Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 29
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Reyes, Amanda Neumann de Lima Bach, Suelen do Amaral, Paulinia Leal Jansen, Karen Molina, Mariane Ricardo Acosta Lopez Spessato, Bárbara Coiro and da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo 2019. Emotional and behavioral problems in children of depressed mothers: a school-based study in Southern Brazil. Psychology, Health & Medicine, Vol. 24, Issue. 1, p. 14.

    Salehi-pourmehr, Hanieh Niroomand, Soudabeh Shakouri, Seyed Kazem Asgarlou, Zoleikha and Farshbaf-Khalili, Azizeh 2018. Association Between Antenatal and Postpartum Depression and Anxiety with Weight Retention 1 Year After Childbirth: A Longitudinal Study. Community Mental Health Journal, Vol. 54, Issue. 8, p. 1284.

    Wang, Yiji 2018. Intergenerational Transmission of Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Parental Negative Perceptions and Behaviors. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, Vol. 49, Issue. 1, p. 123.

    Goodday, Sarah Levy, Adrian Flowerdew, Gordon Horrocks, Julie Grof, Paul Ellenbogen, Mark and Duffy, Anne 2018. Early exposure to parental bipolar disorder and risk of mood disorder: the F lourish  Canadian prospective offspring cohort study. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, Vol. 12, Issue. 2, p. 160.

    Lin, Xiuyun Zhang, Yulin Chi, Peilian Ding, Wan Heath, Melissa A. Fang, Xiaoyi and Xu, Shousen 2017. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 8, Issue. ,

    Rasing, Sanne P. A. Creemers, Daan H. M. Janssens, Jan M. A. M. and Scholte, Ron H. J. 2015. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 6, Issue. ,

    Polo-López, Rocío Echeburúa, Enrique Berry, Katherine and Salaberría, Karmele 2014. Piloting a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Family Members Living With Individuals With Severe Mental Disorders. Behavior Modification, Vol. 38, Issue. 5, p. 619.

    Parent, Justin Forehand, Rex Dunbar, Jennifer P. Watson, Kelly H. Reising, Michelle M. Seehuus, Martin and Compas, Bruce E. 2014. Parent and Adolescent Reports of Parenting When a Parent Has a History of Depression: Associations with Observations of Parenting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 42, Issue. 2, p. 173.

    El Marroun, Hanan White, Tonya Verhulst, Frank C. and Tiemeier, Henning 2014. Maternal use of antidepressant or anxiolytic medication during pregnancy and childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes: a systematic review. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 23, Issue. 10, p. 973.

    Pascoe, John M. Specht, Sandy McNicholas, Caroline Kasten, Eileen Spears, William and Looman, Wendy 2013. Correlates of Mothers’ Perception of Their Communities’ Social Capital: A Community-Based Study. Maternal and Child Health Journal, Vol. 17, Issue. 8, p. 1382.

    Green, Sara Nurius, Paula S. and Lester, Patricia 2013. Spouse Psychological Well-Being: A Keystone to Military Family Health. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, Vol. 23, Issue. 6, p. 753.

    McCrory, Cathal and McNally, Sinead 2013. The Effect of Pregnancy Intention on Maternal Prenatal Behaviours and Parent and Child Health: Results of an Irish Cohort Study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, Vol. 27, Issue. 2, p. 208.

    Pugh, Kelly L. and Farrell, Albert D. 2012. The Impact of Maternal Depressive Symptoms on Adolescents’ Aggression: Role of Parenting and Family Mediators. Journal of Child and Family Studies, Vol. 21, Issue. 4, p. 589.

    Wetter, Emily K. and El-Sheikh, Mona 2012. Trajectories of children’s internalizing symptoms: the role of maternal internalizing symptoms, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and child sex. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 53, Issue. 2, p. 168.

    Jordan, Lucy P. and Graham, Elspeth 2012. Resilience and Well-Being Among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia. Child Development, Vol. 83, Issue. 5, p. 1672.

    McDonald, Sheila Wall, Jennifer Forbes, Kaitlin Kingston, Dawn Kehler, Heather Vekved, Monica and Tough, Suzanne 2012. Development of a Prenatal Psychosocial Screening Tool for Post-Partum Depression and Anxiety. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, Vol. 26, Issue. 4, p. 316.

    Gravener, Julie A. Rogosch, Fred A. Oshri, Assaf Narayan, Angela J. Cicchetti, Dante and Toth, Sheree L. 2012. The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 40, Issue. 5, p. 803.

    Graham, Elspeth and Jordan, Lucy P. 2011. Migrant Parents and the Psychological Well-Being of Left-Behind Children in Southeast Asia. Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 73, Issue. 4, p. 763.

    Kötter, Charlotte Stemmler, Mark Lösel, Friedrich Bühler, Anneke and Jaursch, Stefanie 2011. Mittelfristige Effekte des Präventionsprogramms EFFEKT-E für emotional belastete Mütter und ihre Kinder unter besonderer Berücksichtigung psychosozialer Risikofaktoren. Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie, Vol. 19, Issue. 3, p. 122.

