggs, D. S., Feeny, N. C., & Yadin, E. (2005). Randomized trial of prolonged exposure for PTSD with and without cognitive restructuring: Outcome at academic and community clinics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 953–964.
Foa, E. B., & Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing of fear: Exposure to corrective information. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 20–35.
Foa, E. B., & Rauch, S. A. M. (2004). Cognitive changes during prolonged exposure versus prolonged exposure and cognitive restructuring in female assault. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 879–884.
Foa, E. B., & Riggs, D. S. (1993). Post-traumatic stress disorder in rape victims. In Oldham, J., Riba, M. B., & Tasman, A. (Eds.), American Psychiatric Press review of psychiatry (Vol. 12, pp. 273–303). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Foa, E. B., & Rothbaum, B. O. (1998). Treating the trauma of rape. New York: Guilford Press.
Foa, E. B., Rothbaum, B. O., & Furr, J. M. (2003). Augmenting exposure therapy with other cognitive behavioral therapy procedures. Psychiatric Annals, 33, 47–53.
Foa, E. B., Rothbaum, B. O., Riggs, D. S., & Murdock, T. B. (1991). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: A comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 715–723.
Foa, E. B., Steketee, G., & Rothbaum, B. (1989). Behavioral/cognitive conceptualizations of post-traumatic stress disorder. Behavior Therapy, 20, 155–176.
Foa, E. B., Zoellner, L. A., Feeny, N. C., Hembree, E. A., & Alvarez-Conrad, J. (2002). Does imaginal exposure exacerbate PTSD symptoms?Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1022–1028.
Freedy, J. R., Resnick, H. S., Kilpatrick, D. G., Dansky, B. S., & Tidwell, R. P. (1994). The psychological adjustment of recent crime victims in the criminal justice system. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 450–468.
Gillespie, K., Duffy, M., Hackmann, A., & Clark, D. M. (2002). Community based cognitive therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following the Omagh bomb. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 345–357.
Hembree, E. A., & Foa, E. B. (2003). Interventions for trauma-related emotional disturbances in adult victims of crime. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16, 189–201.
Hembree, E. A., Foa, E. B., Dorfan, N. M., Street, G. P., Kowalski, J., & Tu, X. (2003). Do patients drop out prematurely from exposure therapy for PTSD?Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16, 555–562.
Kessler, R. C. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder: The burden to the individual and to society. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61(Suppl. 5), 4–14.
Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–1060.
Kokai, M., Fuj, S. ii, Shinfuku, N., & Edwards, G. (2004). Natural disaster and mental health in Asia. Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 58, 110–116.
Lai, T. J., Chang, C. M., Connor, K. M., Lee, L. C., & Davidson, J. R. (2004). Full and partial PTSD among earthquake survivors in rural Taiwan. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 38, 313–322.
Marks, I., Lovell, K., Noshirvani, H., Livanou, M., & Thrasher, S. (1998). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by exposure and/or cognitive restructuring. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 317–325.
Marshall, R. D., & Suh, E. J. (2003). Contextualizing trauma: Using evidence-based treatments in a multicultural community after 9/11. Psychiatry Quarterly, 74, 401–420.
McCann, I. L., & Pearlman, L. A. (1990). Psychological trauma and the adult survivor: Theory, therapy, and transformation. New York: Bruner/Mazel.
Meichenbaum, D. (1974). Cognitive behavior modification. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
Nacasch, N., Cohen-Rapperot, G., Polliack, M., Knobler, H. Y., Zohar, J., Yadin, E., et al. (2003, April). Prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD: The dissemination and the preliminary results of the implementation of the treatment protocol in Israel. Abstract in the Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the Israel Psychiatric Association, Haifa, Israel.
Norris, F. H., Murphy, A. D., Baker, C. K., Perilla, J. L., Rodriguez, F. G., & Rodriguez, J. de J. (2003). Epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Mexico. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 646–656.
Ouimette, P., Cronkite, R., Henson, B. R., Gima, K., & Moos, R. H. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder and health status among female and male medical patients. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17, 1–9.
Paunovic, N., & Ost, L. G. (2001). Cognitive-behavior therapy vs. exposure therapy in the treatment of PTSD in refugees. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 1183–1197.
Resick, P. A., Nishith, P., Weaver, T. L., Astin, M. C., & Feuer, C. A. (2002). A comparison of cognitive-processing therapy with prolonged exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 867–879.
Resick, P. A., & Schnicke, M. K. (1992). Cognitive processing therapy for sexual assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 748–756.
Resick, P. A. & Schnicke, M. K. (1993). Cognitive processing therapy for rape victims: A treatment manual. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Resnick, H. S., Kilpatrick, D. G., Dansky, B. S., Saunders, B. E., & Best, C. L. (1993). Prevalence of civilian trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in a representative national sample of women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 984–991.
Rothbaum, B. O., Meadows, E. A., Resick, P., & Foy, D. W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral therapy. In Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., & Friedman, M. J. (Eds.), Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress (pp. 320–324). New York: Guilford Press.
Shapiro, F. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols, and procedures. New York: Guilford Press.
Tarrier, N., Pilgrim, H., Sommerfield, C., Faragher, B., Reynolds, M., Graham, E., et al.(1999). A randomized trial of cognitive therapy and imaginal exposure in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 13–18.
Bocanegra, Thiel H., & Brickman, E. (2004). Mental health impact of the World Trade Center attacks on displaced Chinese workers. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17, 55–62.
Taylor, S., Thordarson, D. S., Maxfield, L., Federoff, I. C., Lovell, K., & Ogrodniczuk, J. (2003). Efficacy, speed, and adverse effects of three PTSD treatments: Exposure therapy, relaxation training, and EMDR. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 330–338.
Zatzick, D. F., Marmar, C. R., Weiss, D. S., Browner, W. S., Metzler, T. J., Golding, J. M., et al. (1997). Posttraumatic stress disorder and functioning and quality of life outcomes in a nationally representative sample of male Vietnam veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1690–1695.
Zatzick, D. F., Weiss, D. S., Marmar, C. R., Metzler, T. J., Wells, K., Golding, J. M., et al. (1997). Post-traumatic stress disorder and functioning and quality of life outcomes in female Vietnam veterans. Military Medicine, 162, 661–665.
Zoellner, L. A., Feeny, N. C., Cochran, B., & Pruitt, L. (2003). Treatment choice for PTSD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 879–886.