    Ertel, Karen A. Rich-Edwards, Janet W. and Koenen, Karestan C. 2011. Maternal Depression in the United States: Nationally Representative Rates and Risks. Journal of Women's Health, Vol. 20, Issue. 11, p. 1609.

    ×
  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: June 2012

11 - Depression in Women Who Are Mothers

Summary

Driven both by knowledge of higher rates of depression in women than men and by assumptions about incompatibilities between depression and good quality parenting, research on children with depressed mothers has soared over the past few decades. In an attempt to account for the many factors involved in the transmission of risk for psychopathology from depressed mothers to their offspring, goodman and Gotlib (1999) developed an integrative and developmentally sensitive model for understanding mechanisms whereby children of depressed parents might be at risk for the development of psychopathology. The model is consistent with the premise for this book in that it takes a bio-psycho-social perspective on mechanisms and, therefore, we use it as the framework for this chapter. We move beyond previous reviews by examining the current empirical status of each of the proposed mechanisms within this framework. Further, given this book's focus on women and depression, we explore the extent to which daughters may be more affected by their mothers' depression than sons, that is, gender specificity in the intergenerational transmission of depression. Finally, we draw implications from the current status of the model overall and of gender specificity, in particular, for further research as well as potential steps for prevention, treatment, and social policy.

This chapter begins by briefly describing the reasons for concern about children with depressed mothers, including the nature and extent of associations between depression in mothers and adverse outcomes in children, across the full age range from infancy to adolescence.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Women and Depression
  • Online ISBN: 9780511841262
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841262
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
References
Allgood-Merten, B., Lewinsohn, P., & Hops, H. (1990). Sex differences and adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 55–63
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association
Anderson, C. A., & Hammen, C. L. (1993). Psychosocial outcomes of children of unipolar depressed, bipolar, medically ill, and normal women: A longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 61, 448–454
Angold, A. (1988). Childhood and adolescent depression: II. Research in clinical populations. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 476–492
Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Pubertal changes and depression in girls. Psychological Medicine, 29, 1043–1053
Angold, A., & Rutter, M. (1992). The effects of age and pubertal status on depression in a large clinical sample. Development & Psychopathology, 4, 5–28
Angst, J. C. (1988). Clinical course of affective disorders. In Daly, R. J. (Ed.), Depression illness: Prediction of course and outcome (pp. 1–47). Berlin: Springer-Verlag
Ashman, S. B., & Dawson, G. (2002). Maternal depression, infant psychobiological development, and risk for depression. In Goodman, S. H. & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 37–58). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Books
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182
Beach, S. R. H., Fincham, F. D., & Katz, J. (1998). Marital therapy in the treatment of depression: Toward a third generation of therapy and research. Clinical Psychology Review, 18, 635–661
Beach, S. R. H., & Jones, D. J. (2002). Marital and family therapy for depression in adults. In Gotlib, I. H. & Hammen, C. L. (Eds.), Handbook of depression. New York: Guilford
Beardslee, W. R., Keller, M. B., Lavori, P. W., Klerman, G. K., Dorer, D. J., & Samuelson, H. (1988). Psychiatric disorder in adolescent offspring of parents with affective disorder in a non-referred sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 15, 313–322
Beardslee, W. R., Schultz, L. H., & Selman, R. L. (1987). Level of social-cognitive development, adaptive functioning, and DSM-III diagnoses in adolescent offspring of parents with affective disorders: Implications for the development of the capacity for mutuality. Developmental Psychology, 23, 807–815
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1997). Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation
Beck, A. T., & Young, J. E. (1985). Depression. In Barlow, D. H. (Ed.), Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual (pp. 206–244). New York: Guilford
Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Friedman, D., Robin, J. A., Rosenbaum, J. F. (2001). Patterns of psychopathology and dysfunction in high-risk children of parents with panic disorder and major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 49–57
Billings, A. G., & Moos, R. H. (1985). Children of parents with unipolar depression: A controlled 1-year follow-up. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 149–166
Blazer, D. G., Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., & Swartz, M. S. (1994). The presence and distribution of major depression in a national community sample: The National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 979–986
Brennan, P. A., Hammen, C., Katz, A. R., & Brocque, R. M. (2002). Maternal depression, paternal psychopathology, and adolescent diagnostic outcomes. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 70, 1075–1085
Brennan, P. A., Hammen, C., Anderson, M. J., Bor, W., Najman, J. M., Williams, G. M. (2000). Chronicity, severity, and timing of maternal depressive symptoms: Relationships with child outcomes at age five. Developmental Psychology, 36, 759–766
Campbell, S. B. (1995). Behavior problems in preschool children: A review of recent research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 113–149
Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I. W., Harrington, H.. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386–389
Cherny, S. S., Fulker, D. W., Corley, R. P., Plomin, R., & DeFries, J. C. (1994). Continuity and change in infant shyness from 14 to 20 months. Behavior Genetics, 24, 365–379
Chugani, H. T., & Phelps, M. E. (1986). Maturational changes in cerebral function in infants determined by 18FDG positron emission tomography. Science, 231, 840–843
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., & Toth, S. L. (1998). Maternal depressive disorder and contextual risk: Contributions to the development of attachment insecurity and behavior problems in toddlerhood. Development & Psychopathology, 10, 283–300
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. (1998). The development of depression in children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 53, 221–241
Clarke, G. N., Hawkins, W., Murphy, M., Sheeber, L., Lewinsohn, P., & Seeley, J. (1995). Targeted prevention of unipolar depressive disorder in an at-risk sample of high school adolescents: A randomized trial of a group cognitive intervention. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 312–321
Cole, D. A., & Rehm, L. P. (1986). Family interaction patterns and childhood depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 297–314
Compas, B. E., Grant, K., & Ey, S. (1994). Psychosocial stress and child/adolescent depression: Can we be more specific? In Johnston, H. F. (Ed.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents. New York: Plenum Press
Compas, B. E., Langrock, A. M., Keller, G., Merchant, M. J., & Copeland, M. E. (2002). Children coping with parental depression: Processes of adaptation to family stress. In Gotlib, I. H. E. (Ed.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 227–252). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
Compas, B. E., Malcarne, V. L., & Fondacaro, K. M. (1988). Coping with stressful events in older children and young adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 405–411
Compton, K., Snyder, J., Schrepferman, L., Bank, L., & Shortt, J. W. (2003). The contribution of parents and siblings to antisocial and depressive behavior in adolescents: A double jeopardy coercion model. Development & Psychopathology, 15, 163–182
Conger, R. D., Conger, K. D., Matthews, L. S., & Elder, G. H. Jr. (1999). Pathways of economic influence on adolescent adjustment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 519–541
Coyne, J. C. (1994). Self-reported distress: Analogues or ersatz depression? Psychological Bulletin, 116, 29–45
Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. T. (1994). Maternal depression and child development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 73–112
Davidson, R. J., Ekman, P., Saron, C., Senulis, R., & Friesen, W. V. (1990). Approach-withdrawal and cerebral asymmetry: Emotional expression and brain physiology I. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 330–341
Davidson, R. J., & Fox, N. A. (1989). Frontal brain asymmetry predicts infants' response to maternal separation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 127–131
Davies, P. T., & Dumenci, L. (1999). The interplay between maternal depressive symptoms and marital distress in the prediction of adolescent adjustment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 238–254
Davies, P. T., & Windle, M. (1997). Gender-specific pathways between maternal depressive symptoms, family discord, and adolescent adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 33, 657–668
Davis, B., Sheeber, L., & Hops, H. (2002). Coercive family processes and adolescent depression. In Snyder, J. (Ed.), The Oregon model of antisocial behavior: Research and interventions (pp. 173–194). Washington, DC: APA Press
Dawson, G. (1999, August). The effects of maternal depression on children's emotional and psychobiological development. Paper presented at the National Institute of Mental Health Conference on Parenting, Bethesda, MD
Dawson, G., Ashman, S. B., Panagiotides, H., Hessl, D., Self, J., Yamada, E.. (2003). Preschool outcomes of children of depressed others: Role of maternal behavior, contextual risk, and children's brain activity. Child Development, 74, 1158–1175
Dawson, G., Frey, K., Panagiotides, H., Osterling, J., & Hessl, D. (1997). Infants of depressed mothers exhibit atypical frontal brain activity: A replication and extension of previous findings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 179–186
Dawson, G., Frey, K., Self, J., Panagiotides, H., Hessl, D., Yamada, E.. (1999). Frontal brain electrical activity in infants of depressed and nondepressed mothers: Relation to variations in infant behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 589–605
Dawson, G., Grofer Klinger, L., Panagiotides, H., Hill, D., & Spieker, S. (1992). Frontal lobe activity and affective behavior of infants of mothers with depressive symptoms. Child Development, 63, 725–737
Dino, G. A., Barnett, M. A., & Howard, J. A. (1984). Children's expectations of sex differences in parents' responses to sons and daughters encountering interpersonal problems. Sex Roles, 11, 709–717
Donenberg, G. R., & Weisz, J. R. (1998). Guilt and abnormal aspects of parent-child interaction. In Bybee, J. (Ed.), Guilt and children (pp. 245–267) San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc.
Du Rocher Schudlich, T. D., & Cummings, E. M. (2003). Parental dysphoria and children's internalizing symptoms: Marital conflict styles as mediators of risk. Child Development, 74, 1663–1681
Eamon, M. K., & Zuehl, R. M. (2001). Maternal depression and physical punishment as mediators of the effect of poverty on socioemotional problems of children in single-mother families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71, 218–226
Eaves, L. J., Silberg, J. L., Meyer, J. M., Maes, H. H., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A.. (1997). Genetics and developmental psychopathology: II. The main effects of genes and environment on behavioral problems in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 965–980
Egeland, B., & Farber, E. (1984). Infant-mother attachment: Factors related to its development and changes over time. Child Development, 55, 753–771
Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (1998). Parental socialization of emotion. Psychological Inquiry, 9, 241–273
Eley, T. C., & Stevenson, J. (1999). Exploring the covariation between anxiety and depression symptoms: A genetic analysis of the effect of age and sex. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 1273–1284
El-Sheikh, M., & Flanagan, E. (2001). Parental problem drinking and children's adjustment: Family conflict and parental depression as mediators and moderators of risk. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 417–432
Evans, J., Heron, J., Francomb, H., Oke, S., Golding, J., & Colleagues. (2001). Cohort study of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. British Medical Journal, 323, 257–260
Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Lynskey, M. T. (1995). Maternal depressive symptoms and depressive symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 1161–1178
Fergusson, D. M., Lynskey, M. T., & Horwood, L. J. (1993). The effect of maternal depression on maternal ratings of child behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 245–269
Field, T. (1992). Infants of depressed mothers. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 49–66
Field, T. (2002). Prenatal effects of maternal depression. In Goodman, S. H. & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 59–88). Washington, DC: APA Books
Fincham, F. D., Beach, S. R. H., Harold, G. T., & Osborne, L. N. (1997). Marital satisfaction and depression: Different causal relationships for men and women? Psychological Science, 8, 351–357
Finman, R., Davidson, R. J., Colton, M. B., Straus, A. M., & Kagan, J. (1989). Psychophysiological correlates of inhibition to the unfamiliar in children [Abstract]. Psychophysiology, 26(26), S24
Forehand, R., Brody, G., Slotkin, J., Fauber, R., McCombs, A. (1988). Young Adolescent & maternal depression: Assessment, interrelations, and family predictors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 422–426
Forehand, R., & McCombs, A. (1988). Unraveling the antecedent-consequence conditions in maternal depression and adolescent functioning. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 26(5), 399–405
Fowler, E. P. (2002). Longitudinal reciprocal relations between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville
Frank, E., & Young, E. (2000). Pubertal challenges and adolescent challenges. In Frank, E. (Ed.), Gender and its effects on psychopathology (pp. 85–102). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press
Gallimore, M., & Kurdek, L. A. (1992). Parent depression and parent authoritative discipline as correlates of young adolescents' depression. Journal of Early Adolescence, 12, 187–196
Garber, J., Braafladt, N., & Zeman, J. (1991). The regulation of sad affect: An information-processing perspective. In Dodge, K. A. (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (pp. 208–242). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press
Garber, J., & Martin, N. C. (2002). Negative cognitions in offspring of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk. In Goodman, S. H. & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 121–154). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
Ge, X., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H. (1996). Coming of age too early: Pubertal influences on girls' vulnerability to psychological distress. Child Development, 67, 3386–3400
Ge, X., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H. J. (2001). The relation between puberty and psychological distress in adolescent boys. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 49–70
Ge, X., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, R. D., Elder, G. H., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Trajectories of stressful life events and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 30, 467–483
Gelfand, D. M., & Teti, D. M. (1990). The effects of maternal depression on children. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 329–353
Ghodsian, M., Zayicek, E., & Wolkind, S. (1984). A longitudinal study of maternal depression and child behavior problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 25, 91–109
Gladstone, T. R. G., & Beardslee, W. R. (2002). Treatment, intervention, and prevention with children of depressed parents: A developmental perspective. In Goodman, S. H. & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.), Children of Depressed Parents: Mechanisms of Risk and Implications for Treatment (pp. 277–305). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
Glover, V., Teixeira, J., Gitau, R., & Risk, N. (1998, April). Links between antenatal maternal anxiety and the fetus. Paper presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, Atlanta, GA
Goodman, S. H., Adamson, L. B., Riniti, J., & Cole, S. (1994). Mothers' expressed attitudes: Associations with maternal depression and children's self-esteem and psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 1265–1274
Goodman, S. H., Broth, M., Hall, C. M., & Stowe, Z. N. (2003). Treatment of postpartum depression in mothers: Secondary benefits to the infants. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development, Tampa
Goodman, S. H., Broth, M. R., Hall, C. M., & Stowe, Z. N. (in press). Treatment of postpartum depression in mothers: Secondary benefits to the infants. Infant Mental Health Journal: Special Issue on Perinatol Mood Disorders
Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review, 106, 458–490
Goodman, S. H., Sewell, D. R., Cooley, E. L., & Leavitt, N. (1993). Assessing levels of adaptive functioning: The Role Functioning Scale. Community Mental Health Journal, 29, 119–131
Goodman, S. H., & Tully, E. (2003). Depression in spouses and parents: Problems and solutions. Paper presented at the Sex, Marriage, and Family & the Religions of the Book: Modern Problems, Enduring Solutions
Gotlib, I. H., Gilboa, E., & Sommerfeld, B. K. (2000). Cognitive functioning in depression: Nature and origins. In Davidson, R. J. (Ed.), Wisconsin Symposium on Emotion (Vol. 1). New York: Oxford University Press
Gotlib, I. H., & Goodman, S. H. (1999). Children of parents with depression. In Silverman, W. K. & Ollendick, T. H. (Eds.), Developmental issues in the clinical treatment of children and adolescents (pp. 415–432). New York: Allyn & Bacon
Gotlib, I. H., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Seeley, J. R. (1995). Symptoms versus a diagnosis of depression: Differences in psychosocial functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 90–100
Graham, Y. P., Heim, C., Goodman, S. H., Miller, A. H., & Nemeroff, C. B. (1999). The effects of neonatal stress on brain development: Implications for psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 545–565
Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Stuhlmacher, A. F., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., & Halpert, J. A. (2003). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Moving from markers to mechanisms of risk. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 447–466
Green, J. M., & Murray, D. (1994). The use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in research to explore the relationship between antenatal and postnatal dysphoria. In Cox, J. & Holden, J. (Eds.), Perinatal psychiatry: Use and misuse of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (pp. 180–198). London: Gaskell
Hamilton, E. B., Asarnow, J. R., & Tompson, M. C. (1999). Family interaction styles of children with depressive disorders, schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, and normal controls. Family Process, 38, 463–476
Hammen, C., & Brennan, P. A. (2001). Depressed adolescents of depressed and nondepressed mothers: Tests of an interpersonal impairment hypothesis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 284–294
Hammen, C., & Brennan, P. A. (2003). Severity, chronicity, and timing of maternal depression and risk for adolescent offspring diagnoses in a community sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 253–258
Hammen, C., Burge, D., Burney, E., & Adrian, C. (1990). Longitudinal study if diagnoses in children of women with unipolar and bipolar affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1112–1117
Hammen, C., Gordon, D., Burge, D., Adrian, C., Jaenicke, C., & Hiroto, D. (1987). Maternal affective disorders, illness, and stress: Risk for children's psychopathology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 736–741
Hammen, C. L. (2002). Context of stress in families of children with depressed parents. In Goodman, S. H. & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 175–202). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
Hammen, C. L., Burge, D., & Stansbury, K. (1990). Relationship of mother and child variables to child outcomes in a high risk sample: A causal modeling analysis. Developmental Psychology, 26, 24–30
Hammen, C. L., Shih, J., Altman, T., & Brennan, P. A. (2003). Interpersonal impairment and the prediction of depressive symptoms in adolescent children of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 571–577
Handley, S. L., Dunn, T. L., Waldron, G., & Baker, J. M. (1980). Tryptophan, cortisol and puerperal mood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 498–508
Hankin, B. L., & Abramson, L. Y. (1999). Development of gender differences in depression: Description of possible explanations. Annals of Medicine, 31, 372–379
Happonen, M., Pulkkinen, L., Kaprio, J., Meere, J., Viken, R. J., & Rose, R. J. (2002). The heritability of depressive symptoms: Multiple informants and multiple measures. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 43, 471–480
Harnish, J. D., Dodge, K. A., Valente, E., & Colleagues (1995). Mother-child interaction quality as a partial mediator of the roles of maternal depressive symptomatology and socioeconomic status in the development of child behavior problems. Child Development, 66, 739–753
Harrington, R. (1996). Family-genetic findings in child and adolescent depressive disorders. International Review of Psychiatry, 8, 355–368
Harrington, R., Rutter, M., Weissman, M. M., Fudge, H., Groothues, C., Bredenkamp, D.. (1997). Psychiatric disorders in the relatives of depressed probands: I. Comparison of prepubertal, adolescent and early adult onset cases. Journal of Affective Disorders, 42, 9–22
Hay, D. F., & Pawlby, S. (2001). Intellectual problems shown by 11-year-old children whose mothers had postnatal depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 42, 871–889
Hertsgaard, L., Gunnar, M., Erickson, M., & Nachmias, M. (1995). Adrenocortical response to the strange situation in infants with disorganized/disoriented attachment relationships. Child Development, 66, 1100–1106
Hetherington, E. M., & Martin, B. (1986). Family factors and psychopathology in children. In Werry, J. S. (Ed.), Psychological disorders of childhood (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley
Hill, J. P., Holmbeck, G. N., Marlow, L., Green, T. M., & Lynch, M. E. (1985). Menarcheal status and parent-child relations in families of seventh-grade girls. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 14, 301–316
Hill, J. P., & Lynch, M. E. (1983). The intensification of gender-related role expectations during early adolescence. In Peterson, A. (Ed.), Girls at puberty: Biological and psychological perspectives (pp. 201–208). New York: Plenum Press
Hilsman, R. (2001). Maternal expressed emotion, children's self-cognitions, and psychopathology in children of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Vanderbilt University, Nashville
Hirsch, B. J., Moos, R. H., & Reischl, T. M. (1985). Psychosocial adjustment of adolescent children of a depressed, arthritic, or normal parent. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 154–164
Holmbeck, G. (1997). Toward terminological, conceptual, and statistical clarity in the study of mediators and moderators: Examples from the child-clinical and pediatric psychology literatures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 599–610
Hops, H. (1992). Parental depression and child behaviour problems: Implications for behavioural family intervention. Behaviour Change, 9, 126–138
Hops, H. (1996). Intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms: Gender and developmental considerations. In Fiedler, P. (Ed.), Interpersonal factors in the origin and course of affective disorders. London: Gaskell/Royal College of Psychiatrists
Hops, H., Lewinsohn, P., Andrews, J. A., & Roberts, R. E. (1990). Psychosocial correlates of depressive symptomatology among high school students. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 211–220
Hops, H., Sherman, L., & Biglan, A. (1990). Maternal depression, marital discord, and children's behavior: A developmental perspective. In Patterson, G. R. (Ed.), Depression and aggression in family interaction (pp. 185–208). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Jaenicke, C., Hammen, C. L., Zupan, B., Hiroto, D., Gordon, D., Adrian, C.. (1987). Cognitive vulnerability in children at risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 559–572
Jones, N. A., Field, T., Davalos, M., & Pickens, J. (1997). EEG stability in infants/children of depressed mothers. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 28, 59–70
Kam, C.-M. (2001). Effects of maternal depression on children's social and emotional functioning during early school year. Pennsylvania State University, University Park
Kashani, J. H., Burbach, D. J., & Rosenberg, T. K. (1988). Perception of family conflict resolution of depressive symptomatology in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 42–48
Kazdin, A. E., & Whitley, M. K. (2003). Treatment of parental stress to enhance therapeutic change among children referred for aggressive and antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 71, 504–515
Keenan, K., & Shaw, D. (1997). Developmental and social influences on young girls' early problem behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 95–113
Keller, M. B., Beardslee, W. R., Dorer, D. J., Lavori, P. W., Samuelson, H., & Klerman, G. R. (1986). Impact of severity and chronicity of parental affective illness on adaptive functioning and psychopathology in children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 930–937
Keller, M. B., Shapiro, R. W., Lavori, P. W., & Wolfe, N. (1982). Recovery in major depressive disorder: Analysis with the life table and regression models. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 905–910
Kendler, K. S., Gardner, C. O., Neale, M. C., & Prescott, C. A. (2001). Genetic risk factors for major depression in men and women: similar or different heritabilities and same or partly distinct genes? Psychological Medicine, 31, 605–616
Kendler, K. S., Kessler, R. C., Walters, E. E., MacLean, C., Neale, M. C., Heath, A. C.. (1995). Stressful life events, genetic liability, and onset of an episode of major depression in women. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 833–842
Kendler, K. S., Myers, J., & Prescott, C. A. (2000). Parenting and adult mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders in women: An epidemiological, multiinformant, retrospective study. Psychological Medicine, 30, 281–294
Kendler, K. S., & Prescott, C. A. (1999). A population-based twin study of lifetime major depression in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 39–44
Kendler, K. S., Thornton, L. M., & Gardner, C. O. (2000). Stressful life events and prior episodes in the aetiology of major depression in women: An evaluation of the “kindling” hypothesis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1243–1251
Kessler, R. C. (2000). Gender differences in major depression: Epidemiological findings. In Frank, E. (Ed.), Gender and its effects on psychopathology (pp. 61–84). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press
Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Swartz, M., Blazer, D. G., & Nelson, C. B. (1993). Sex and depression in the National Comorbidity Survey I: Lifetime prevalence, chronicity and recurrence. Journal of Affective Disorders, 29, 85–96
Kochanska, G., Radke-Yarrow, M., Kuczynski, L., & Friedman, S. (1987). Normal and affectively ill mothers' beliefs about their children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 345–350
Lee, C. M., & Gotlib, I. H. (1989). Clinical status and emotional adjustment of children of depressed. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 478–483
Levinson, D. F., Zubenko, G. S., Crowe, R. R., DePaulo, J. R., Scheftner, W. S.. (2003). Genetics of recurrent early-onset depression (Gen RED): Design and preliminary clinical characteristics of a repository sample for genetic linkage studies. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 119B, 118–130
Lieb, R., Isensee, B., Hofler, M., Pfister, H., & Wittchen, H.-U. (2002). Parental major depression and the risk of depression and other mental disorders in offspring. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 365–374
Loehlin, J. C., & Nichols, R. C. (1976). Heredity, environment, and personality. Austin: University of Texas Press
Lovejoy, M. C., Graczyk, P. A., O'Hare, E., &, & Neuman, G. (2000). Maternal depression and parenting behavior: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 561–592
Lundy, B., Jones, N., Field, T., Pietro, P., Nearing, G., Davalos, M.. (1999). Prenatal depression effects on neonates. Infant Behavior and Development, 22, 119–129
Lundy, B. L. (2002). Paternal socio-psychological factors and infant attachment: The mediating role of synchrony in father-infant interactions. Infant Behavior and Development, 25, 221–236
Luoma, I., Tamminen, T., Kaukonen, P., Laippala, P., Puura, K., Salmelin, R.. (2001). Longitudinal study of maternal depressive symptoms and child well-being. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1367–1374
Lykken, D. T., & Tellegen, A. (1996). Happiness is a stochatic phenomenon. Psychological Science, 7, 186–189
Lyons-Ruth, K., Connell, D. B., Grunebaum, H. U., & Botein, S. (1990). Infants at social risk: Maternal depression and family support as mediators of infant development and security of attachment. Child Development, 61, 85–98
Lyons-Ruth, K., Lyubchik, A., Wolfe, R., & Bronfman, E. (2002). Parental depression and child attachment: Hostile and helpless profiles of parent and child behavior among families at risk. In Goodman, S. H. & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 89–120). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
Maccoby, E. E. (1990). Gender and relationships: A developmental account. American Psychologist, 45, 513–520
Malcarne, V. L., Hamilton, N. A., Ingram, R. E., & Taylor, L. (2000). Correlates of distress in children at risk for affective disorder: Exploring predictors in the offspring of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Journal of Affective Disorders, 59, 243–251
Marchand, J. F., & Hock, E. (1998). The relation of problem behaviors in preschool children to depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159, 353–366
Matthews, S. G. (2002). Early programming of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 13, 373–380
McCarty, C. A., & McMahon, R. J. (2003). Mediators of the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of Family Psychology, 17, 545–556
McGrath, E., Keita, G. P., Strickland, B. R., & Russo, N. F. (1990). Women and depression: Risk factors and treatment issues. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
Milberger, S., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Chen, L., & Jones, J. (1996). Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children? American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 1138–1142
Moldin, S. O. (1999). Report of the NIMH's Genetic Workgroups: Summary of Research. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 559–602
Murray, K. T., & Sines, J. O. (1996). Parsing the genetic and nongenetic variance in children's depressive behavior. Journal of Affective Disorders, 38, 23–34
Murray, L. C., & Kempton, C., Woolgar, M., & Hooper, R. (1993). Depressed mothers' speech to their infants and its relation to infant gender and cognitive development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 34, 1083–1101
Nelson, D. R. (2001). Children of depressed mothers: The role of expressed emotion. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles
Newport, D. J., Stowe, A. N., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2002). Parental depression: Animal models of an adverse life event. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1265–1283
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1998). Ruminative coping with depression. In Dweck, C. S. (Ed.), Motivation and self-regulation across the life span (pp. 237–256). New York: Cambridge University Press
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Girgus, J. (1994). The emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 424–443
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wolfson, A., Mumme, D., & Guskin, K. (1995). Helplessness in children of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Developmental Psychology, 31, 377–387
Nulman, I., Rovet, J., Stewart, D. E., Wolpin, J., Gardner, H. A., Teis, J. G.. (1997). Neurodevelopment of children exposed in utero to antidepressant drugs. New England Journal of Medicine, 336, 258–262
O'Hara, M. W. (1986). Social support, life events, and depression during pregnancy and the puerperium. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 569–573
O'Hara, M. W., Zekoski, E. M., Philipps, L. H., & Wright, E. J. (1990). A controlled, prospective study of postpartum mood disorders: Comparison of childbearing and non-childbearing women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 3–15
Orvaschel, H., Walsh-Allis, G., & Ye, W. (1988). Psychopathology in children of parents with recurrent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 17–28
Peterson, A. C., Sarigiani, P. A., & Kennedy, R. E. (1991). Adolescent depression: Why more girls? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, 247–271
Piccinelli, M., & Wilkinson, G. (1994). Outcome of depression in psychiatric settings. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 297–304
Plomin, R., Emde, R. N., Braungart, J. M., Campos, J., Corley, R. P., Fulker, D. W.. (1993). Genetic change and continuity from fourteen to twenty months: The MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study. Child Development, 64, 1354–1376
Prinstein, M. J., & LaGreca, A. M. (1999). Links between mothers' and children's social competence and associations with maternal adjustment. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 197–210
Radke-Yarrow, M., Belmont, B., Nottelman, E., & Bottomly, L. (1990). Young children's self-conceptions: Origins in the natural discourse of depressed and normal mothers and their children. In Beeghly, M. (Ed.), The self in transition: Infancy to childhood (pp. 345–361). Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Radke-Yarrow, M., & Klimes-Dougan, B. (2002). Parental depression and offspring disorders: A developmental perspective. In Goodman, S. H. & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 155–174). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
Radke-Yarrow, M., Nottelman, E., Belmont, B., & Welsch, J. D. (1993). Affective interactions of depressed and nondepressed mothers and their children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 683–695
Radke-Yarrow, M., Zahn-Waxler, C., Richardson, D., & Susman, A. (1994). Caring behavior in children of clinically depressed and well mothers. Child Development, 65, 1405–1414
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401
Rende, R. D., Plomin, R., Reiss, D., & Hetherington, E. M. (1993). Genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptomatology in adolescence: Individual differences and extreme scores. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1387–1398
Ressler, K. J., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2000). Role of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders. Depression & Anxiety, 12 (Suppl 1), 2–19
Rice, F., Harold, G. T., & Thapar, A. (2002). The genetic aetiology of childhood depression: A review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 43, 65–79
Roderick, H. A. (2002). Family stability as a mediator of the relationship between maternal attributes and child psychosocial adjustment. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany
Rubin, K. H., & Mills, R. S. (1991). Conceptualizing developmental pathways to internalizing disorders in childhood. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 23, 300–317
Sanchez, M. M., Ladd, C. O., & Plotsky, P. M. (2001). Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology: Evidence from rodent and primate models. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 419–449
Scourfield, J., Rice, F., Thapar, A., Harold, G. T., Martin, N. C., & McGuffin, P. (2003). Depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: Changing aetiological influences with development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 44, 968–976
Sheeber, L., Davis, B., & Hops, H. (2002). Gender-specific vulnerability to depression in children of depressed mothers. In Goodman, S. H. & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 253–274). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
Sheeber, L., Hops, H., & Davis, B. (2001). Family processes in adolescent depression. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4, 19–35
Silberg, J., Pickles, A., Rutter, M., Hewitt, J., Simonoff, E., Maes, H.. (2001). The influence of genetic factors and life stress on depression among adolescent girls. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 225–232
Silberg, J., & Rutter, M. (2001). Genetic moderation of environmental risk for depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 116–121
Silberg, J., & Rutter, M. (2002). Nature-nurture interplay in the risks associated with parental depression. In Goodman, S. H. & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 13–36). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
Smith, R., Cubis, J., Brinsmead, M., Lewin, T., Singh, B., Owens, P., Eng-Cheng, C.. (1990). Mood changes, obstetrical experience and alterations in plasma cortisol, beta-endorphin and corticotrophin releasing hormone during pregnancy and the puerperium. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 34, 53–69
Snyder, J. (1991). Discipline as a mediator of the impact of maternal stress and mood on child conduct problems. Development & Psychopathology, 3, 263–276
Stark, K. D., Humphrey, L. L., Laurent, J., Livingston, R., & Christopher, J. (1993). Cognitive, behavioral, and family factors in the differentiation of depressive and anxiety disorders during childhood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 878–886
Steinberg, L. (1987). Recent research on the family at adolescence: The extent and nature of sex differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 191–197
Steinberg, L. (1988). Reciprocal relation between parent-child distance and pubertal maturation. Developmental Psychology, 24, 122–128
Stephens, R. S., Hokanson, J. E., & Welker, R. (1987). Responses to depressed interpersonal behavior: Mixed reactions in a helping role. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1274–1282
Sullivan, P. F., Neale, M. C., & Kendler, K. S. (2000). Genetic epidemiology of major depression: Review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1552–1562
Tellegen, A., Lykken, D. T., Bouchard, T. J., Wilcox, K. J., Segal, N. L., & Rich, S. (1988). Personality similarity in twins reared apart and together. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1031–1039
Thapar, A., & McGuffin, P. (1994). A twin study of depressive symptoms in childhood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 259–265
Tronick, E. Z., & Gianino, A. F. (1986). The transmission of maternal disturbance to the infant. In Field, T. (Ed.), Maternal depression and infant disturbance (pp. 5–12). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Tsuang, M. T., & Faraone, S. V. (1990). The genetics of mood disorders. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
IJzendoorn, M. H., Goldberg, S., Kroonenberg, P. M., & Frenkel, O. J. (1992). The relative effects of maternal and child problems on the quality of attachment: A meta-analysis of attachment in clinical samples. Child Development, 63, 840–858
Wadhwa, P. D., Glynn, L., Hobel, C. J., Garite, T. J., Porto, M., Chicz-DeMet, A.. (2002). Behavioral perinatology: Biobehavioral processes in human fetal development. Regulatory Peptides, 108, 149–157
Warner, V., Weissman, M. M., Fendrich, M., Wickramaratne, P., & Moreau, D. (1992). The course of major depression in the offspring of depressed parents: Incidence, recurrence, and recovery. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 795–801
Weissman, M. M., Prusoff, B., Gammon, G. D., Merikangagas, K. R., Leckman, J. F., Kidd, K. K. (1984). Psychopathology in the children (ages 6–18) of depressed and normal parents. Journal of the American Academy, 23, 78–84
Welner, Z., Welner, A., McCrary, M., & Leonard, M. A. (1977). Psychopathology in children of inpatients with depression: A controlled study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 164, 408–413
Zahn-Waxler, C., Cole, P. M., & Barrett, K. C. (1991). Guilt and empathy: Sex differences and implications for the development of depression. In Dodge, K. A. (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
Zahn-Waxler, C., Cummings, E. M., Iannotti, R. J., & Radke-Yarrow, M. (1984). Young children of depressed parents: A population at risk for affective problems. In Cicchetti, D. (Ed.), Childhood depression. New directions for child development (Vol. 26, pp. 81–105). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Zahn-Waxler, C., Iannotti, R. J., Cummings, E. M., & Denham, S. (1990). Antecedents of problem behaviors in children of depressed mothers. Development & Psychopathology, 2, 271–291
Zahn-Waxler, C., & Robinson, J. (1995). Empathy and guilt: Early origins of feelings of responsibility. In Fischer, K. W. (Ed.), Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride (pp. 143–173). New York: Guilford Press
Zahn-Waxler, C., & Smith, K. D. (1992). The development of prosocial behavior. In Hersen, M. (Ed.), Handbook of social development: A lifespan perspective. New York: Plenum Press
Zahn-Waxler, C., Usher, B. A., & Goldman, J. (2003). Intropunitive, introspective, and interpersonal risk factors for depression. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development, Tampa, FL
Zubenko, G. S., Hughes, H. B., Stiffler, J. S., Zubenko, W. N., & Kaplan, B. B. (2002). Genome survey for susceptibility loci for recurrent, early-onset major depression: Results at 10cM. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 114, 413–422
Zubenko, G. S., Hughes, H. B., Maher, B. H., Stiffler, J. S., Zubenko, W. N., & Marazita, M. L. (2003). Genetic linkage of region containing the CREP1gene to depressive disorders in women from families with recurrent, early-onset, major depression. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 114, 980–987